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CATALOGUE 



OP THE 



LIZARDS 



IN TBCE 



BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY). 



SECOND EDITION. 



BY 

GEORGE ALBERT BOULENGER. 



VOLUME III. 

LACERTID^, GERRHOSAURIDyE, SCINOID^, 

ANELYTROPID.E, DIBAMID^, 

CHAM^LEONTID^. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1887. 



AXERE f FLAMMAM. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRAxXClS, 
EEU LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



/:u '-^^9 



Vo 



'^''^'^f''- 






^( >> 



PREFACE. 



In order to facilitate reference to this -work, a complete alphabetical 
index of the contents of all the three volumes has been appended 
to the present part. 

This volume coucludes the ' Catalogue of Lizards,' a work to 
which the Author has devoted uearlj' four years of undivided labour 
and energy, and the completion of which would have required a much 
louger time but for his previous acquaintance with the subject. 
I feel confident that it will give a fresh impulse to the systematic 
study of Lizards, and serve as the standard work for many years 
to come. 

The collection is, with regard to arrangement and preservation, 
in the most efficient state, although many of the specimens have 
been in the Museum for more than half a century. 

ALBERT GUNTHER, 

Keeper of the Department of Zoology. 
British Museum, N. H., 
Jan. 11, 1887. 



INTEODUCTION. 



In the present volume, -which concludes the account of the Lizards, 
the species of the families Lacertidcf, Gerrhosaurida', Scincidcp, 
Anelytropidiv, Dibamidce, and ChamceleontidcB are described. The 
following tables show the increase in the number of species known, 
and of species and specimens represented in the British Museum, 
since the publication of the last general works on the subject. 

Number of Species characterized 

Families. by Dum. & Bibr. by Gray. in present volume. 

Lacertidae 43 57 97 

Gerrhosauridae 6 9 15 

Scincidse 87 132 373 

Anelytropidse 1 2 6 

Dibaraidse 1 1 2 

Chamaeleontidse 14 18 49 

Total 152 219 542 

Number of Species and Specimens in the 
British Museum in 
1845. 1886. 



Species. Specimens. Species. Specimens. 

Lacertidae 34 136 83 1215 

Gerrhosauridae .... 5 7 13 70 

Scincidse 103 390 291 2340 

Anelytropidae ... 2 5 4 11 

Dibamidae — — 1 8 

Chamaleontid* . . 18 61 41 285 

Total . . 162 599 433 3929 



VI INTRODUCTIOX. 

In an " Appendix " the accessions to the Collection are enumerated 
that have been made since the publication of the two preceding 
volumes, as well as the additions to the literature, thus bringing the 
work up to date. The total number of species of Lizards regarded 
as Avell established amounts to 1G16. 120G are in the British 
Museum, represented by 9820 specimens. 

"With the ol)ject of rendering the account of the Lacertidce and 
Scincidce more perfect, I have devoted a month to the examination 
of the specimens in the Berlin Museum. I beg to express my best 
thanks to Prof. E. von Martens, not only for giving me access to the 
rich collection under his charge, but for much personal kindness. 
I am also deeply indebted to my friend Dr. J. von Bedriaga for the 
communication of advanced proof-sheets of the work on the genus 
Lacerta, which he has recently published, as well as for other 
assistance which I received from him whilst preparing my revision 
of that genus. My friends Dr. Boettger and M. F, Lataste have, 
as usual, most kindly granted all my requests for the loan of 
specimens, and besides I am indebted to them for much valuable 
information. Among the many others who have kindly assisted 
me in the preparation of this work, through loan, exchange, or gift 
of specimens, I must specially mention Dr, A. Strauch, Prof, L. 
Vaillant, Marquis G. Doria, Prof. H, Giglioli, Dr. L. Camerano, 
M. L. Dollo, and M. A. Bavay. 

G. A. BOULEXGER. 

Department of Zoology, 
December 17, 1886. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



LACERTILIA. 

Subord. I. LACERTILIA VERA 

(continued). 

-< Fam. 10. Lacertid.t). 

Page 

1. Tachydromus, Daud o 

1. sexliiieatus, iJai/d 4 

la. smaragdiuus, B/t/r. . . t'jQ!) 

2. tacliydronioides, Schley. . 5 

3. amiirensis, Ptrs 

2. Poromera, Bltjr 6 

1. fordii, IlttUow (J 

3. Gastvopholis, Fisch 7 

1. vittata, Fisch 7 

4. Lacerta, L 8 

1 . ecliiuata, Cope 11 

X 2. ocellata, Daud. 12 

K 3. viridis, Laur 14 

4. princeps, Blanf. IS 

•< 5. agilis, L ! 19 

6. parva, BUjr 22 

•< 7. vivipara, Jacq 23 

8. praticola, Fiwrsm 25 

9. taurica, Pal! 26 

10. peloponnesiaca, Bifir. ... 27 

All. muralis, Lriur 28 

12. depressa, Cn7n 34 

13. dugesii, 3I.-Edw 3.j 

14. oxycephala, D. S,- B 36 

15. daiifordii, Gthr 37 

16. brandtii, De Fil 38 

17. Ifevis, Gra]/ 39 

18. javakari, Blgr 40 

19. galloti, D.8,' B 41 

20. atlantica, Ptrs. ^- Doria . 42 

21. pevspicillata, Z>. S)- B 43 

5. Algiroides, Bib)- 43 

1. nigropunctatus, D.^- B . . 44 

2. moreoticus, Bihr 45 

3. fitzingeri, Wiec^m 45 

6. Psammodromus, Fitz 46 

>Cl. bispanicus, Fitz 47 

2. blanci, Lataste 48 

3. uiicrodactylus, Bttg 49 

^ 4. algirus, L -50 

7. Tropidosaura, Fitz 50 

1. montana, D. Sj- B 51 



Page 

8. Nucras, Grai/ 52 

1. te.ssellata, Stniih 52 

2. delalandii, M.-Ediv 53 

9. Latastia, Bedr 54 

1 . longicaiidata, Jieiiss .... 65 

2. bosL'jB, Bedr 56 

3. carinata, Ptrs 56 

4. spinalis, Ptrs 57 

10. Acantbodactvlus, Wiecjm. . 58 

* 1. boskiamis, Daud 59 

< 2. cantoris, Gthr 60 

3. swiacus, Btt(/ 61 

4. ,sc]n-eiberi, Bh/r 62 

5. nucropholis, Blanf. .... 63 

6. savignyi, And 63 

•*c 7. scutellatus, Aud 64 

X 8. pardalis, Licht 65 

* 9. vulgaris, D. S,- B 67 

^10. tristrami, Gthr 68 

11. Cabrita, Grai/ 69 

1. lescbenaultii, M.-Edw... 70 

2. jerdonii, Bedd. 71 

3. cbaperi, Snuvff 71 

12. Opbiops, Me>i 72 

1. jerdonii, Blt/th 73 

2. beddomii, Jerd 74 

X 3. occidentalis, Bl(/r 75 

>f 4. elegans, Alen 75 

5. scblueteri, Bttr/ 77 

6. microlepis, Blanf. 77 

13. Icbnotropis, Ptrs 78 

1. capensis, Smith 78 

2. squamulosa, Ptrs 79 

14. Eremias, Wicf/m 80 

1. nitida, Gthr 83 

2. spekii, Gthr 84 

3. lugubris, Smith 84 

X 4. brenneri, Ptrs 86 

5. pardaloides, Blanf. .... 87 

H 6. guttulata, Licht! 87 

7. brevirostris, Blanf 89 

8. rubropnnctata, Licht. ... 89 

9. suborbitalis, Ptrs 90 

10. naraaquensis, Smith .... 91 

11. undata, Smith 92 

12. pulchella, Gray 93 

13. lineo-ocellata, D. S>- B... 94 

14. burcbellii, D. S^- B 95 



6TSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

15. capensis, Smith 06 

X 16. velox, Poll 97 

17. fasciata, Blanf 1)0 

18. intermedia, Strauch. . . . 100 

19. ar<ruta, Pall 101 

20. ai-frus, 7V;-.s 102 

X 21. multiooellata, Gfhr lO.'i 

22. quadritVons, Sfrauch . . lOo 

2;>. przewalskii, Strauc/i . . lOo 

24. vermiculata, IJla/if.. . . . 10(5 

15. Seapteira, Wic'im. '. 107 

1. knoxii, M.-Edw 109 

2. depressa, Men- 110 

3. serripes, Ptrs Ill 

4. reticulata, Socage .... 112 

5. scripta, *S'if/Y/«c/t 112 

6. grammica, Lichf 113 

7. acutirostris, i)V/7/- 114 

8. ctenodactvla, Smith . . 115 

9. cuueirostris, Strauch . . 116 

16. Aporosaura, ^/^z- 117 

1. anchieta^, Bocage 117 

17. Holaspi.s, Graif 118 

1. guentheri, Gray 118 

Fam. 17. Gerrhosaurid.?:. 

1. Gerrhosaiirus, Wiegm. ... 120 

1. validus, Smith 121 

2. major, A. Dum 121 

3. nigrolineatus, Halloic. . 122 

4. flavigularis, Wiegm. ... 122 

5. typicus, Smith 123 

2. Tetradactylus, 3Icn- 124 

1. seps, L 124 

2. tetradactylus, Lacep. . . 125 

3. africauus, Grag 125 

3. Cordylosaurus, Gray .... 126 

1. trivittatus, Ptrs. '. 126 

2. subtessellatus. Smith . . 126 

4. Zonosaurus, Blgr 127 

1. madagascarieu.^is. Gray. 127 

2. ornatus, Gray 128 

3. rufipes, Bttg 128 

quadriliueatus, Grand. . 127 

laticaudus, Grand. .... 127 

karsteni, Grand 127 

seneus, Grand 127 

5. Tracheloptychus, Ptrs. . . 129 

1. madagascariensi.s, Pt)-s.. 129 

2. petersii, Grand. 130 

^ Fam. 18. Scincid^. 

1. Egernia, Gray 134 

1. luctuosa, Ptrs 135 

X 2. whitii, Lacep 135 



3. dorsalis, Ptrs 136 

4. major, 6-Vay 137 

X- 5. istriolata. Pfrs 138 

6. kiugii. Gray 1:38 

7. Cunningham i, Gray. . . . 139 

8. stokesii. Gray 140 

9. depressa, Gthr 141 

2. Corucia, Gray 141 

1. zebrata, Gray 142 

3. Tracliysaurus, Gray .... 1 42 
X 1. riigosus, Gray 143 

4. Tiliqua, Gray 143 

X 1. gigas, Schneid 144 

'^ .2. .scincoides, ^V^lite 145 

3. nigrolutea, Gray 146 

4. occipitalis, Ptrs 147 

5. adelaidensis, Ptrs 148 

5. Hemisphasriodon, Ptrs. . . 148 
^ 1. gerrardii, Gray 148 

6. Macroscincus, Socage .... 149 
1. coctaji, D. 8,- B 149 

7. Mabuia, Fitz 150 

1. fogoensis, O'Sh 157 

2. stangeri, Gray 157 

3. delalandii, I). S,- B 158 

4. vaillantii, Blgr 1,59 

5. punctata, Gray 160 

X 6. secbellensis, D. ii,- B. . . 161 

7. wrightii, Blgr 162 

8. am-eopunctata, Grand. 162 

9. comorensis, Ptrs 163 

10. maculilabris, Gray .... 164 

11. raddouii, Gray 165 

12. affinis, Gray 166 

13. depressa, ikrs 166 

14. planifrons, Ptrs 167 

15. socotrana, Ptrs 168 

16. perrotetii, D. S,- B 168 

17. brevicollis, Wiegm 169 

18. bomalocephala, Wiegm. 170 

19. gruetzueri, Ptrs 171 

20. taitaua, Ptrs 171 

21. bensonii, Ptr.<! 172 

22. boettgeri, Blgr 173 

23. bibrouii, Gray 173 

24. dorife, Blgr 174 

25. dissimilis, Halloio 175 

*■ 26. vittata, Oliv 176 

27. septemtaeniata, Reuss . . Yll 

28. inuotata, Blanf. 178 

29. novemcarinata, And. . . 179 

30. beddomii, Jerd 179 

31. vertebralis, Blgr 180 

32. carinata, Sclin 181 

>r 33. macidaria, Blyth 182 

34. brevis, Gihr 183 



SYSTEMATIC INBEX, 



Pape 

35. rug'ifera, Stot 184 

36. multicariuata, Gray . . 185 

37. multifasciata, Euhl .... 186 

38. tvtleri, B/(/r 187 

< 3!). rudis, B/c/r 188 

H 40, siameiisis, Gfhr 188 

41. longicaiidata, Hallow. . . 189 

42. aurata, Sc/m 189 

43. agilis, Eaddi 190 

44. dorsivittata, Cope .... li)2 

45. alliacea, Cope 193 

46. sloanii, TJaud. 103 

47. frenata, Cope 194 

48. megalura, Ptis 195 

49. trivittata, Cuv 195 

60. occidentalis, Pfrs 196 

51, ivensii, Bocage 197 

•<52. quinquetseniata, iicA^. . . 198 

53. lacertiformis, Ptrs 199 

54. elegans, Ptrs 199 

55. gi-avenhorstii, B. ^- B.. . 200 

56. bavonii, Bocage 201 

57. isselii, Ptrs 201 

58. varia, Ptrs 202 

59. bocagii, Blgr 203 

60. chimbana, Blgr 204 

61. punctulata, Bocage , . . . 204 

62. striata, Ptrs 204 

63. wahlbergii, I*trs 205 

64. sulcata, Ptrs 200 

65. hildebrandtii, Ptrs 207 

66. acutilabris, Ptrs 208 

csesius, Kuhl 150 

punctata, Tschudi .... 150 

bilineatus, Grand 150 

longicaudatus, And.. ... 150 

sakalava, Grand. 150 

aureogularis, F. Miill. . . 150 

8. Lygosoma, Grag 209 

X 1. lesueurii, D. S,- B 225 

2, dorsale, Blgr 226 

3, leae, Blgr 226 

-^ 4. tasniolatum, Wliite .... 227 

6. fischeri, Blgr 228 

0. strauchii, Blgr 229 

X- 7. labillardierii, Grag .... 229 

K 8. quoyi, D. ^- B 230 

^ 9. teuue, Gray 231 

10. murraji, Blgr 232 

11. pallidum, Gthr 233 

12. minutum, Meyer 233 

13. isolepis, Blgr 234 

14. elegantulum,P^rs.^Z)3na 235 

14n. solomonis, Blgr 510 

146. woodfordii, Blgr 511 

'^ 15. richardsonii, Gray .... 235 

VOL, III. 



Page 

16, fasciolatum, Gthr 236 

17, mouotropis, Blgr 237 

18, fasciatum, Gray 237 

19, uiKlulatura,P/;/-s.(^Z)ona 238 

20, rufiiiu, Blgr 239 

21, maindroui, Sauvg 239 

22, cQns,o\)nn\im,Ptrs,^-Dor. 240 

23, jagorii, Hrs 240 

^ 24, indicum, Gray 241 

25. maculatum, Bh/th .... 242 
sanctum, JJ. ^-B 243 

26. dussumieri, B. ^- B 243 

27. melanopogon, B. i>)- B. . . 244 

28. nigrilabre, Gthr 245 

29. simum, Sauvg 245 

29a. conciunatum, i?/(//-, . . . 511 

30. variegatum, Ptrs 246 

31. jobiense, 3Ieyer 247 

32. acutum, Ptrs 248 

33. cumiugii, Gray 249 

^ 34, smaragdinum, Less 250 

35, olivaceum. Gray 251 

36, -snttatum, Bdel 252 

37, anolis, Blgr .■ . , . 253 

38, virens, Ptrs 254 

39, semperi, Ptrs 254 

40, pulchellum, Gray 254 

41. vulcaniura, Gir 255 

42. noctua, Less 256 

43, sikkimense, Blyth .... 257 

44. bimalayauum, Gthr. . . 257 

45. ladaceuse, Gthr 258 

46. biliueatum, Gray 259 

47, laterimacidatum, Blgr. . . 260 

48. beddomii, Blgr 261 

49. travancoricum, Bedd. . . 261 

50. nitens, Ptrs 262 

X 51. laterale, Say 263 

52. assatum, Cope 264 

53. macrotympauum, Stol. . . 265 

54. macrotis, Stdchr 265 

55. africanum, Gray 265 

o6. reicbenovii, Ptrs 266 

57. mustelinum, CSh 267 

58. challengeri, Blgr 268 

59. cupreum, Gray 268 

60. licbenigerum, O'Sh 269 

61. nigrofasciolatum, Ptrs. 270 

62. telfairii, Besj 270 

63. graude, Gray 271 

64. moco, B. i^-B 272 

65. lineo-ocellatum,.4.Z>M«i. 273 

66. iufrapunctatura, Blgr. . . 274 

67. smithii, Gray 274 

68. seneum, Gir 275 

69. entrecasteauxii, B. ^- B. 276 

b 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

70. trioolor, Bovaij 277 

71. variiibiK', /iairn/ 277 

72. nustro-caleddiiicuni, Ba- 

rm/ 278 

73. tiiliue;itiim, Gra;/ 27!) 

74. uu'tallicuni, O'S/i 280 

*■ 75. guiclioiioti, 1). S,- B 281 

7G. prctiosum, O'S/t 282 

77. occllatiuii, Oral/ 283 

78. fusciiiu, I). cV IJ 283 

79. rhouiboidalo, P/rs 285 

80. beccarii, Ptrs. l^- JDoria 285 

81. albeit isii, P(rs. 4'- Doria 286 
X 82. peronii, I). ^- B 286 

83. Beclorale, JJeVis 287 

84. tetradactylum, 0'.S7i. . . 288 

85. miindum, 7> J'is 288 

folii.vum, Be I'is 289 

86. novaj-giiiuejp, Meyer . . 289 
X 87. cvanunim, Less 290 

SB. mivarti, Bh/r 292 

89. cyaiiogaster, Less 292 

90. sainoeiise, A. Dum 293 

91. callistictum, Ptrs. 8^ 

Doria 295 

92. atroco^^tatum, Less 295 

93. bandinii, 1). ^- B 296 

94. .''iiifraporense, Stdclir. . . 297 
K 95. nignun, Ilomhr. <$• Jacq. 297 

m. adspersum, Sldchr 298 

97. parietale, Ptrs 299 

98. jerdonianum, Slol. .... 300 

99. breviceps, Ptrs 300 

100. micTolepis, B. Sf B 301 

101. frarnieri, Bava\i 301 

102. albofasciolatum, Gt.hr.. . 302 

103. nifescens, Shaw 303 

104. durum, Cope. 304 

105. fernaudi, Bwt 304 

106. licviceps, Ptrs 305 

107. modeslum, Gthr 306 

108. guineense, Ptrs 306 

109. sundevallii, Smith 307 

110. bowringii, Gthr 308 

111. albopuuctatum, Gray . . 309 
X 112. punctatum, L ". . . 310 

113. gueutlievi, Ptrs 311 

114. cyauellum, fitol 312 

115. an^uinum, Theob 313 

116. ralamus, Bh/r 314 

117. linoolatuni/.S'i'o/ 314 

118. vosiuatMi, Grau 315 

119. lineatuni, Grm/ 316 

120. ancbietriB, Bocarjc 316 

121. ornatum, Gray 317 

122. deplanchii, Baray .... 318 



Pngp 

123. cliinense, Gray 318 

124. p('llupleurum,'77fl//o?r.. . 319 

125. taprtiljanense, Kelaart . . 319 

126. lallax, Ptrs 320 

127. ttMimiinckii. B. ^- B. . . 321 

128. branchiale, Gthr 321 

129. casuariiuB, B. ^- B 322 

l;iO. ansti'ale, Gray 323 

131. punotulatum, Pt)-s 324 

132. cras.<icauda, A. Bum. . . 325 

133. pumiliiin, B///r 325 

'^ 134. peronii, Fitz'. 326 

135. decresiense, Fitz 327 

136. quadrilineatum, B. <$■ B. 328 

137. infralineolatuin, Gthr.. . 328 

138. quadrivittatum, Ptrs. . . 329 

1 39. scutirostruin, Ptrs 330 

140. maria), Liavai/ 330 

141. gracile, Bavay 331 

142. i^quale, Gray 332 

143. microtis, Gray 333 

144. ])ou<rainvillii,*6^ray .... 333 

145. fragile, Gthr 334 

146. gerrardii, G)-ay .335 

147. punctatovittatum, Gthr. 335 

148. lineopunctulatum, B. 4' 

B 336 

149. miopus, Gthr 337 

150. bipes, Fisch 337 

151. prnepeditum, Bh/r 337 

152. muelleri, Seh/ey. 338 

153. isodactylum, Gthr 339 

154. cbalcides, L 340 

155. reticulatum, Gthr 341 

156. .sumatrense, Gthr 342 

X 157. verreauxii, A. Bum. . . 342 

158. truncatum, Ptrs 343 

159. ophio.sciucus, Blyr 343 

formosa, Blyth 209 

undosa, Gir 209 

fasciolaris, Gir 209 

atroco.stata, Macleay . . 209 

pavdalis, Macleay 209 

nigricaudis, Macleay . . 209 

fragile. Macleay 209 

metalliciis, Macleay. . . . 209 
guttulatus, Macleay. . . . 209 

9. Ablepharus, Fitz 344 

^ 1. boutonii, Be.y 346 

2. liueo-ocellatus, B. tV 7?. 348 

3. tagniopleurns, TYns 349 

4. ? speciosus, Halloiv 349 

5. greyi. Gray 349 

(). waiilbergii, Smith .... 350 

7. brandtii, Strauch 351 

8. grayanus, Stol 352 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XI 



Pace 

9. seneus, Cope I^o^ 

10. cabindse, Bocage 3-")2 

11. Livittatiis, Men .'^")-"i 

1:2. deseiti, Stranch ^ 

13. pannoniciis, Fitz 3.')4 

14. ele-rans, Gra'j 300 

15. muelleii, Fi»ch 3o(') 

16. linoatus, Gray 356 

10. Ki.-ttlla, Grmj 356 

1. rurldi, Gray 357 

"2. travaucurica, Bcdd 358 

3. puentKiM-i, Blyr 358 

4. beddoniii, Bh/r 35!> 

11. Tropidophorus,"Z>. ^- B. . . 351) 

1. leiicospilus, Ptrs 300 

2. beccarii, Rrs 360 

3. brooliii, Gray 361 

4. berdmorii, B/yffi 362 

5. yunuauensis, Blyr 362 

(). sinicus, Btfy 3{)2 

7. cocbiuchinensi.s, D. i)- B. 363 

8. giavi, Gthr 364 

12. Triboioiiotus, D. ^- B 364 

1. novie-ofuinefe, Schley, . . 365 

13. Euineces, Wieym 365 

1. longirostris, Cope 368 

2. guttulatus, Hallow 369 j 

x3. quinquelineatus, L 369 

4. .sumicbraf^ti, Cope .... 371 

5. marginatus, Hallow .... 371 
^« 6. elegans, Blyr 371 

7. capito, Bocourt 372 

8. sldltouianiis, B. Sf- G. . . 373 

9. ballo-wellii, Bocourt. . . . 373 

10. obsoletus, B.^G. 374 

Xll. septentvionalis, Baird . . 374 

12. cbinensis, Gray 375 

13. tetragramuuis, Baird . . 375 

14. pluvialis, Cope 376 

15. autbracinus, Baird .... 376 

16. brevilineatus, Cope 376 

17. pacbyurus, Cope 377 

18. bumilis, Blyr 377 

19. leptogrammus, Baird . . 378 

20. cn\\ice\)hi\].vis, Bocou7-t . . 378 
21.bellii, Gray 378 

< 22. brevirostris, Gt/ir 379 

23. lyiixe, Wieym 380 

24. onocrepis, Cops 380 

egregius, Baird 381 

25. quadriliueatus, Blyth . . 381 

26. scbwartzii, Fisch 382 

27. scutatu.s, Theoh 382 

28. tajniolatus, Blyth 383 

29. scbneideri, Daud. .... 383 

30. algeriensis, Ftrs 384 



I'aiic 

31. blylliianus, And 385 

inulti\ irgatum, Hallow . 365 

inornatus, Baird 3(55 

14. Bracbymclcs, J), l^- B 386 

1. scbadeubergii, Fisch. . . 38t) 

2. grafili", Finch 3^7 

3. bicolor, Grat/ 388 

4. bonitaj, I). ^)- B 388 

15. Scincii.^i, Laitr 389 

1. fasciatufs, I'frs 390 

2. benipricbii, Wieym 390 

X 3. offiriuiilis, Lrixr .'591 

4. conirostris, Blanf. .... .')91 

5. arenai'ius, Murray .... ;i9l' 

6. muscatt'iisis, Murray . . .'592 

7. meecensis, Wieym 392 

8. mitramis, And 393 

16. OpbioiiioriLs 1). S,- B 393 

1. tridactylus, Blyth 394 

2. blanfovdii, Blyr 395 

3. brevipes, Blanf. 395 

4. persicus, Stdchr 39(5 

5. pimetatissimus, Bibr. . . 397 

6. latastii, Blyr 398 

? pentadactYlus, Bedd. . . 393 

17. Chalcides, Laur 398 

*■ 1. ocellatus, Forsk 4(X) 

2. viridauus, Gravh 402 

3. bedriagfe, Boscd 402 

x; 4. \\-aeAivis,{.Leuck.) 40-'> 

)< 5. tridactylus, X«?/r. .... 403 

6. guentheri, Blyr 404 

7. mionecton, Btty 405 

8. maui-itanicus, I). <^- 5. . . 405 

9. spbenopsifol•mis,^.-D^«?^. 406 
10. delislii, Lataste 407 

X 11. sepoides, And 407 

18. Scelotes, Fitz 408 

1. bojeri, Be.^j. 409 

2. astrolabi, D.^B 410 

3. poUeui, Grand 410 

4. melauopleura, Gthr. . . 411 

5. igneocaudatus, Grand. . 412 

6. c.apensis, Smith 412 

7. tridactylus, Blyr 413 

8. ? caffer, Ptrs 413 

9. bipes, L 414 

10. guentberi, Blyr 414 

11. inornatus, Smith 415 

12. arenicola, Ptrs 415 

13. bicolor. Smith 416 

? fierinensis. Grand 408 

? mouroundavje, Grand. . 408 

occidentalis, I^rs 408 

19. Herpetosep.><, Blyr 416 

1. anguinus, Blyr 416 



SrSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

70. tricolor, Bavay 277 

71. variabik', Bavay 277 

72. austro-caledonicuni, Ba- 

ray 278 

73. trilineatiim, Gray 27!) 

74. inL'tallicuin, 0\Sh 2S0 

*- 75. giiiclienoti, T). ^- B 281 

7G. pretio.^uni, O'S/i 282 

77. ocellatum, Grai/ 283 

78. fuscuin, D. ^- I'i 283 

79. rhoinboidalfi, Ptrs 285 

80. becf-aiii, Ptrs. Sf Doriu 285 

81. albert isii, Pfrs. ^- Doria 286 
X S2. peronii, 1). 6,- B 286 

83. pectorale, JJeVis 287 

84. tetradactyhuu, (X.Sh. . . 288 

85. muiidum,' Be Vis 288 

folioruni, Be Vis 289 

86. nova^-giiiuefc, Meyer . . 289 
X 87. cvaminim, Less 2Q) 

88. mivarti, Blyr 292 

89. cyanogaster, Less 292 

90. samoense, A. Bum 293 

91. callistictum, Ptrs. 8f 

Boria 295 

92. atrocostatum, L^ess 295 

93. baudinii, B. Sf B 296 

94. .".ingaporense, Stdchr. . . 297 
X 95. nigrum, Ilomhr. S,- Jacq. 297 

96. adspersum, Stdchr 298 

97. parietale, Hrs 299 

98. jerdouianum, StoJ. 300 

99. breviceps, Ptrs ,300 

100. microlepi.«, B. S,- B 301 

101. garnieri, Bavay 301 

102. albofasciolatum, Gthr.. . 302 

103. rufe.scens, Shaw 303 

104. durum, Cope 304 

105. fernandi, Burt 304 

106. Iffiviceps, Ptrs 305 

107. modestum, Gthr 306 

108. guineense, Ptrs 306 

109. sundevallii, Smith 307 

110. bowringii, Gthr 308 

111. albopuuctatum, Gray . . 309 
X 112. punctatum, L 310 

113. guentberi, Ptrs 311 

114. cyanellum, Stol 312 

115. anguinum, Theob 313 

116. calamus, Blyr 314 

117. lineolatum,'.S'/o/. 314 

118. vosmaeri, G>'ay 315 

119. lineatum, Gray 316 

120. ancbietaj, Bocayc 316 

121. ornatum, Gray 317 

122. deplancbii, Bavay .... 318 



Pagp 

123. cliinense, Gray 318 

124. pellnpleurum,'//rt/A/?<'.. . 319 

125. taprobanense, Kclaart . . 319 

12(). fallax, Ptrs 320 

127. temminckii. B. Sf B. . . 321 

12!^. brancbiale, Gthr 321 

129. casuarin;e, B. ^- B 322 

130. australe, Gray 323 

131. punctulatum, Ptrs 324 

132. cras.>icauda, A. Bum. . . 325 

133. pumilum, Blyr ,325 

^ 134. ptToiiii, Fitz. ,326 

135. decresiense, Fitz 327 

136. quadrilineatum, B. 8)- B. 328 

137. infraliueolatum, Gthr.. . 328 

138. quadrivittatum, Ptrs. . . 329 

139. scutirostruui, Ptrs 3-30 

140. niariae, Bavay 330 

141. gracile, Bavay 331 

142. requale, Gray .332 

143. microti.?, Gray ,333 

144. bougainvillii, Gray a33 

145. fragile, Gthr 334 

146. gerrardii, G7-ay ,335 

147. punctatovittatum, Gthr. 335 

148. lineopunctulatum, B. ^^• 

B 336 

149. miopus, Gthr 337 

150. bipes, Fisch ,337 

151. prsepeditum, B/yr ,337 

152. muelleri, Sehicy 338 

153. isodactylum, Gthr .339 

154. cbalcides, L 340 

155. reticulatum, Gthr 341 

156. sumatrense, Gthr 342 

X157. verreauxii, ^. Z)m??j. .. .342 

158. truncatum, Itrs 343 

159. ophioscincus, B/yr 343 

formosa, B/yth 209 

undosa, Gir 209 

fasciolaris, Gir 209 

atrocostata, Macleay . . 209 

pardalis, Macleay 209 

nigricaudis, Macleay . . 209 

fragile, Macleay 209 

metallicHs, Macleay. . . . 209 

guttulatus, Macleay. . . . 209 

9. Ablepbarus, Fitz 344 

\\. boutonii. Besj ,'j46 

2. liueo-ocellatus, B. 8,- B. 348 

3. tseniopleurus, Ptrs 349 

4. ? speciosus, Hallow 349 

5. greyi. Gray 349 

6. waiilborgii', Smith 350 

7. brandtii, Strauch ,351 

8. grayanus, Stol ,352 



8TSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pace 

9. seneus, Cope Ji-]-* 

10. cabindfp, Socage 3;")2 

11. bivittiitus, Men '^')^^^ 

12. de!=eiti, Strauch 85:J 

13. pannoniciis, Fitz •3.')4 

14. olt'jraii!', Gra>) >jW 

\'i. imu'lloii, Fiscli yo<) 

10. lincatus, Oray 350 

10. Ki-tilla, Gniii .' 3oG 

1. niiliii, Gruji 3o7 

'2. travaiu-orica, Bcdd 358 

3. <>Ufiitl.ori, lilgr 358 

4. biddoniii, BU/r 35',) 

11. Tiopidopbonis,' -D. ^- 1^- ■ ■ 350 

1. k'ucospilus, Btrs 300 

2. beccarii, Vtrs 3('.0 

3. brookii, Gnuj 301 

4. bei-dmoi-ii, Uhjth 302 

5. yiiiiuaneiifii.s, Blgr 302 

0. siniciis, lUty 3()2 

7. cocbiuchineiisis, 1). ^- B. 303 

8. gravi, Gthr 304 

12. Tiiboionotus, I). ^- B 304 

1. uoviB-guine;?, Schleg. . . 305 

13. Eumeces, Wiegm 305 

1. lonprirostris, Cope 308 

2. guttulatus, Halloiv 309 

x3. quinquelineatu.^, L 309 

4. siiruiobrasti, Cope .... 371 

5. marginatus, Hallow .... 371 
^ 0. elegans, Bigr 371 

7. capito, Bocourt 372 

8. skiltouianus, B. i;- G. . . 373 

9. ballowellii, Bocourt. . . . 373 

10. obsoletus, B. ^- G 374 

Xll. septentrionalis, Bainl . . 374 

12. cbiuensis, Grag 375 

13. tetragramiiuis, Baird . . 375 

14. pluviali.s, Cope 370 

15. authracinus, Baird .... 370 
10. brevilineatus, Cope .... 370 

17. pacbyurus, Cope 377 

18. bumilis, Blgr 377 

19. leptogrammus, Baird . . 378 

20. oallicepbalus, ^ocoe/r^. . 378 
21.bellii, Gray 378 

< 22. brevirostris, Gthr 379 

23. lyuxe, Wiegm 380 

24. onocrepis, Cope 380 

egregius, Baird 381 

25. quadriliueatus, Blytk . . 381 
20. scbwartzii, Fisch 382 

27. scutatus, Theob 382 

28. tffiniolatus, Bhjth 383 

29. scbneideri, Daud. .... 383 

30. algeriensis, Ptrs 384 



31. blytliiaiui><, And 385 

niultivirgatuni, Ilallotv . 305 
inoriiatu.s, Baird .3(i5 

14. Bracbyint'los, 1). ^- B 380 

1. scbadi'ubergii, Fisch. . . .380 

2. gracilis, Fisch 3)S7 

3. bicolor, Grat/ .388 

4. bonitfe, I). ^- B 388 

15. Scincii.«, Zaar 389 

1. fasciatus, I'frs 390 

2. heiiipricliii, Wiegm .390 

X 3. ofbcinalis, L'.inr .391 

4. conirostri.s, Blanf. .... .".91 

5. areiiarius, Murrag .... ,"592 

0. miLscati'iisis, Murrag . . 392 

7. mecceusis, Wiegm .'/92 

8. niitranns, And 393 

10. Opbioiuova-^, 1). .y B 393 

1. tridactvlus, Bh/th 394 

2. blantbvdii, Blgr 395 

3. brevipe.'^, Blauf. 395 

4. per.^iciis, Stdchr 390 

5. puuctatissimus, Bibr. . . 397 
0. latastii, Blgr ,398 

? pentadactylus, Bedd. . . 393 

17. Clialcides, Lavr 398 

*■ 1. ocellatus, Foisk 400 

2. viridauus, Gravh 402 

3. bedriagae, Based 402 

^ 4. lineatus, {Leuck.) 40-"> 

X 5. tridactylus, Latir. .... 40."! 

0. giientberi, Blgr 404 

7. mionecton, Bttg 405 

8. mauritanicus, I), c^ B. . . 405 

9. spbenop.?iformis,^.Z)M/n. 400 
10. delislii, Lataste 407 

X 11. sepoides, Aud 407 

18. Scelotes, Fitz 408 

1. bojeri, Desj. 409 

2. astrolabi, D.^B 410 

3. polleni, Grand 410 

4. inelanopleura, Gthr. . . 411 

5. igneocaudatua, Grand. . 412 

0. capensis, Smith 412 

7. tridactvlus, Blgr 413 

8. ? catfer, Ptrs 413 

9. bipes, L 414 

10. guentberi, Blgr 414 

11. inornatus. Smith 415 

12. arenicola, Ptrs 415 

13. bicolor, Smith 410 

? fierinensis. Grand. .... 408 
? mouroundavje, Grand. . 408 

occidentalis, Ptrs 408 

19. Herpetosep.'<, Blgr 410 

1. anguinus, Blgr 410 



8T8XEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

20. Sepsina, Boccuje 417 

1. gastrosticta, O'Sh 418 

ii. splendida, Grand 418 

.3. niacrocerciis, Gthr 410 

4. melanura, Gthr 410 

■'}. johannoe, Gthr 420 

0. tetradactyla, Ptrs 420 

7. copii, Iioca(/e 421 

8. angoleusis, Bocaf/e .... 421 

9. gramniica, Cope 421 

10. bayouii, Bacage 422 

21. Melanoseps, Blyr 422 

1. ater, Gthr. ' 422 

22. Sepophis, Bedd 42.", 

1. punctatus, Bedd 423 

23. Chalcidoseps, Bhfr 423 

1. thwaitesii, Gthr 423 

24. Acontias, Cuv 424 

1 . biirtonii, Gray 425 

2. monodactylus, Gray . . 425 

3. layardii, Kelaart 426 

4. holomelas, Gthr 426 

h. hildebrandtii, Ptrs 427 

K 6. meleagris, L 427 

7. plumbeus, Bianc 428 

8. lineatus, Ptrs 428 

9. grayi, Blyr 428 

rubrocaudatus, Grand. . 424 

25. TyplJacontias, Bocaye . . 429 
1. punctatissimus, Bocaye . 429 

Pygomeles, Grand 429 

braconnieri, Grand 429 

Fam. 19. Anelytropid^. 

1. Anelytropsis, Cope 430 

1. papillosus, Cope 431 

2. Feylinia, Gray 431 

1. currori, Gray 431 

3. Typhlosaunis, Wieym 432 

1. lineatus, B/yr 432 

2. aurantiacus, Ptrs. .... 433 

3. cajcus, Cnv 434 

4. vermis, Blyr 434 

Fam. 20. DiBAMiDiE. 

I. Dibamus, JD. ^ B 435 

1. novai-guinese, D. c^- B. . 435 

2. nicobaricus, Stdchr 435 

Ophiopsiseps, Blyr 436 

nasutus, Bocaye 436 



Subord. II. RHIPTOGLOSSA. 
X Fam. 21. Cham^leontid^. 

Page 

1. Chamajleon, Laur 438 

^ 1 . vulgaris, Daud 443 

2. calcarifer, Ptrs 444 

3. calcaratus, Merr 445 

4. calyptratus, A. Bum. . . 446 

Jr 5. basiliscus, Cope 446 

A 6. senegalensis, Daud 447 

>< 7. gracilis, Hallow 448 

-» 8. parvilobus, Blyr 449 

<9. dilepis, Jjeach 450 

10. monachus, Gray 451 

11. bita^niatus, Fkch 452 

12. anchietse, Bocaye 452 

X 13. lateralis. Gray 453 

14. verrucosus, Cuv 454 

15. pardalis, Cuv 454 

16. cephalolepis, Gthr 455 

17. rhinoceratus. Gray .... 456 

18. labordii, Grand 456 

19. melanocepbalus. Gray . 457 

20. guttiiralis, Smith 457 

21. tfeniobronchus. Smith . . 458 

22. pumilus, Daud 458 

23. ventralis, Gray 459 

24. damaranus, Blyr 460 

25. tigris, Kuhl 461 

26. affinis. Gray 461 

27. namaquensis, Smith . . 462 
x'28. bifidu>, Brongn 463 

20. minor, Gthr 464 

30. furcifer, Vaill. 4" Grand. 464 

31. campani, Grand. 465 

32. antimena. Grand 465 

33. globifer, Gthr 465 

34. parsonsii, Cuv 466 

35. osbaughnessyi, Gthr. . . 467 

3(5. brevicoruis, Gthr 407 

37. malthe, Gthr 468 

■^ 38. cucullatus, Gray 469 

39. owenii. Gray 470 

40. montium, Buchh 470 

41. cristatus, 5Y?/i'f;//6 471 

42. melleri, Gray 472 

43. nasutus, D. \ B 473 

X 44. gallus, Gthr 473 

2. Brookesia, Gray 474 

1 . superciliaris, Kuhl 474 

2. ebenaui, Bttg 475 

3. nasas, Blyr 475 

3. Rhampholeon, Gthr 475 

1. kerstenii, Ptrs 475 

2. spectrum, Buchh 476 



CATALOGUE 



LIZARDS. 



Order LACERTILIA * 

(co7itinued). 

Suborder I. LACERTILIA VERA 

(continued). 

Fam. 16. LACERTID^. 

Lacertiens, part., Cuvier, R'^xjm Anim. ii. 1817. 

Lacertinidse, Gray^ Ann. Phil. (2) x. 1825, and Phil. Mag. (2) ii. 

1827. 
Tracliydromoidea, part., Lacertoidea, Fitzinger, Neue Classif. Rept. 

1826. 
Autarchoglossse pleurodontes, part., Wagler, Syst. Amph. 1830. 
Lacertse, part., Wiegmann, Herp. Mex. 1834. 
Lacertiens coelodontes, Dumeril ^- Bibron, Erp. Gen. v. 1839. 
Lacertinidse, Zonuridae, part., Gray, Cat. Liz. 1845. 
Holaspidfe, Gray, Proc. Zool Soc. 1863, p. 152. 
Lacertidse, part., Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 18G4. 
Lacertidse, Boidenger, Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (5) xiv. 1884. 

Tongue flat, eloBgate, bifid in front and behind, covered with 
rhomboidal scale-like papillae or overlapping plicae converging for- 
wards. 

Dentition strictly pleurodont, the teeth hollow at the base ; 
lateral teeth bi- or tricuspid ; pterygoids frequently toothed. 

Prsemaxillary bone single; nasal and frontal double; parietal 

VOL. III. / B 



Z LACEKTIDJ?.. 

single ; postorbital and postfrontotomporal arches complete ; iuter- 
orbital septum and columella cranii well developed ; palatines and 
pterygoids separated on the median line. Skull with bony dermal 
plateo, roofing over the supratemporal fosssc. 

Limbs well developed, pentadactyle. Clavicle dilated and per- 
forated proximaUy ; interclavicle cruciform. Tail long, fragile. 

Pupil round. Eyelids well developed. Ear-opening distinct. 
Femoral pores usually present. 

Head with symmetrical shields ; those on the upper surface are 
(normally) a frontonasal, a pair of praefrontals, a frontal, two to 
four supraoculars, a pair of frontoparietals, a pair of parietals, an 
interparietal, and an occipital. The latter shield is aljsent in many 
species, and so are the frontoparietals in the genus J/oJaspis. Dorsal 
scales juxta])oscd or imbricate, usually smaller than the vcntrals, 
which form longitudinal and transverse series. 

Inhabit Europe, Asia, and Africa; absent from Madagascar. 
Most abundantly represented in Africa ; few in the East Indies. 



Synoj)sis of the Genera. 

I. Frontal'plate separated from the interparietal by a pair of fronto- 
parietals ; tail not much depressed. 

A. Nostril above the first labial, from which it is separated, if at 
all, by a narrow rim ; transparent palpebral disk, if present, 
considerably smaller than the eye. 

1. Inguinal, but no femoral pores 1. Tachydromus, p. 3. 

2. Femoral pores. 

a. Ventral plates keeled .... 2. Poromera, p. G. 

b. Ventrals smooth. 

Collar well marked ; dorsal scales much smaller than caudals ; 
digits not fringed laterally, not keeled interiorly. 

4. Lacerta, p. 8. 

Collar well marked ; dorsal scales nearly as large as caudals, 
strongly imbricate ; digits not fringed laterally, not keeled infe- 
riorly 5. Algiroides, p. 43. 

Collar very indistinct or absent ; digits not fringed laterally. 

(). Psammodromus, p. 46. 

Collar well marked ; digits not fringed laterally, keeled inferiorly. 

9. Latastia, p. 54. 

Collar more or less distinct; digits fringed laterally and keeled 
inferiorly 10, Acanthodactylus, p. 58. 



1. T\CnYDEOM0S. 3 

B. Nostril well separated from the labials. 

1 . Lower eyelid scaly or with a small transparent disk. 

a. Dij:!;its smootli or indistinctly keeled inferiorly, not fringed 

laterally. 

Collar well marked ; ventral plates keeled. 

3. Gastropholis, p. 7. 

Collar absent ; dorsal scales large, imbricate, strongly kcelel. 

7. Tropidosaura, p. 50. 

Collar well marked ; dorsal scales small ; ventral plates smooth. 

8. Nucras, p. 52. 

b. Digits distinctly keeled inferiorly, not fringed laterally. 

Collar absent ; dorsal scales large, imbricate, strongly keeled. 

13. Ichnotropis, p. 78. 

Collar more or less distinct ; dorsal scales small. 

14. Eremias, p. 80. 

c. Digits fringed laterally. 

Femoral pores 15 Scapteira, p. 107. 

No femoral pores 16. Aporosaura, p. 117. 

2. Lower eyelid with a very large transparent disk covering 
nearly entirely the eye; digits strongly keeled infe- 
riorly. 

Lower eyelid movable .... 11. Cabrita, p. 69. 

Lower eyelid united with the upper . 12. Ophiops, p. 72. 

II. No frontoparietals ; tail much depressed and denticulated late- 
rally 17. Holaspis, p. 118. 

1. TACHYDROMUS. 

Tachydromus, Daud. Rept. iii. p. 251 ; Wagler, Syst. Amph. p. 157 ; 
Wiegm. Kerp. Mex. p. 10 : Dtmi. ^ Bibr. v. p. 155 ; Gray, Cat, 
Liz. p. 52 ; Giinth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 69 ; Lataste, Ami. Mus. 
Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 125. 

Tachysaurus, Gray, I. c. 

Head-shields normal *. Nostril pierced between two nasals and 
the first labial. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar more or less distinct. 
Back covered with large, rhomboidal, keeled shields forming longi- 



* /. e. a frontonasal, a pair of prsefrontals, a frontal, a pair of frontoparietals, 
a pair of parietals, an interparietal, and an occipital. 

b2 



4 LACERTTD^. 

tudinal scries : flanks granular ; ventral shields rhomboidal, imbri- 
cate, all or part keeled. Digits suhcylindrical, with smooth, tuber- 
cular subdigital lam elite, the distal of which is much enlarged. 
Inguinal pores ; no femoral pores. Tail extremely long, cylin- 
drical. 

Eastern Asia ; Japan ; Indian archipelago. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

First large supraocular in contact with 
the loreal ; temporal scales strongly, 
dorsals very strongly keeled 1. sexlhuatus, p. 4. 

A small shield between the supraocular 
and the loreal ; temporal scales ob- 
tusely, dorsals very strongly keeled. 2. tacJujdromoides, p. 5. 

A small shield between the supraocular 
and the loreal ; temporal scales 
smooth, dorsals moderately keeled . . 3. amurensis, p. 6. 



1. Tachydromus sexlineatus. 

Tacliydromus sexlineatus, Grai/, Cat. p. 52. 
Tachvdromus sexlineatus, Daud. Bept. iii. p. 356, pi. xxxix. ; Bromjn. 

Mem. Sav. Etr. Ac. Paris, i. 1«06, p. 627, pi. ii. fig. 8 ; Bum. 8) 

Bihr. V. p. 158 ; Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 495 : Giinth. 

Bept. Brit. Ind. p. 69, pi. viii. tig. C ; Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. 

Benrj. xli. 1872, p. 87. ' 

quadrilineatus, Daud. I. c. p. 252. 

ocellatus {Ciiv.), Guer. Icon. B. A., Bept. pi. v. fig. 3 ; Duvern. 

B. A., Bept. pi. xi. 

typus, GrciJ/, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 389. 

sexlineatus, var. seneofuscus, Peters, Man. Bert. Ac. 1863, 

p. 405. 
meridionalis, Giinth. I. c. p. 70, pi. viii. fig. D. 

Supraoculars in contact with the supraciliaries ; the large anterior 
supraocular in contact with the loreal ; temporal scales strongly 
keeled. Six or eight longitudinal series of strongly keeled shields 
on the nape, four on the back, median pair largest ; ten or twelve 
longitudinal series of strongly keeled ventral shields (lateral series 
included). One or two (to six, according to Stoliczka) inguinal 
pores on each side. Greenish or brownish above, with metallic 
gloss ; a more or less distinct whitish, black-edged streak from the 
supraciliary edge along each side of the back to the base of the tail ; 
the black band'bordering the light streak inferiorly begins on the 
loreal region and passes through the eye and above the tympanum ; 
sometimes two narrow black lateral lines instead of the black 
band ; sides frequently with small round light spots ; lower surfaces 
yellowish or greenish. 



1. TACHYDROMXJS. 5 

millim. millim. 

Total length 3-46 Fore limb 23 

Head 15 Hind limb .... 32 

Width of head 8 Tail 285 

Body 46 

Southern China, Sikkim, Khasia Hills, Assam, Burma, Cochin- 
cliina, Java, Borneo ; Japan ? 

a-d. Ad. S. China. J. Eeeves, Esq. [P.]. (Types 

of T. •mcridionalis.) 

I'-k. Ad. Khasia Hills. T. C. Jordon, Esq. [P.]. 

i-l. Ad. Rangoon, Burma. 

in,n-o,p-r. Ad. Java. 

s. Ad. ])orneo. Leyden Museum. 

t-u, V. Ad. Borneo. Sir E. Belcher [P.]. 

w-x. iVd. Matansr, Borneo. 



2. Tachydromus tachydromoides. 

Tachysaurus japouicus, Graij, Cat. p. 52. 
Lacerta tachydromoides, Scldei/, Faun. Japan., Rept. p. 101, pi. i. 

figs. 5-7. 
Tachvdromus japouicus, Dum. i^- Bihr. v. p. 101 ; Giinth. Rept. Brit. 

Ind. p. 69 ; ' Hilyt-ndorf, Sitzh. Ges. Naturf. Fr. 1880, p. 112. 

septentrionalis, Giinth. I. c. p. 70, pi. viii. hg. E. 

liaughtonianus, Jerdon, Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1870, p. 72 ; 

Anders. Froc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 15G ; StoUezka, Jom-n. As. Soc. 

Beny. xli. 1872, p. 88. 
wolteri, Fischer, Jahrh. Wiss. Anst, Hamb. ii. 1885, p. 82. 

Head shorter than in T. sexlineatus. A series of granules between 
the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; a small shield separates the 
large anterior supraocular from the loreal ; temporal scales obtusely 
keeled. Dorsal shields very variable in number and in size, very 
stronoly keeled ; they usually form six to eight series, of which the 
median are as a rule the smallest ; sometimes only five series on the 
posterior half of the body ; eight or ten series of large ventrals, 
which are either all strongly keeled or only the outer rows ; two to 
four longitudinal rows of smaller keeled shields on each side of the 
ventrals. One or two inguinal pores on each side. Greenish or 
brownish above, with or without a light black-edged dorso-lateral 
band as in T. sexlineatus \ a more or less distinct light streak from 
below the eye to the shoulder, sometimes extending along the side 
of the body ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish, 

millim. millim. 

Total length 273 Fore limb 25 

Head 15 Hind limb 33 

Width of head 10 Tail 210 

Body 48 

Japan, Corea, China, Assam. 



6 LACERTTD^. 

a. Ad. Japan. Leyden Museum. 

b-c. Ad. Japan. Dr. F. Hilfrendorf [P.]. 

d. Yg. Yokohama. II.M.S. ' ChaUenger.' 

e. Ad. Chemulpo, Corea. Br. J. G. Fischer. (Type of 

T. rcolteri.) 

f-ff. Ad. & hgr. Ningpo. (Types of T. septentrionaKs.) 

h-i. Ad. NinOT>o. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [0.^ 

k. Hgr. Nanlnn. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C._ 

l-m. Ad. Shanghai. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C' 

n. Ad. Kinldang Mountains. INIr. 0. Maries [C.]. 

0. Hgr. ? Sir E. Belcher [P.]. 

3. Tachydromus amnrensis *. 
Tachydromus amurensis, Peters, Sitzh. Ges. Naturf. Fr. 1881, p. 71. 

Head and digits shorter than in the preceding. Two granules 
between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; a small shield 
separates the large anterior supraocular from the loreal ; temporal 
scales smooth. Dorsal shields moderately keeled, longer than broad, 
in ciglit longitudinal series, the two median small and irregular ; 
eight series of large ventrals, outer series feebly keeled, others 
smooth ; gular scales all smooth ; four series of feebly keeled scales 
between the ventrals and the lateral granules. Three inguinal pores 
on each side. Olive-grey above, granular lateral zone darker; a 
white streak from the eyo to the collar ; lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 148 Fore limb 20 

Head 13 Hind limb 27 

Width of head 9 Tail ,S2 

Body 53 

Kissakewitsch, Amoorland. 



2, POROMERA. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between two nasals (?). 
Collar indistinct (?). Back with large, hexagonal, keeled shields 
forming longitudinal series ; flanks with small shields ; ventral 
shields strongly keeled. Femoral pores. Tail very long, cylin- 
drical. 

West Africa. 

1. Poromera fordii. 

Tachydromus fordii, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 48. 

A small shield between the pra;frontals ; a small occii)ital ; sub- 
ocular bordering the lip between the fourth and fifth upper labials. 
The dorsal shields form six longitudinal complete rows ; besides 



Described from tlie type specimen (98G9) in the Berlin Museum. 



3. GASTROPnOMS. 7 

these there are two others, which terminate about halfway down 
the body ; six rows of ventral shields. A largo prasanal shield 
with two small ones externally. 11 to 13 femoral pores on each 
side. Upper and lower caudal scales sti'ongly keeled. Head black 
above ; sides bluish ; body bronze, with metallic reflections ; tail 
and limbs bronze above ; lower surfaces greenish, mingled with 
yellow. 

From snout to vent 50 millim. 

Gaboon. 



3. GASTROPHOLIS. 

Gastropholis, Fischer, Ahh. Xaturw. Ver. Ilamh. ix. 1880, p. — *. 

Head-shields normal. Xostril pierced between the nasal and a 
postnasal. Lower ej'elid scaly. CoUar well marked. Dorsal 
scales juxtaposed ; ventral shields imbricate, keeled. Digits sub- 
cylindrical, with smooth scales inferiorly. Femoral pores. Tail 
long, cylindrical. 

East Africa. 

1. Gastropholis vittata. 

Gastropholis vittata, Fischer, I. c. pi. i. fig. 1. 

Head rather strongly depressed ; snout obtusely acuminate. 
Frontal not longer than frontoparietals ; three large supraoculars, 
third smallest, first separated from the loreal by a small shield ; three 
or four granular scales between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries: occipital shorter, but broader, than the interparietal; temple 
covered with uniform small flat scales ; subocular bordering the lip, 
between the fifth and sixth upper labials. Gular scales increasing 
in size towards the collar, which is composed of eleven plates. 
Dorsal scales rather large, oval, juxtaposed, keeled. Yentrals longer 
than broad, the overlapping posterior border obtusely angular ; 
12 longitudinal and 33 transverse series. 35 to 38 scales round 
the body, ventrals included. Praeanal shields keeled, in two trans- 
verse rows, an anterior and a posterior pair largest. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Digits long and 
slender, cylindrical, bent at the articulations. 10 or 11 femoral 
pores on each side. Tail more than twice as long as head and body ; 
caudal scales strongly keeled. Pale brown above, with a white, 
black-edged streak along each side of the back ; upper lip and lower 
surfaces white ; tail white-spotted. 



Quoted from a separate copy. 



8 LACERTID^. 

millim. millim 

Total length 277 From end of snout to 

Head 21 veut 82 

Width of head 11 Fore limb 26 

From end of snout to fore Hind limb 38 

limb 30 Tail 195 

Zanzibar. 

a-b. Ad Zanzibar. Dr. .J. G. Fischer. (Types.) 



4. LACERTA. 

Lacerta, part., Linn. S. N. i. p. 359; Dum. ^ Bibr. v. p. 174 ; 

Bedricuja, Abh. Senchenb. Ges. xiv. 1880, p. 2-4. 
Saps, part., Laur. Syn. Rept. p. 58. 
Lacerta, Waf/ler, Si/st. Amph. p. 154 ; Wiegm. Herp. Mi\r. p. ; 

Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 30 ; Schreib. Herp. Eur. p. 399; Lataste, Ann. 

Mus. Genova, (2) ii. 1885, p. 125. 
Zootoca, Wayl. I. c. p. 155 ; Wiegm. I. c. 
Podarcis, part., Wagl. I. c. 
Podarcis, Wiegm, I. c. 
Thimon, Tschudi, Isis, xxix. 1836, p. 551. 
Teira, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 18:i8, p. 280, and Cat. Liz. p. 33. 
Zootoca, part.. Gray., Cat. p. 27. 
Thetia, Gray, I. c. p. 32. 
Nucras, part., Gray, I. c. p. 33. 
Atropis, Gluckselig, Lotos, 1831, p. 133. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between two or three nasals, 
bordered by the first upper labial, or separated from that shield by a 
very narrow rim. Lower eyelid scaly, or with a small transparent 
disk. Collar well marked. Dorsal scales much smaller than 
caudals, not, or hut feebly, imbricate ; ventral shields tetragonal, 
feebly imbricate, smooth. Digits subcylindrical or compressed, Avith 
smooth, tubercular, or indistinctly keeled lamellce interiorly. Fe- 
moral pores. Tail long, cylindrical. 

Europe ; Northern and Western Asia ; Africa north of the 
equator. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Lower eyelid scaly. 

A. Collar-edge distinctly serrated. 

1. Upper surface of tail with large spines. 

A single postnasal ; ventrals in 6 longi- 
tudinal rows ; collar with serrated 
edge 1 • cchhiata, p. 11. 



4. LACBRTA. 9 

2. Tail not spinose. 

a. Lateral scales (in the middle of the body) not smaller 

than dorsals. 

70 to 108 scales round the middle of the 

body (ventrals included) ; rostral en- 
tering the nostril ; two superposed 

postnasals 2. ocellata, p. 12. 

46 to 66 scales round the middle of the 

body ; rostral usually entering the 

nostril ; normally two superposed post- 
nasals ; foot, in the female and young, 

longer than the head ; taU. at least 

nearly twice as long as head and body. 3. viridis, ]>. 14. 
42 to 5S scales round the middle of the 

body ; rostral not entering the nostril ; 

one or two postnasals, frequently two 

superposed anterior loreals ; no gra- 
nules between the supraoculars and the 

supraciliaries ; foot not longer than the 

head : tail not over once and two thirds 

the length of head and body 5. at/ills, p. 10. 

46 scales round the middle of the body ; 

rostral not entering the nostril ; two 

superposed postnasals ; a series of 

granules between the supraoculars and 

the supraciliaries ; foot longer than 

the head ( 5 ) ; tail once and a half the 

length of head and body 6. parva, p. 22. 

32 to 45 scales round the middle of the 

body ; rostral not entering the nostril ; 

normally a single postnasal and a 

single anterior loreal; no granules 

between the supraoculars and the 

supraciliaries ; foot usually longer than 

the head 7. v'tvipara, p. 23. 

56 to 63 scales round the middle of the 

body ; rostral touching the nostril ; 

a single postnasal ; a series of granules 

between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries ; tail not twice as long as head 

and body 9. tcmrica, p. 26. 

b. Lateral scales smaller than dorsals ; latter more or less 

distinctly imbricate, diagonally keeled ; 40 to 46 scales 
round the middle of the body (ventrals included). 

Ventrals in 8 or 10 longitudinal rows ; 
two superposed postnasals; no auri- 
cular denticulation 4. pnnceps, p. 18. 



10 LACERTH)^. 

Ventrals in 6 rows ; normally a single 

postnasal 8. praticola, p. 25. 

Ventrals in S or 10 rows ; a single post- 
nasal ; anterior border of ear toothed 20. atlantica, p. 42. 

13. Collar-edge even, or very indistinctly serrated ; dorsal scales 
granular, 

1. Ventrals in G or 8 longitudinal rows. 

a. No granules between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries. 

Normally a single postnasal and four 

anterior upper labials 10. peloponnesiaca, p. 27. 

J-. A series of granules between the supraoculars and the 
su2)raciliaries. 

a. Normally a single postnasal. 

Scales on upper surface of crus not larger 

than dorsals 11. miiralis, p. 28. 

Scales on upper surface of crus larger than 

dorsals 12. depressa, p. 34. 

/3. Normally two superposed postnasals and five or six 
upper labials anterior to the subocular. 

* Kostral well separated from the nostril. 

Tempoi'al scales uniformly granular .... 13. dugesii, p. 35. 
Masseteric and supratemporal shields 

distinct 14. oxijcephala, p. 36. 

** Rostral touching or entering the nostril. 

Temporal scales not smaller than dorsals ; 

masseteric shield absent or very small ; 

dorsal scales smooth or nearlj- so ; ven- 
trals in 6 or 8 longitudinal series, the 

fourth or outer series on each side, if 

present, much smaller than the others 15. danfordii, p. 37, 
Temporal scales not smaller than dorsals ; 

masseteric shield small; dorsal scales 

smooth or nearly so; ventrals in 8 

longitudinal series, the two outer series 

on each side of equal size 16. hrandtii, p. 38. 

Temporal scales not smaller than dorsals ; 

masseteric shield large ; posterior dor- 
sal scales distinctly keeled; ventrals 

in 6 longitudinal series 17. la^is, p. 39. 

Temporal scales smaller than dorsals ; no 

masseteric shield ; dorsal scales smooth ; . 

ventrals in 8 longitudinal series .... 18. jayalari, p. 40. 



4. t,A.CERTA. 11 

2, Vcntrals in 12 or 14 longitu- 

diual TOWS 10. (jaUoti, p. 41. 

II. Lower eyelid with ati undivided transparent disk. 

Dorsal scales granular; vontrals in 10 

longitudinal rows 21. lyerspicillaia, p. 43. 

1. Lacerta echinata. 

Lacerta (Zootoca) ecliinata, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 18G2, p. 189. 

hirticauda, Vaillant, Bull. Sac. Philom. (7) viii. 1884, p. 1G8, 

and Bidl. Soc. Zool. France, 1885, pi. xii. lig. 1. 
ecliinata, Bedriaf/u, Abh. SencJcenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 385. 

Head rather strongly depressed ; snout long, obtusely acuminate. 
Rostral entering the nostril ; a single postnasal ; four upper labials 
anterior to the subocular; supraoculars in contact with the supra- 
ciliarios ; occipital shorter and broader than the interparietal ; 
temples covered with uniform small, obtusely keeled, granular 
scales. No distinct gular fold ; gular scales gradually increasing in 
size towards the collar, 35 to 43 between the latter and the median 
suture between the chin-shields ; collar with serrated edge, com- 
posed of eight or nine plates. Dorsal scales rather large, rhom- 
boidal, juxtaposed, obtusely keeled, 36 to 38 across the middle of 
the body ; two or three scales correspond to the length of a ventral 
plate. Ventrals in 6 longitudinal series, median pair nari'owest, and 
28 to 30 transverse series. Prseanal bordered by a semicircle of 
smaller plates. The hind limb reaches the axilla or the elbow 
of the adpressed fore limb ; digits slender. Femoral pores 12 or 
13. Tail more than twice as long as head and body, the scales on 
the anterior third of the upper surface very strongly keeled, and 
ending in a sharp raised point. Green above, uniform or with a 
black network ; sides black-spotted ; lower surfaces greenish. 

d.. ?. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 276 275 

Head 19 22 

Width of head 11 14 

From end of snout to fore limb . . 30 37 

From end of snout to vent 76 100 

Fore limb 29 33 

Hind limb 30 45 

Tail 200 175* 

West Africa (Liberia to Gaboon). 

(I. 2- Caraaroons. D. G. Rutherford, Esq. [0.1. 

b. c^ . W. Africa. 



* Tail injured. 



12 LACBRTID^. 



2. Lacerta ocellata. 

Lacerta ocellata, Gray, Cat. p. 30. 
Lacerta ocellata, Daud. Rept. iii. p. 125, pi. xxxii. ; M.-Edw. Ann. 

Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, pp. G.'3, 82 ; Diigh, Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. p. •"568, 

pi. XV. ; Bonap. Faun. Ital. ; Duvern. R. A., Rept. pi. xii. ; Dum. 

4- Bibr. T. p. 218 ; De Betta, Faun. Ital., R<tt. Anf. p. 2G ; Schreib. 

Hcrp. Eur.T^. 423; Lataste, Ilerp. Gir. p. 65; Bedriaya, Arch.f. 

Nat. 1879, p. 310 ; Camerano, Mon. Satin Ital. p. 79 : Bedriaya, 

Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 39. 

jainaiccusis, Daud. I. c. p. 149. 

lepidii, Daud. I. c. p. 204, pi. xxxvii. fig. 1. 

Thimoii ocellatus, Tschudi, Isis, 1836, p. 551. 

Lacerta seuegalensis. Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 279, 

margaritata, Schinz, Eur. Faun. ii. p. 14. 

ocellata, var. iberica, Seoane, Ident. de Lacerta Sclireiberi, 

^■c. p. 8. 

Head very large in the male ; snout moderately long, obtuse. 
Eostral entering the nostril ; two regularly superposed postnasals ; 
normally four upper labials anterior to the subocular ; supraoculars 
usually separated from the supraciliaries by a series of granules ; 
occipital very large, as broad as or broader than the frontal, 
broader than the interparietal ; temples covered with irregular, 
rather large scales ; no enlarged scale on the anterior border of the 
ear ; two large temporal shields in contact with the parietal. Gular 
fold absent or scarcely indicated; 2-4 to 38 gular scales on a line 
between the collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; collar with 
serrated edge, composed of 9 to 13 plates. Dorsal scales small, 
roundish-rhoml)oidal, very feebly keeled, very slightly larger on the 
sides, where three or four correspond to the length of a ventral 
plate; 62 to 78 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral 
plates broader than long in 8 or 10 longitudinal series, the second 
series on each side from the rhedian ventral line the largest ; 28 to 
35 transverse series, Prteanal plate bordered by two to four 
semicircles of small plates. The hind limb reaches the axilla or 
the shoulder. Femoral pores 11 to 16. Tail about twice as long 
as head and body ; caudal scales keeled, with obtusely pointed 
posterior border. Green above, with black dots or network, 
or blackish olive with yellowish network ; sides with large blue 
spots or ocelli ; lower surfaces uniform greenish yellow. Young 
olive above, covered all over with white or bluish black-edged ocelli, 
the black sometimes forming irregular cross bands on the back. 

6._ ?. 

millim. luillira. 

Total length 610 413 

Head 60 34 

Width of head 44 24 

From end of snout to fore limb . . 84 56 

From end of snout to vent 210 138 



4. LACERTA. 13 

niillim. milliin. 

Fore limb 68 50 

Hind limb 103 77 

Tail 400 275 

South of France, north-western coast of Italy, Spain and Portugal. 

a-b. c? . Noar Nice. 

c. 2- r.alicia, Spain. M. V. L. Seoane [P.]. 

d. c? . Forrol. M. Y. L. Seoane [P.*' 
e-f. cS &: hj,'i-- Madrid. M. V. L. Seoane [P.' 
(/! c?. Seville. M. V. L. Seoane [P.^ 
'h. 2 . Valencia. Lord Lilford [P.T. 
i. S- Gibraltar. R. MacAndrew, Esq. [P.]. 
A-. Hot. Spain. Lord Lilford [P.I. 

l-7n. Yg. Salir, Estremadura. Dr. H. Gadow [0.1. 

n-q. Yg. Ponierao, Portugal. Dr. H. Gadow [C.]. 

/•. Yg. Lisbon. H. 0. Forbes, Esq. [P.]. 

s. J . ' ? College of Surgeons. 

t. (5 . ? (Type of Lacerta senerjalensis.) 

Var. pater. 

Lacerta oceUata, Schleg. in Wagn. Reis. Algier, iii. p. 112; Strauch, 

Erp. Ah/, p. 3.3. 

ocellata pater, Lataste, Le Naturaliste, 1880, p. 306. 

ocellata, var. viridissima, Bocttg. Ber. Senchenh. Ges. 1880-81, 

p. 14G, and in Kohelt, Reis. Alg. u. Tunis, p. 466. 
pater, Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 54. 

In some respects approaching L. viridis. Thus, as a rule, the 
dorsal scales are more distinctly keeled and the occipital shield 
smaller, viz. as broad as or a little narrower than the frontal. 
Ventrals in 8 longitudinal series. 74 to 80 scales across the 
middle of the body. Femoral pores 12 to 16. Bluish ocelli, 
usually present in the young, arc frequently absent in the adult, 
which are green, dotted or reticulated with black or with black 
rings ; some young uniform green. 

In some Spanish specimens the occipital is quite of the same size 
as in " L. ]iatcr,''^ and also the other characters given as distinctive 
are by no means constant : therefore the Algero-Tunisian form can, 
in my opinion, not be specifically separated from the European. 

From snout to vent 165 millim. 

Algeria, Tunis. 

rt, h, c-d. (5 , bgr., & vg. Algeria. 

c,/. J$. ' Tunis. Mr. Eraser [C.]. 

g.' 5 . Sahara. Canon Tristram [C.]. 

Yar. tangitana. (Plate III. fig. 1.) 

Occipital still smaller than in var. pater, in every respect per- 
fectly similar to that of L. viridis, var. schreiberi, i. e. not or but 
little broader than the interparietal. Ventrals also absolutely the 



14 LACERTID^. 

same as in the latter form, the number of longitudinal series varying 
from six to eight. Dorsal scales feebly but distinctly keeled, 80 
to 100 across the middle of the body. Femoral pores 17 to 19. 
Green above, with light ocelli disposed as in L. ocellata. 

From snout to vent 13S millim. 

Morocco. 

a-f. (S Si, yg. Tangiers. M. H. Vaucher [C.]. 



3. Lacerta viridis. 

Lacerta viridis, Gray, Cat. p. 31. 
Seps viridis, Laur. Si/n. Kept. p. G2. 
Lacerta europasa, part., Pallas, Zooi/r. Boss.-As. iii. p. 29. 

viridis, Duvi. ^- Bih: v. p. 210; Schreih. Herp, Eur.^.^Al; 

Bedriagu, Ahh. Senckcnb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 62. 

Head moderate ; snout moderately long, obtuse. Rostral usually 
touching or entering the nostril ; normally two regularly supeiposed 
postnasals and four upper labials anterior to the subocular ; a series 
of granules may be present between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries ; occipital narrower than the frontal ; temples covered with 
flat scales ; two large temporal shields in contact with the parietal. 
Gular fold usually distinct ; 16 to 25 gular scales on a line between 
the collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; coUar with serrated 
edge, composed of 7 to 12 plates. Dorsal scales oval-hexagonal 
or rhomboidal, keeled, not or but slightly larger on the sides, where 
two or three correspond to the length of a ventral plate ; 40 to 58 
scales across the middle of the body. Ventral plates in 6 or 8 
longitudinal series, the second series of each side from the median 
ventral line the largest ; 25 to 31 transverse series. Prseanal plate 
bordered by two semicircles of small plates. The hind limb reaches 
between the wrist of the adpressed fore limb and the shoulder. 
Foot, in the female and young, longer than the head. Femoral 
pores 12 to 20. Tail usually about twice as long as head and 
body ; caudal scales keeled, pointed posteriorly. 

Central and Southern Europe ; South-western Asia. 

A, Forma typica. 

Seps sericeus. Law. I. c. p. 01, pi. ii. fig, 5. 

terrestris, Laur. I. c. pi. iii. fig. 1. 

varius, Law. I. c. pi. iii. fig. 2. 

viridis, Laur. I. c. p. 02. 

Lacerta viridis, Dauil. liejjt. iii. p. 144, pi. xxxiv. ; Lichtenst. Verz. 

Doubl. Mus. Berl. p. 92 ; Duges, Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, p. 373 ; 

Gachet, Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. vi. 1833, p. 108 ; Eversm. Nour. 

Mem. Soc. Mosc. iii. 1834, p. 339 ; Bonap. Faun. Ital. ; Tschudi, 

Ncue DenJcschr. Alhjem. Sc/nvciz. Naturf. Ges. i. 1837, no. 4, p. 18 ; 

Schulz, Faun. Marcli. p. 447 ; De Betta, Mem. Ace, Verona, xxxv. 

1857, p. 129 ; Fatio, Vert. Suisse, iii. p. 69 ; Leydig, Deutschl. 

Saw. p. 182 ; De Betta, Faun. Ital, Beit. Anf. p. 25 ; Lataste, 



4. L.VCERTA. 15 

Ilerp. Gir. p. 83 ; Cameraiio, Mon. Savr. Hal. p. 72, and Boll. 

Mtis. Torin. i. 188G, no. 11. 
Lacerta biliiieata, Daud. I. c. p. 1-j2, pi. xxxv. lig'. 1. 

sericea, Daud. I. c. p. '2'2-l, 

cbloronota, Rafin. Caratt. ale. n. Gen. Anim. p. 7. 

variiis, M.-Ed'w. Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 182U, pp.__44, 8;3. 

elegans, AndrzeJ. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. ii. 1832, p. 328. 

smaragdina, Meisner, Mas. Nat. Ilelv. i. pi. 4, pi. vi. 

cyanoloema, GUickscUy, Lotos, 1851, p. 111. 

viridis, vars. concolor, punctata, part., and maculata, Bedriaya, 

Ahh. Senek. Ges. t. c. 

Granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries often 
abs(;nt ; occipital usually very small ; usually a distinct masseteric 
plate but no tympanic. 42 to 50 scales across the middle of the 
body, the laterals a little larger than the median dorsals. Usually 
only 6 longitudinal rows of ventrals. Femoral pores 13 to 18. 
Young brown or green above, with one or two more or less distinct 
yellowish lateral streaks, which may persist in the adult female. 
Adult green above, uniform or dotted or spotted with black, or blackish- 
olive speckled with green ; lower surfaces yellow, uniform ; throat 
usually blue, especially in the males. 

d. ?• 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 400 355 

Head 28 24 

Width of head 18 15 

From end of snout to fore limb . . 43 42 

From end of snout to vent 110 120 

ForeHmb 3G 39 

Hind limb 64 64 

Tail 290 235 

Italy, France, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Russia. 

a. Many specs., c?, Jersey. 

b-c. 2 • St. Malo. G. A. Boulenger, Esq. [P.]. 

d-e. 2 & yg. Cadillac, Gu'onde. M. F. Lataste [P.]. 

f-k. 6 2'" Prague. 

V;j. d , $ , & yg. Verona. M. E. de Betta [P.]. 

y. Many specs., d $• Turin. Prof. Bonelli [P.]. 

r. 2 ■ Turin. Lord A. Russell [P.]. 

s. Yg. Geneva. Hr. Jeitteles [0.]. 

t. d. Perugia. W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. [P.], 

u. Yg. Elba. W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. [P.]. 

v-iv. 2 • Lecce. Florence Museum [E.]. 

x-z. (S • Modica, Sicily. Florence Museum [E.^. 

a-/3. cS 2 • Cattaro, Dalmatia. Florence Museum [E.J. 

B. Var. schreiheri. 

Lacerta agilis, vars, b, c, Sehreiber, I. c. p. 434. 

schreiberi, Bedriacja, Arch. f. Nat. 1878, p. 299, pi. x. fig. 3} 

Seoane, Ident. de Lac. Schreiberi y L. Gadovii, 1885. 



16 



LACERnD^. 



Lacerta viridis, Boettger, Zeitschr. Ges, Natunv. (S) iv. ]879, p. 505. 

, var. gadovii, Bouleng. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1884, p. 438, 

pi. xxxviii. ; Bedviaga, Ahh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 74. 
, vai'. schreiberi, Bcdriaya, I. c. p. 76. 

Approaching L. ocellata. Granules between the supraoculars aud 
the supraciliaries usually reduced to three or four ; occipital ratlier 
large, usually broader than the interparietal ; no distinct tympanic 
shield. Dorsal scales smaller, less distinctly hexagonal, less strongly 
keeled tlian in the typical form ; 52 to 58 scales across the middle 
of the body ; lateral scales larger than median dorsals. Usually 
8 well-developed rows of ventrals. Femoral pores 12 to 17, usually 
18 or 14. Young olive or brownish above, with large yellow or 
bluish-white, black-edged ocelli on the sides of the head and body. 
These ocelli often disappear in the adult, which are green or brown 
above, variously spotted or reticulated with black. Lower surfaces 
yellowish, immaculate in the young, often with round black spots 
in the adult. Throat blue in the adult. 

^- .?• 

millim. millim. 

Total length 260 287 

Head 23 22 

Width of head 16 15 

From end of snout to fore limb . . 36 36 

From end of snout to vent 90 97 

Fore limb 30 33 

Hind limb 46 47 

Tail 170 190 

Spain and Portugal. 

a-f. S & yg- Coruna. M. V. L. Seoane [P.]. 

g-i, k-m. J , $ , Serra de Gerez. Dr. H. Gadow [C.]. 

hgr., & yg. 
n. 2 ■ Coimbra. Dr. H. Gadow [C.]. 

o-r. J , 2 , & yg. Serra de Mouchique, Algarve. Dr. H. Gadow [C.J. 

(Types of var. gadovii.) 

C. Var. major. 

Lacerta viridis, Bibr. ^- Bcmj de St. Vine. Exited. Sc. Morce, Zool. 

p. 06, pi. X. fig. 1 ; Bedriaga, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1881, p. 74. 

quinquevittata (nan Men.), Erhard, Faun. Cyel. i. p. 80. 

Tropidosaura algira {non i.), Erhard, I. c. 

Lacerta viridis, vars. punctata et trilineata, part., Bedriaga, Abh. 

Senckenb. Ges. t. c. 

K larger form, attaining nearly to the size of L. ocellata. Con- 
stantly a series of granules between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries ; occipital usually as broad as or a little broader but shorter 
than the interparietal ; temporal scales smaller than in the typical 
form usually with a very distinct tympanic shield, 50 to 58 scales 
across the middle of the body, the laterals not larger than the 



4. LACERTA. 17 

median dorsals. Usually a well-developed additional series of 
ventrals, making in all eight longitudinal rows. Pemoral pores 15 
to 20. Young olive above, usually with three or five yellowish 
longitudinal streaks, the lowermost of which, extending from axilla 
to groin, is often replaced by a series of round spots. These bands 
usually disappearing in the adult, which are green on the body and 
limbs, uniform or tiuely speckled with black ; upper surface of head 
verraiculated with black ; lower surfaces yellow, the outer ventrals 
often speckled with black ; throat never blue. 

A- 2. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 415 350 

Head 36 2f) 

Width of head 27 17 

From end of snout to fore limb . . 62 42 

From end of snout to vent 155 115 

Fore limb 49 37 

Hind limb 83 61 

Tail 260 235 

Dalmatia, Turkey, Greece, Asia Minor. 

a. c? . Dalmatia. Dr. Heckel. 

b-c. cJ. Greece. 

d. 2 ■ Svra (?). 

e-f. c? & hgr. Rhodes. C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.]. 

ff, h-m. $ & yg. Crete. Baron v. Maltzan [C.]. 

n. c?. Asia Minor. C. Fellows, Esq. [P.]. 

o-r. Yg. Smvnia. 

s. (S- ZebilBulgar Dagh, Cili- C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.]. 
cian Taurus, 4000 feet. 



I 



D. Yar. strigata. 

Lacerta strigata, Gray, Cat. p. 32. 
Lacerta strigata, JEichiv. Zool. Spec. Ross. Pol. iii. p. 189, and Faun. 

Casp.-Cauc. p. 70, pi. x. figs. 4-6; Anders. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, 

p. 372 ; Blanf. Zool. E. Pers. p. 364. 

quinquevittata, Menetr. Cat. Pais. p. 61. 

viridis, Kessler, Tr. St. Petersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 1878, p. 146 ; 

Boettg. Ber. Seyickenh. Ges. 1879-80, p. 170, and in Radde, Faun. 

Flor. Casj). Geb. p. 39. 
, var. strigata, Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. t. c, 

p. 91. 

Size moderate. A series of granules between the supraoculars 
and the supraciliaries ; occipital small, much shorter than the 
interparietal ; tympanic shield distinct. 40 to 48 scales across 
the middle of the body ; dorsals strongly keeled. Only six longi- 
tudinal rows of ventrals. Femoral pores 16 to 20. Young 
greenish or olive, spotted or marbled with black, and with three or 
five light dorsal streaks, which may disappear completely in the adult ; 
these may be closely dotted with black, as certain specimens of the 

VOL. III. c 



18 



LACERTID^. 



typical form and of var. C ; belly yellowish, often dotted with black 
on the sides. 

milliin. uiillim. 

Total length 395 266 

Head 29 19 

Width of head 21 13 

From end of snout to fore limb . 50 31 

From end of snout to vent .... 125 89 

Fore limb 42 28 

Hind limb 71 45 

Tail 270 177 



Transcaucasia, Persia, Asia Minor, Syria. 



a. $ . Elisabethpol. 

b. Yg. Jerusalem. 
c-d. (5". Merom. 

e-f. Hgr. Lake Phiala, under 

Momit Hermon. 

ff. J. Eastern slope of 

Mount Hermon. 



St. Petersburg Mus._[E.], 
Canon Tristram [C." 
Canon Tristram [C.' 
Canon Tristram [C' 

Dr. J. Anderson [P.]. 



Bedriaga (Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 100) distinguishes 
also a var. vaillanti from Persia ('?). 



4. Lacerta princeps. 

Lacerta princeps, Blanf. Ann. Sf- Mag. N. H. (4) xiv. 1874, p. 31, and 
Zool. E. Persia, p. 364, pi. xxiv. ; Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. 
xiv. 1886, p. 123. 

General proportions as in L. viridis. Rostral touching the nostril ; 
two regularly superposed postnasals ; an anterior loreal, in contact 
with the frontonasal ; a few granules between the supraoculars and 
the supraciliaries ; occipital nearly as long as, and much broader than, 
the interparietal, as broad as the frontal ; temples covered with flat 
scales ; two large temporal shields in contact with the parietal ; 
masseteric and tympanic shields distinct. Collar with serrated edge, 
composed of seven plates. Scales on the neck above and at the 
sides granular, passing gradually on the shoulders into the sub- 
imbricate, cfiual, rhomboidal, diagonally keeled scales of the back ; 
lateral scales rather smaller than dorsals, not keeled ; about 34 
scales across the middle of the body. Ventral plates in 8 or 10 
longitudinal rows ; 31 transverse rows. Pra;aual plate slightly 
larger than the others. 14 femoral pores. The hind limb, laid 
forwards, extends about four fifths of the distance to the axil. 
Tail more than twice as long as head and body, with all the scales 
keeled. Olivaceous grey above, whitish below ; a few smaU black 
spots on the back and sides of the neck, and a row of three or four 
blue ocelli (those in front double), with black margins, behind, each 
shoidder, extending in a line for a short distance down each side ; 



4. LACERTA. 19 

sides of the head bluish, a tint especially marked on the labials ; 
throat yellow. 

Total length 430 millim. 

Kear Xiriz, cast of Shiraz, Persia. 



5. Lacerta agilis. 

Lacerta agilis, part., Linn. S. N. i. p. .'.?(33 ; Schreih. Ilerp. Eur. p. 433. 

europjca, part., Pallas, Zimjr. lioss.-As. ill. p. 29. 

agilis, Lichtenst. T'erz. Doubl. Mus. Berl. p. U4; Bedriar/a, Abh. 

Senckcnb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 127. 

Habit stouter, snout shorter than in L. vlrkUs. Rostral not 
touching the nostril ; one or two postnasals ; frequently two super- 
posed anterior loreals ; normally four upper labials anterior to the 
subocular ; no granules between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries ; occipital small, shorter and usually narrower than the 
interparietal ; temples covered with flat scales ; two or three large 
temporals in contact with the parietal ; no tympanic. Grular fold 
feebly marked, or absent. 14 to 22 gular scales on a line between 
the collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; collar with serrated 
edge, composed of 7 to 11 plates. Dorsal scales hexagonal, strongly 
keeled, larger on the sides, where they are feebly keeled or smooth : 
two or three lateral scales correspond to the length of a ventral 
plate ; 34 to b2 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral 
plates in 6 or 8 longitudinal series, the second series on each side 
from the 'median ventral line the largest ; 25 to 32 transverse series. 
The hind limb never reaches beyond the elbow of the adpressed 
fore limb. Foot not, or but very slightly, longer than the head. 
Femoral pores 10 to 18. Tail once and a half to once and two 
thirds the length of head and body ; upper caudal scales strongly 
keeled, pointed posteriorly. 

Northern and Central Europe ; "Western Asia. 

A. Forma typica. 

Lacerta agilis, Grai), Cat. p. 32. 

Lacerta agilis, part., Linn. I. c. ; Schulz, Faun. March, p. 448, 

Seps argus, Laur. Si/n. Rept. p. Gl, pi. i. fig. 5. 

ruber, Laur. I. c. p. 62, pi. iii. fig. 3. 

Cferulescens, Laur. I. c. pi. i. fig. 3. 

stellatus, Schrank, Fauna Boica, i. p. 206. 

Lacerta agihs. Wolf, in Sturm, DeutscM. Faun. ; Brandt Sf Ratzeh. 
Med. Zool. pi. xix. fig. 1 ; Bonap. Faun. Ital. ; Tsclmdi, Neue 
Detikschr. Allgem. Schweiz. Naturf. Ges. i. 1837, no. 4, p. 21 ; Bell, 
Brit. Rept. p. 17 ; Leydig, Deidschl. Saur. p. 197. 

stirpium, Daud. Rept. iii. p. 155, pi. xxxv. fig. 2 ; M.-Edxo. Ann. 

Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, pp. 65, 83 ; L>uges, Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, 
p. 377 ; Jeni/?i3, Man. Brit. VeH. p. 291 ; J>w?n. ^- Bibr. v. p. 196 ; 
Fatio, Vert. Suisse, iii. p. 75. 

laurentii, Daud. I. c.^. 227. 

c2 



20 LACERTID^. 

Lacerta arenicola, Daud. I. c. p. 230, pi. xxxviii. fi<r. 2. 

anfruifoniiis, Sheppard, Trans. Linn. Soc. vii. Ib04, p. 51. 

apilis, var. ervthronotus, T^^yc;'/;//. N. Classif. Rept. p. 51. 

sericea, Gliickselig, Lotos, 1851, p. 11-3. 

agilis, var. ischliensis, Bedricuja, Enst. d. Farh. h. d. Eidechs. 

1874, p. 18. 
, vars. tvpica et rubra, Bedriaga, Ahh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 

1880, pp. 139, 144. 

Usually a single postnasal and two superposed anterior loreals, 
the three shields forming a triangle. Median dorsal scales very 
narrow, sharply diflerentiated from the broader laterals ; 34 to 
4G scales across tbc middle of the body. Usually a single semi- 
circle of scales bordering the anul, none of which are much enlarged. 
Young greyish-brown above, with longitudinal series of white, 
black-edged ocelli : no light vertebral streak; lower surfaces whitish, 
immacuhitc. Adult female brown or greyish above, the vertebral 
zone darker than the sides of the back, with large dark brown 
spots with a central white shaft or round spot ; usually the larger 
spots form three longitudinal series on the body ; belly cream- 
coloured, with or without black spots. Male, during the breeding- 
season, green on the sides and lower surfaces, rarely also on the 
hack ; sides black-dotted, usually with lighter ocelli ; lower surfaces 
more or less abundantly spotted with black. A form {L. rubra : 
specs, q, v-iv) is distinguished by the unspotted reddish-brown or 
brick-red back. 

millim. milHm. 

Total length 206 212 

Head 20 18 

Width of head 14 12 

From end of snout to fore limb . 29 27 

Prom end of snout to vent .... 78 87 

Fore limb 21 25 

Hind limb 31 34 

Tail 128 125 

South of England, Northern, Central, and Eastern France, Belgium, 
Holland, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Russia. 

a-b. c? 2 . Poole Heath. W. Thompson, Esq. [P.]. 

c-d. S • Bournemouth. G. A. Boulenger, Esq. [P]. 

e-g^ h. (^ 2- liingwood. F. Bond, Esq. [P.]. 

i-o. c? , 2 , & yg. Diisseldorf. W. F. Kirby, Esq. [P.]. 

p, q. Many specs. : Berlin. G. A. Boulenger, Esq. [P.]. 

c?,$,'hgr., &yg. 

r-«, v-xo. S 2 . Dresden. G. A. Boulenger, Esq. [P.]. 

X. Several specs. : J $ . Prngue. 

y. c? • Transylvania. C. G. Danford and J. A. II. 

Brown, Esqrs. [P.]. 

s-)3. (^ . luev. St. Petersburg Mus. [E.]. 



i 



4. lACEEXA. 21 

B. Var. exigua. 

Nucras ? exipua, Cray, Cat. p. 34. 
Lacerta agilis. Lkht. in Ercrsm. lieise, p. 140 j Eversm. Nouv. M&m. 

Soc. Nut. Mosc. iii. 1834. p. 341. 

exigiia, EicJnc. Zonl. Spec. iii. p. 188. 

chersonensis, Andrzcj. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. ii. 1832, 

p. 327. 

svlvicola. Eversm. I. c. p. 344, pi. xxxi. fig. 3. 

viridis, Eafhke, Mim. Sav. Etr. Ac. tSt. Ee'tcrsh. iii. 1837, p. 209. 

stirpium, Eichtv. Eaun. Casp.-Cauc. p. 67. 

Zootoca exigiia, EicJnc. I. c. p. 71, pi. x. figs. 1-3. 

Lacerta agilis, var. dilepis, Lichtenst. Nomencl. Rept. Mus. Berol. 

p. 14 '. 
doniensis, Bedriaga^ Entsieh. d. Farh. b. d. Eidechsen, 1874, 

p. 14. 
aoilis, Tar. orientalis, Kessler, Tr. St. Petersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 

1878j'p. 150. 
, vars. chersonensis et doniensis, Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. 

Ges. xiv. 1886, pp. 146, 151. 
paradoxa, Bedriaga, I. c. p. 170 *. 

The shields behind the nostril very variable : frequently two 

superposed postnasals ; anterior loreal sometimes absent. Median 

dorsal scales often graduating into the laterals ; 36 to 52 scales 

across the middle of the body. Tvro semicircles of scales border 

the praeanal ; two scales in front of the latter shield often much 

enlarged ; the distance between the anterior femoral pores and 

the praeanal usually equals or exceeds the length of that shield. 

Young usually with three well-marked light longitudinal streaks 

along the back, and series of whitish ocelli on the sides ; some 

specimens uniform olive-green : lower surfaces whitish, unspotted. 

The dorsal streaks of the young constantly persist in the adult 

female, and usually at least traces of them are seen in the 

males. Pemale brown above, usually with two series of large 

dark-brown spots on the back and more or less distinct ocelli on 

the sides ; lower surfaces uniform yellowish white or scantily 

spotted with black. Male frequently entirely green above, dotted 

or spotted with black, with or without white ocelli on the sides ; 

lower surfaces greenish, black-spotted. 

6- 2: 

miUim. milliir. 

Total length 243 218 

Head 21 19 

Width of head 16 14 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 34 30 

From end of snout to vent 91 90 

Fore limb 31 26 

Hind limb 40 35 

Tail 352 128 

Eussia, "Western Siberia, Central Asia, Caucasus. 
* Types examined. 



22 



LACERTID-^. 



a-b. d&yg- 
c-d. S- 
c. $. 

/-<7- 6 & yg. 
A. d. 

& yg. 
«-o. 5 . 
p. 2- 

q-r. 2 & jg. 
s. d. 

<. d- 

u-v. 5 & yg. 

tt^. Yg. 

x-y. $ & ligr. 

& hgr. 
i-v. 6 $ . 

p-(T. 6- 

r~x- <s ^ ys- 



Kharkov. 

Saratov. 

Astrachan. 

Dongiis, near Orenburg. 

Ural. 

Siikum Kaleh. 

Tomsk. 

Minussinsk, Yeniseisk. 

Arcatberge. 

Kirgliiz Steppes. 

River Ilek. 

liiver Kungess, S. of 

Kulja. 
Upper Hi. 
Altyn-]']mel, between 

Kopal and Wernoje. 
Lepsinskaja Staniza. 

Yelenowka, Lake Gok- 

scha. 
Lepsa, Ala Tau. 
Ala Tau. 
Between Semipolatinsk 

and Ajagus. 



St. Petersburg Mus. 
St. Petersburg Mus. 
St. Petersburg Mus. 
St. Petersburg Mus. 
St. Petersburg Mus. 
St. Petersburg Mus. 



St. Petersburg Mus. [E.I. 
St. Petersburg INIus. [E.]. 
Geogriiph. See. of Ikemen. 
St. Petersburg Mus. [E.]. 
St. Petersburg Mus. [E.J. 
St. Petersburg Mus. [E.]. 

St. Petersburg Mus. [E.l. 
St. Petersburg Mus. [E.J. 

St. Petersburg Mus. [E.]. 

St. Petersburg Mus. [E.]. 

Geograpb. Soc. of Bremen. 
St. Petersburg Mus. [E.]. 
St. Petersbui-g Mus. [E.]. 



6. Lacerta parva. (Plate I. fig. 1.) 

Lacerta, sp., Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. siv. 1886, p. 148 (foot- 
note). 

Head small, as long as the distance between the extremity of the 
fourth toe and the base of the fifth ; snout moderate, obtuse. Eostral 
not touching the nostril ; two regularly superposed postnasals ; a 
single anterior loreal in contact with the frontonasal ; four upper 
labials anterior to the subociilar ; a series of granules between the 
supraoculars and the supraciliarics ; occipital much shorter and 
slightly broader than the interpaiictal ; temples covered with very 
■unecjual scales ; masseteric and tympanic shields distinct, large ; 
outer edge of the parietal bordeicd by a large upper temporal and 
four granular scales. Gular fold well marked ; 20 gular scales 
on a line between the collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; 
collar with serrated edge, composed of eight plates. Dorsal scales 
rhomboidal, juxtaposed, strongly keeled ; lateral scales slightly 
larger than dorsals, smooth, two corresponding to the length of a 
ventral plate ; 38 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral 
plates in six (or eight when reckoning the marginals) longitu- 
dinal series ; the second series on each side from the median 
ventral line much the largest; 31 transverse series. Pra^anal 
plate bordered by two semicircles of small plates. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Femoral pores 17. 
Tail about once and a half the length of head and body ; caudal 
scales strongly keeled, pointed posteriorly. Olive-brown above, 
with four series of squarish dark-brown spots edged above and 



4, LACKRTA. 23 

below with whitish; vertebral zone lip:bter broAvii, unspotted ; tlio 
lateral squarish spots Avith a central white dot ; a whitish lateral 
streak, extending: from the upper lip, through the ear, to the groin ; 
lower surfaces uniform jellowish white. 

uiilliin. millim. 

Total length 130 From end of snout 

Head 11 to vent 53 

AVidtli of head 7'5 Fore limb 17 

From end of snout Hind limb 25 

to fore limb 19 Tail 83 

Distinguished from L. viridis and L. agilis by the smaller size (I 
regard the unique specimen as adult). From L. viridis by the smaller 
head, the shorter tail, the coloration, &c. ; from L. agilis by the 
smaller and proportionally longer head, the longer foot, the presence 
of a series of granules between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliarics. the coloration, «S:c. 

Asia Minor. 
a. $ , Kaisarieh, C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.], 

7. Lacerta vivipara. 

Zootoca vivipara, Gray, Cat. p. 27. 
Lacerta agilis, part., Lirm. S. N. i. p. 3G3 ; Schtik, Faun. March. 

p. 448. 
■ vivipara, Jacquin, Nov. Act. Hehet. i. 1787, p. '33, pi. i. ; Rei- 

chenh. Isis, 1837, p. 511 : Bum. i^- Bihr. v. p. 204 ; Fatio, Vert. 

Suisse, iii. p. 81 ; Lei/dif/, Deutschl. Saur. p. 212 ; Schreih. Herp. 

Eur. p. 429 ; Lataste, Herp. Gir. p. 77 ; Camerano, Mon. Saur. 

Ital. p. 82; Bedrioyu, Ahh. Sencke7ib. Ges. xiv. 188G, p. 338. 
agilis, Sheppard, Trans. Linn. Soc. vii. 1804, p. 49 ; Jenyns, 

Man. Brit. Vert. p. 292. 

(sdura, Sheppai-d, I. c. p. 50. 

crocea, fVolf, in Sturm's Deutschl. Faun. ; Eversm. Noiiv. Mem. 

Soc. Nat. Mosc. iii. 1834, p. 347, pi. xxxi. tigs. 1, 2, 

nigra, Wolf, 1. c. 

montana, Mdcan, in Sturni's Betitschl. Faun. 

pvrrhogaster, 3Ierr. Tent. p. 67. 

muralis, part., Lichtenst. Verz, Douhl. Mus. Bcrl. p. 92. 

sclireibersiaua, M.-Edw. Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, pp. 68, 83 ; 

Gachet, Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. v. 1832, p. 233. 
Zootoca vivipara, Wayl. Syst. Amph. p. 155 ; Bonap. Faun. Ltal. ; 

Bell, Brit. Rept. p. 32; L)e Betta, Mem. Ace. Verona, xxxv. 1857, 

p 139, and Faun. Ltal, Rett. Anf. p. 22 ; Lessona, Atti Ace. Tor. 

xvi. 1879, p. 1135. 
Lacerta chrysogastra, AndrzrJ. N. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. (2) ii. 1832, 

p. 325. 
Zootoca jacquin, Cocteau, Mag. Zool. 1835, R£pt. pi. ix. 

guerin, Cocteau, I. c. 

pyrrhogastra, Tschiidi, Neue Denhschr. Ally. Schweiz. Naturf. 

Ges. i. 1837, no. 4, p. 27. 

montaua, Tschudi, I. c. p. 31. 

crocea, Gliickseliy, Lotas, 1851, p. 1.36. 

Atropis nigra, Gliicks. I. c. p. 138. 



24 LACEETIT).E. 

Head small ; snout moderate, obtuse. Eostral not touching the 
nostril ; normally a single postnasal, a single anterior lorcal, in 
contact with the frontonasal, and four upper labials anterior to the 
subocular ; no granules between the supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries ; occipital small, usually smaller than the interparietal ; 
temple covered with irregular flat scales, among which a masseteric 
is often and a tympanic constantly distinct. Gular fold feebly 
marked, or absent. 1-1 to 21 gular scales on a line between the 
collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; collar with serrated edge, 
composed of 7 or 9 plates. Dorsal scales hexagonal, longer than 
broad, more or less distinctly keeled, not or but slightly imbricate, 
somewhat smaller than the laterals, which are smooth ; nuchal scales 
roundish, smooth or nearly so ; two lateral scales correspond to the 
length of a ventral plate ; 26 to 37 scales across the middle of the 
body. Ventral plates in (5 or 8 longitudinal series, the second series 
on each side from the median ventral line the largest; 24 to 30 
transverse series. Two semicircles of scales border the pra^anal 
shield. The adpressed limbs meet, or the hind limb reaches the 
wrist or the elbow. Foot usually longer than the head. Femoral 
pores 7 to 13. Tail thick, once and two fifths to once and 
two thirds as long as head and body ; caudal scales large, upper 
strongly keeled and pointed posteriorly. Brown, yellowish, or red- 
dish above in the adult, with small darker and lighter spots ; fre- 
quently a blackish vertebral streak and a dark lateral band edged 
with yellowish ; lower surfaces orange or vermilion in the male, 
largely spotted with black ; yellow or pale orange in the female, 
immaculate or scantily spotted with black. Newly-born young 
almost black, which coloration sometimes persists in the adult 
(specs, e, T-v). 

millim. millim. 

Total length 151 178 

Head 12 12 . 

Width of head 9 9 

From end of snout to fore limb 19 23 

From end of snout to vent 53 73 

Fore limb 17 18 

Hind limb 24 25 

Tail 98 105 

Northern and Central Europe ; Northern Asia. 

a-(J. d)2}^y§- Scotland. Dr. Johnston [P.], 

e. 5 . Eastbourne. J. Hopley, Esq. [P.]. 

/, c?. Near Petersfield. Mrs. Mowatt [P.J. 

fff h-m. 5 & yg. Ringwood. F. Bond, E.^q. [P.]. 

n-p. (5- Bournemouth. G. A. Bouleuger, Esq. [P.]. 

q-r. J 5 . Poole Heath. W, Thompson, Esq. [P.]. 

s. (5'. Cheltenham. 

t-u. Hgr. Falmouth. W. C. Cocks, Esq. [P.]. 



r. 


6. 


tv 


2. 


a- 


-tj. UgT. & yg 


=- 


a. $. 


0. 


d. 


y- 


-e. 2. 


C 


?. 


V- 


-^. 6 2- 


t. 


$. 


K. 


?• 


X. 


$• 


M- 


-f. d?- 


f 


$• 


o. 


$. 


IT 


?. 


P- 


-cr. 2. 


T- 


-V. $. 



4. LACEllTA. 25 

England. 

Co. Meatli, Ireland. ' Field ' Office. 

Near St. .Malo. G. A. Houlenger, Esq. [P.]. 

Dunes of lleyst s. G. A. Bouleuger, Esq. [P.J. 

M., IVlgium. 

Borgo, 8. Tvrol. Florence ^Museum [E.]. 

Near lierlin. G. A. Boulenger, Esq. [P.]. 

Sweden. C. J. A. Thuden, Esq. [P.J. 

Esthouia. St. Petersburg Museum [I*].]. 

St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg Museum [E.], 

Solowetzki Island, St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 

White Sea. 

Uralsk. St. Petersburg Museum [E.' 

Kirghiz Steppes. St. Petersburg Museum [E, 

Padun, River Angara. St. Petersburg Museum [E, 

Stanowoi Mts., E. St. Petersburg Museum [E. 

Siberia. 

Nicolawsk, Amoor. St. Petersburg Museum [E.J 

Sashalien Island. St. Petersburg Museum [E. 1 



8. Lacerta praticola. 

Lacerta praticola, Eversm. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. iii. 1834, 
p. 345, pi. XXX. fig. 2 ; Kessler, Tr. St. Petersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 
1878, p. 156; Boettcjer, in Radcle, Faun. Flor. Casp. Geb. p. 36; 
Bedriaga, Abk. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 188G, p. 3G7. 

Head moderate, snout moderate, obtuse. Rostral not touching 
the nostril ; one, rarely two postnasals ; a single anterior loreal ; 
four upper labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules 
between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital shorter 
and a little broader than the interparietal ; temple covered with 
scales of very unequal size ; two or three upper temporals border 
the parietal, and the masseteric and tympanic are distinct and large. 
No gular fold; 15 to 17 gnlar scales on a line between the collar 
and the third pair of chin-shields ; collar with serrated edge, com- 
posed of 6 or 7 plates. Dorsal scales hexagonal, longer than broad, 
strongly and diagonally keeled, slightly imbricate ; lateral scales 
keeled, smaller than dorsals, alternately two and three corresponding 
to the length of a ventral plate ; 37 to 40 scales across the middle 
of the body. Yentrals in six longitudinal series, the second series 
on each side from the median ventral line the largest ; 25 or 26 
transverse series. Pra?anal shield large, bordered by a single series 
of small scales. The hind limb reaches the axilla. Foot a little 
longer than the head. Femoral pores 9 to 12. Tail about twice as 
long as head and body ; upper caudal scales strongly keeled, pointed 
posteriorly. Olive above, with small blackish dots and a broad dark- 
brown lateral band edged inferiorly, at least from the eye to the 
shoulder, by a whitish, black-edged streak ; this streak usually 
distinct along the side of the tail ; lower surfaces uniform greenish 
white. 



26 LACEETID^. 

milliin. millim. 

Total length 118 From end of snout 

Head 10 to vent 41 

Width of head .... 6-5 Fore limb 14 



From end of snout to Hind limb 22 

fore limb 16 Tail 77 



/-»-* 



Cis- and Transcaucasia. 
a-e. J & hgr. Sukum Kaleh. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 

9. Lacerta taurica. 

Zootoca taurica, part., Gray, Cat. p. 29. 
Lacerta taurica, Pallas, Zooyr. lioss.-As. iii. p. 30; Jtathke, Mem. 

Sav. Etr. Ac. St. Tetersh. iii. 1837, p. 302, pi. ii. figs. 1-4 ; Demiduf, 

Vol/. Puss. Mer. iii. p. 337, pi. i. figs. 1,2; Kessler, Tr. St. Petersb. 

Nat. Soc. viii. 1878, p. 163; Boulenq. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 740; 

Beilria(ja, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 320, pi. — . fig. 28. 
taurica, part., Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 225 ; Schreib. Herp. Eur. 

p. 41! t. 
Podarcis taurica, Bonap. Faun. Ital. 

Head moderate ; snout moderate, obtuse. Eostral touching the 
Dostril ; a single postnasal ; a single anterior loreal ; four upper 
labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between the 
supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital nearly as broad as and 
shorter than the interparietal ; temple covered with moderate-sized 
irregular scales ; tympanic and usually also masseteric shields dis- 
tinct. Gular fold distinct. 21 to 23 gular scales on a line between 
the collar and the third pair of chin-shields; collar with serrated 
edge, composed of 7 or 9 plates. Dorsal scales small, oval-hexa- 
gonal, juxtaposed, keeled ; lateral scales larger, smooth, two or three 
corresponding to the length of a ventral plate ; 50 to 55 scales across 
the middle of the body. Yentrals in 6 or 8 longitudinal series, 
the second series on each side from the median line the largest ; 
28 to 33 transverse series. Pra?anal shield bordered by two or three 
semicircles of smaller scales ; usually an enlarged shield in front of 
the prseanal. The hind limb reaches between the elbow and 
the shoulder. Foot longer than the head. Femoral pores 17 
to 20 (15 to 22). Tail once and two thirds to once and three 
fourths the length of head and body ; upper caudal scales strongly- 
keeled, pointed posteriorly. Vertebral zone and flanks green ; 
dorso-lateral regions brownish, with large black spots and a light 
streak extending from the outer edge of the parietal ; another, 
more or less distinct, light streak from ear to groin ; lower surfaces 
uniform whitish. 



4. LACERTA. 27 

c?. 9. 

niillini. luilliin. 

Total length 154 ITo 

Head U 14 

Width of head 9-5 9 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 22 23 

From end of snout to vent 56 ()<5 

Fore limb 20 20 

Ilind limb 32 32 

Tail 98 107 

Crimea, Balkan peninsula, island of Tino. 

a. 2- Crimea. St. Petersburg Mus. [E.]. 

b-c. 2 & hgi"- Sebastopol. St. Petersburg Mus. [E.J. 

d. (S . Constautiaople. 



10. Lacerta peloponnesiaca. 

Lacerta peloponnesiaca, Bibr. in Bory cle St. Vine. Exped. Sc. Mor., 
Sept. p. (5(5, pi. X. fig. 4; Bcdriac/a, Zool. Anz. 1883, p. 216, and 
AbJi. Senchenb. Ges. xiv. 1880, p. 315, pi. — . fig. 13. 

muralis (no?i Lanr.), Bibr. I. c. figs. 2, 3. 

taurica, part., Bum. i^- Bibr. v. p. 225 ; Schreib. Herp. Eur. 

p. 419. 

Podareis taurica, De Betta, Rett, ed Anf. d. Gracia, p. 35. 

Lacerta taurica, var. peloponnesiaca, rathliei, et maculata, Bedriaga, 
Bull. Soc. JS^at. Mosc. 1881, p. 83. 

Snout moderately long, obtuse. Eostral entering the nostril ; one 
or two postnasals ; usually four upper labials anterior to the sub- 
ocular ; supraoculars in contact with the supraciliaries ; occipital 
(usually) smaller than the interparietal ; temple covered with large 
flat scales ; masseteric, supratemporal, and tympanic shields dis- 
tinct. Gular fold indicated (or absent) : gular scales small, 28 
to 32 on a line between the collar and the third pair of chin- 
shields; collar even-edged, with 11 or 13 plates. Dorsal scales 
small, convex, smooth, roundish, juxtaposed, not smaller on the 
sides, wbere three correspond to the length of a ventral plate ; 
54 to 57 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral plates 
broader than long, in six longitudinal series, the median pair 
a little narrower than the others ; 28 to 32 transverse series ; 
additional lateral plates very small. Prajanal plate bordered by 
two semicircles of small plates. The hind limb reaches the collar 
in the male, the shoulder in the female. Scales on upper surface 
of tibia a little smaller than dorsals, smooth. Femoral pores 21 
or 22 (18 to 22). Tail at least twice as long as head and body ; 
caudal scales truncate, upper moderately keeled. Greenish above, 
with blackish spots or longitudinal streaks (or blackish, with whitish 
longitudinal streaks) ; lower surfaces whitish, immaculate. 



28 laceetidjE. 

6. .$.. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 153 182 

Head 19 16 

AVidth of head 13 10 

From end of snout to fore limb. ... 29 28 

From end of snout to vent 7G 77 

Fore limb 2G 24 

Hind limb 46 41 

Tail (reproduced) 77 105 

Greece; Crete. 

a-b. cJ 2 • Mor^a. Dr. J. v. Bedriaga [E.]. 



11. Lacerta muralis. 

Zootoca muralis, Ora;/, Cat. p. 28. 
Seps muralis, Laur. Syyi. Kept. p. (51, pi. i. tig. 4. 
Lacerta muralis, Lichtenst. Verz. Duuhl. Mvs. Berl. p. 92 ; M.-Edw. 

Ann. Sc. Kat. xvi. 1829, pp. 67, 84 ; Duges, t. c. p. 380 ; Dvin. 

Sc Bibr. V. p. 228; Schreih. Herp. Eur. p. 408 ; Bedriaqa, Arch. f. 

Nat. 1878, p. 259, aud 1879, p. 243, and Bidl. Soc. Zool France, 

1879, p. 194, pi. ix., and Bidl. Soc. Nat. Mose. 1881, p. 95, and 

Abh. SencJxcnb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 176. 
Podarcis muralis, Wagl. Syst. Amph. p. 155; Bonap. Faun. Ital; 

De Betta, Atti Ace. Ver. xxxv. 1857, p. 147, and Faun. Ital., Rett. 

Anf. p. 28, and Atti 1st. Ten. (5) iv. 1878, p. 889, and v. 1879, 

p. 387. 

Head rather long, more or less depressed. Eostral not entering 
the nostril ; normally a single postnasal and four upper labials 
anterior to the subocular (often five anterior labials in vars. Jiis- 
fcinica and heclriagcp); a series of granules between the supra- 
oculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital small or moderate ; temple 
granular, usually with distinct masseteric and tympanic plates. 
Gular fold more or less distinct ; 20 to 35 gular scales on a 
line between the collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; collar 
oven-edged or, rarely, slightly serrated, composed of 9 to 11 
plates. Dorsal scales granular, smooth or feebly keeled, laterals 
a slarge or a little smaller ; 40 to 80 scales across the middle of 
the body ; three to five lateral scales correspond to the length of a 
ventral plate. Ycntrals sqiiarish, broader than long, in G, rarely 
8, longitudinal, and 25 to 32 transverse series. Pra?anal bordered 
by one or two semicircles of small scales. Limbs rather elongate, 
especially in the males, in which the hind limb reaches the shoulder 
or beyond. Scales on upper surface of tibia smaller than dorsals. 
Femoral pores 13 to 29. Tail usually about twice as long as head 
and body ; caudal scales more or less distinctly keeled, with trun- 
cate or very obtusely pointed posterior border. 

Central and Southern Europe, North-west Africa, Asia Minor, 
Northern Persia, Syria. 



4. LACERTA. 29 

A. Forma typica 

Seps nmralis, Lain: I. c. 

Lacerta muralis, Latr. Rept. i. p. 220 ; Gucr. Icon. R. A., Rept. pi. v. 
fig. 1 ; Strauch, Erp. Ahj. p. 3;3 ; Fatio, Vert. Suisse, iii. p. 92 ; 
Leydig, Deutschl. Simr. p. 22.") ; Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. 361 ; 
Lataste, Ilerp. Gir. p. 71 ; Kessler, Tr. St. Petersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 
1878, p. 1>j2; C'amcrano, Man. Saur. Ital. p. 30. 

maculata, Daud. Rept. iii. p. 208, pi. xx.xvii. fig. 1; Risso, Hist. 

Nat. Eur. Mer. iii. p. S(). 

agilis, Baud. I. c. p. 211, pi. xxxviii. lig. 1 ; Risso, I. c. 

brongniardii, Daud. I. c. p. 221. 

fusca, part., Daud. I. c. p. 237 ; Merr. Tent. p. GG. 

lateralis, Merr. I. c. p. G7. 

merreiuia, Risso, I. c. 

fasciata, Risso, I. c. p. 87. 

saxicola, Ecersm. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. 3Iosc. iii. 1834, p. 349, 

pi. XXX. fig. 1 . 
Podarcis muralis, Tschudi, Neic Denksc/ir. AUgem. Schiociz. Ges. i. 
1837, art. 4, p. 34 ; Massalomjo, Erp. Pop. p. 2o ; Camerano, Atti 
Ace. Torin. xiii. 1877, p. 94. 
Lacerta grammica (tion Licht.), Rafhke, Mem. Sav. Etr. Ac. St. 

Petersb. iii. 1837, p. 303. 
Podarcis defilippii, Camerano, Atti Ace. Tor. xiii. 1877, p. 90, pi. ii. 
Lacerta raeliselleusisi, Br aim, Arb. Zool. Inst. Wiirzb. iv. 1877, p. 49, 
and Zool. Anz. 1886, p. 426. 

portscliinskii, Kessler, Tr. St. Petersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 1878, 

p. 160, pi. i. 

muralis fusca, Bedriaga, Arch.f. Nat. 1878, p. 267. 

muralis, var. defilippii, Boettger, in Radde, Faun. u. Flor. Casp. 

Geb. p. 44. 

The varieties named riibriventris, B])., Jlavive7itris,'MassaX., cuj^rei- 
ventris, Massal., rasqiiineti, Bedr., Jlavinndata, Bedr., Corsica, Bedr., 
7nilensis, Bedr., erhardti, Bedr., persica, Bedr., hocagei, Seoane, &c., 
and the melanotic meliseUcnsis, Braun, should also be grouped under 
the typical form. 

Size comparatively small. Head usually rather strongly de- 
pressed. The hind limb rarely reaches the axilla in the female. 
40 to 65 scales across the middle of the body ; three or four lateral 
scales correspond to the length of a ventral. Upper parts brown or 
greyish, variously spotted, marbled, or streaked with blackish ; lower 
surfaces white, yellow, pink, or red, uniform or (in males) more or 
less largely spotted with black ; outer ventrals frequently blue. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 187 180 

Head 16 13 

Width of head 11 9 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 25 22 

From end of snout to vent 62 62 

Fore limb 23 20 

Hind Hmb 35 30 

TaH 125 118 



30 



LACERTIDiE. 



Central and Southern Europe ; North-western Africa ; Asia Minor 
to Northern Persia. 



a. V. 
b-c. $. 

d. Many specs. : 
6, ?,&hOT. 

e-9- d, $,&hgr- 
h-tn. c^ & yg. 

n. 6. 

0. Yg. 
p-s. (J 5 . 
t-v. S & hgr. 
w. Yg. 

x-ij. S- 
z. $. 
a-S. ? 

<r- ?. 

6. 2. 

1. Several specs. 

O. Yo-. 



p. Several specs. 

62- 



& hgr. 



Lower Ahr. 
St. Malo. 
Eaux-hounes. 

Cor una. 

Serra de Gerez. 

Serra Estrella. 

Oporto. 

Near Lisbon. 

Valencia. 

Spain ? 

Florence. 

Liuosa. 

Corte, Corsica. 

Italy. 

Syra. 

Crimea. 

Riv. Belajan, trib. of 

R. Kuban. 
Elisabethpol. 

Yelenowka, Lake 
Goksclia. 

Tuchetien, Transcau- 
casia. 

Armenia. 

Elburz Mts., north of 
Teheran. 



W. F. Kirby, Esq. [P.]. 
G. A. Boulenger, Esq. [P.]. 
M. Lataste [P.]. 

M. V. L. Seoane [P.]. 
Dr. H. Gadow [C." 
Dr. H. Gadow [C 
Dr. H. Gadow [C. 
H. O. Forbes, Esq.' [P.]. 
Lord Lilford [P.]. 
P. B. Webb, Esq. [P.]. 
Florence Museum [ E.l 
Florence Museum [E.T. 
Florence Museum [E.j. 

Canon Tristram [C.]. 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.T 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.] 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.] 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.] 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.] 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.] 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. [E.]. 



B. Var. hrueggemaniii. 

Laeerta muralis, var. bruggemanni, Bedriaga, Arch. f. Nat. 1879, 
p. 304, pi. xvii. fig. 1. 

Intermediate between the typical form and var. tiJigmrta. Nearer 
the former as regards size and proportions, agreeing with the 
latter in the green ground- colour. Male with undulated black 
cross bands, forming a network on the sides; these markings less 
distinct in the female. Lower surfaces, in the male, whitish, spotted 
with black ; outer row of ventrals entirely blue. 

Total length 180 millim. 

Spezia, Italy. 



C. Var. tiliguerta. 

Laeerta tiliguerta, Gmel. S. N. iii. p. 1070; Baud. Eept. iii. p. 161 ; 

Be Filippi, Nuov. Ann. Sc. Nat. Bologna, (3) v. 1852, p. 69. 
serpa, Bafin. Caratt. ale. n. Gen. Anim. p. 8 ; Camerano, Mon. 

Saw. Hal. p. 56. 

sicula, Bajin. I. e. 

pucciua, Bafin, I. c. 

olivacea, Bajin. I. c. 

Zootoca quadvilineata, Gray, A7in. N. H. i. 1838, p. 279. 



4. I.ACEETA. 31 

? Lacerta hieroglyphica, BeHlwld, Ahh. Gex. Gutting. 1840, p. 52. 

Lacerta podarcis, Vara, Man. Lac. Sard. 1H72. 

niurali3 neapolitana, Bcdriaf/a, L'/ist. d. Farh. h. d. Eidechs. 1874, 

and Arch. f. JSat. 1878, p. 285, and Ball. Soc. Zool. France^ 1870, 

p. 202, pl."ix. fig. 5. 

niuralis, vars., Fimer, Zool. Stad. Capri, ii. 

rodarei.s tiliguerta, Canierano, Atti Ace. Tor. xiii. 1877, p. 87. 
Lacerta taiuica genei, Camer. Mon. 8aur. Ital. p. 49, and Bull. Mus. 

Zool. Tor. i. 188G, no. 7. 

The vars. albiventris, Bp., llneata, Bctta, ccanpestris, Bctta, cettil, 
Cara, genei, Cara, aeralescena, Eimor, doderleini, Betta, latastil, Bedr., 
viridiocellata, Bedr., &c. fall in this division. The melanotic vars. 
ccendea and Jilfolensis, and perhaps also var. archipelugica., Bedr., 
are descendants of the tiVujuerta tjpe. 

Size larger, head usually larger and less depressed, neck thicker 
than in the typical form. Hind limb reaching the axilla in the 
female. 50 to 80 scales across the middle of the body ; as a rule, the 
larger the specimen the more numerous the dorsal scales. Upper 
parts green or greenish, uniform or spotted or marbled with black, 
or with blackish and whitish streaks along the back ; usually a large 
black ocellus with blue centre above the axilla; lower surfaces 
usually immaculate. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 238 203 

Head 20 16 

Width of head ' 13 10 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 30 27 

From end of snout to vent 80 69 

Fore limb 28 22 

Hind limb 45 38 

Tail 158 134 

A large male specimen, with reproduced tail, measures 90 millim. 
from snout to vent. 

Italy, Dalmatia, Greece, islands of the Mediterranean east of the 
Baleares, Tunis, Asia Minor. 

a-c. c? & hgr. Bologna. Prof. J. J. Bianconi [P.]. 

d-f. JO. Florence. Florence Museum [E.]. 

g.'cS. ^ Elba. W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. [P.]. 

h. Hgr. Giglio. Florence Museum [E.l. 

i. (5 , Moutecristo. Florence Museum [E.]. 

k-l. S. Gianuti. Florence Museum [E.J. 

m-n, o-p. S, 2) Rome. W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. [P.l. 

& hgr. 

q-r. S 2 • Ponza. Florence Museum [E. 

s-t. J 2 • Vandotena. Florence Museum [E._ 

u. 2- S. Stefano. Florence Museum [E.]. 

v-z. cT , 2 ; & hgr. Pompei. Florence Museum [E.]. 

a-e. cS 2 • Pompei. E. N. Smith, Esq. [P-]. 

^. § . Ischia. Florence Museum [E.J. 



32 



LACERTID^. 



o-(T. 5. 
T-0. 6 2- 

■^-aa. (S 2 • 
bb. $. 

cc-dd. cJ &hgr. 
ee-gg. d & hgr, 

ii-mm. c? 5 • 
nn-00. Hgr. 
pp-rr. (S $ . 

ss-yjj. d* , 2 , & yg. 
ww-xx. Hgr. 



Gafrliari. 

Sardinia. 

Ri'ggio, Calabria. 

Lipari. 

Stromboli. 

Me-ssiua. 

Catania. 

Siracusa. 

Modica. 

Malta. 

Malta. 

Malta. 

Corfu. 



Florence Museum [E.]. 
liev. W. Heunali [P.]. 
Florence Museum [E. 
Florence Museum [E. 
Florence Museum | E. 
Florence Museum [E. 
F'lorence Museum 1 E. 
Florence Museum f E. 
Florence Museum TE. 
Florence Museum [E.j. 
J. Ritchie, Esq. [P.]. 
A. A. ToUemacher, Esq. [P.]. 
R. Frett, Esq. [P.]. 



Melanotic forms of var. tiliyuerta : — 
Var. cserulea. 

Lacerta muralis, var. cserulea, Eimer, Verh. Phijs.-Mcd. Ges. Wiirzh. 

iii. 1872, Sitzb. p. ix, and Zool. Stud. Capri, ii. 
faraglionensis, Bedriuga, E)ist. d. Furb. b. d. Eidechs. 

1874. 

Blackish above, sapphire-blue inferiorly. 
Paraglione Eock, near Capri. 

a. 5 • Faraglione. Dr. J. t. Bedriaga [E.]. 

Yar. filfolensis. 

Zootoca lilfordi, part., Gilnth. Ann. 8)- Mug. N. H. (4) xiv. 1874, 

p. 158. 
Lacerta muralis, var. filfolensis, Bedriaga, Die Faraglione-Eidechse, 

1876. 

Black ; back with round greenish spots ; throat and sides of 
belly with blue spots. 

Filfola Rock, near Malta. 



a-b. (S. 



Filfola. 



A. A. ToUemacher, Esq. [P.]. 



D. Var. balearica. 



Lacerta muralis, Braun, Arb. Zool. Inst. Wiirzb. iv. 1877, p. 1. 

, var. balearica, Bedriaga, Bidl. Soc. Zool. France, 1879, 

p. 221, pi. ix. fig. 3. 

A stout form with broad neck and relatively short body. Tail 
often but little longer than head and body, never more than once 
and two thirds that length. The brown colour usually predominates 
on the upper surfaces. 



millira. 

Total length 143 

Head 17 

Width of head 10-5 

From end of snout to 
fore Umb 29 



millira. 
From end of snout to 

vent 62 

Fore limb 22 

Hind limb 37 

Tail 81 



« 



4. LACBRXA. 33 

Balearic Islands. 

To this group belong the vara, gir/liolii, Bcdr., pitiinsensis, Boscd 
(An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nut. xii. 1883, p. 240), and the melanotic 
lilfordii. 

Yar. liKordii. 

Zootoca lilfovdi, part., Gilnth. I. c. 
Lacerta lilfiudi, Brauii, I. c. 

muralis, var. lilfordi, Bedriaja, Bull. Soc. Zoul. France, 1879, 

p. 220, pi. ix. tig-j. 1-2. 

Scales extremely small, about 80 across the middle of the body, 
4 or 5 corresponding to the length of a ventral plate. The hind 
limb reaches the axilla in the female. Blackish brown above, 
sapphire-blue interiorly. 

^: .2- 

inillim. milliin. 

Total length 174 126 

Head 17 15 

Width of head 12 9 

From end of snout to fore limb 28 23 

From end of snout to vent 64 Gl 

Fore limb 25 23 

Hind limb 37 35 

Tail 110 65* 

Islets in the Balearic Group. 

a-d. (S 2 • -'^yi'e Island. Lord Lilford [P.]. (Types.) 

E. Yar, hispanica. 

Lacerta oxycephala, var. hispanica, Steind. Sitzh. Ak. Wien, Ixii. 

1870, i. p. 336, pi. i. figs. 3-6 ; BoetUj. Ahh. Senckenh. Ges, xii. 

1881, p. 376. 

oxycephala, part., Schreib. Herp. Eur. p. 404. 

• muralis, subsp. steindachneri, Bedriaya, Ahh, Senckenh. Ges. 

xiv. 1886, p. 256. 

Head and hody much depressed ; snout moderately long, acutely 
pointed. Frequently five upper labials anterior to the subocular. 
No masseteric shield. Collar-plates very small ; gular fold scarcely 
indicated. Scales small, flat, smooth, roundish, 50 to 60 across the 
middle of the body. Grey above, with five or seven longitudinal 
blackish streaks usually bearing small irregular light spots ; the 
lateral streak passing through the eye broadest, the vertebral 
narrowest ; in the young, the lateral black streaks separated by 
pure white ones ; lower surfaces uniform whitish. 



Tail reproduced. 



34 LACEBTID^. 

millim. nulLim 

Total length* 125 112 

Head 10 8 

Widthofhcad 7 o 

From end of snout to fore limb 18 14 

From end of snout tu vent 40 'tio 

Fore limb 14 12 

Hind limb 21 10 

Tail bo 77 

South of Spain. 

a-b. 2 & hgi-- 



Aliueria. 



Senckenberg Museuni [E-]- 



F. Var. bedriagae. 

Lacerta oxjcephala, part., Diim. i^- Bibr. v. p. 20-3. 

Podarcis oxycepliala, lionap. Faun. Ital. 

Lacerta oxveephala, Bedriuga, Arch. f. Nat. 1880, p. 250, pi. xi., aud 

188;3, p. '-im. 

, var. reticulata, Bedf-iaya, Bull. Sac. Nat. Mosc. 1881, 

p. %2. 
, subsp. bedriaga3, Canierana, Zool. Anz, 188o, p. 418, and 

Man. Saw. Ital. p. 48. 
bedriagae, Bedriaga, Abh. SencJcetib. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 284. 

Head and body much depressed ; snout long, obtuse. Frequently 
five anterior upper labials ; masseteric plate small or absent. 
CoUar-plates small ; gular fold feebly marked. Scales very small, 
flat, smooth, 66 to 70 across the middle of the body. Olive above, 
with largo black network ; lower surfaces reddish or pink in life ; 
throat often with a blackish network; belly with a few irregular 
blackish spots. 



rth 



millim. 
21.5 
20 
14 



Total len 
Head . . .^. . . . 
Width of head 
From end of snout to 
fore limb 31 

Mountains of Corsica. 

^ Tinozzo. 



a 

b. cS. 

c-d. S & bgr 



Corsica. 
Corsica. 



millim. 
From end of snout to 

vent 75 

Fore limb 28 

Hind limb 42 

Tail 140 



Florence Museum [E.]. 
Dr. J. V. Bedriaga [E.!. 
G. A. Boulenger, Esq. [P.]. 



12. Lacerta dcpressa f. 

Lacerta taurica {non Pall.), l)e Fil/ppi, Arch. p. I. Zool. ii. 1863, 

p. 386. 
Podarcis depressa, Camerano, Atti Ace. Turin, xiii. 1878, p. 539. 
Lacerta depressa, Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 272. 

* Dimensions of the S from a specimen in Dr. v. Bedriaga's collection, 
t I have examined a (J specimen of the var. rudis in Dr. v. Bedriaga's 
collection. 



4. LACERTA. 35 

Head and body mucli depressed ; snout rather long, obtuse. 
Rostral not entering the nostril ; a single postnasal ; four uj)per 
labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between tho 
supraoculars and tho supraciliaries ; occipital as broad as but much 
shorter than the interparietal ; temporal scales granular ; masseteric 
])lato present or absent, supratemporal and tympanic present. Gular 
ibid scarcely distinct ; gular scales small, 25 to 30 on a line between 
the collar and tho third pair of chin-shields ; collar even-edged, with 
(7 to) 10 plates. Dorsal scales small, convex, smooth, roundish, 
juxtaposed, not smaller on the sides, where three correspond to tho 
length of a ventral plate ; 48 to GO scales across the middle of 
the body. Ventral plates in 6 longitudinal series, the median and 
the outer series much narrower than the two others ; 2o to 27 
transverse scries; additional lateral plates absent. Praeanal plate 
bordered by two semicircles of small plates. The hind limb 
reaches tho shoulder in the male (not so far in the female). Scales 
on upper surface of tibia larger than dorsals, rhomboidal, keeled. 
Femoral pores 17 or 18 (to 22). Tail not twice as long as head 
and body ; caudal scales truncate, upper strongly keeled, the basal 
ones somewhat tubercular. Olive-grey above, with irregular small 
black spots, and round light spots on the sides ; lower surfaces 
whitish (in spirit). 

millira. 
From end of snout to 

vent 72 

Fore limb 24 

Hind limb 38 

Tail (reproduced) . . 105 

This species falls into two varieties, which have been named by 
Bedriaga modesta and rudis. To the former, which is charac- 
terized by smaller scales (GO across the body) and less distinctly 
tubercular caudals, belongs the specimen in the Collection. 

Trcbizond. 

«. cJ. Trebizond. Turin Museum [E,]. (One of the types.) 



13. Lacerta dugesii. 

Teira punctata, Graif, Cat. p. 33. 
Lacerta dugesii, M.-Edw. Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, pp. 71, 84 ; Dum. 

4" Bibr. v. p. 2;jG; Bedriarja, Arch.f. Nat. 1879, p. 330, and Abh. 

Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 18SG, p. 308. 
Teira punctata, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 280. 
Lacerta maderensis (Fitz.), Girard, U. S. JE.iplor. E.vped., Herp, 

p. 200, pi. xxiv. figs. 1-8. 
punctata, Buideng. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 743. 

Head rather strongly depressed ; snout long, acuminate. Rostral 
not entering the nostril ; two superposed postnasals ; five labials 
anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between the supra- 
oculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital usually as large as or larger 

d2 





milliin 


Total length 


177 


Head 


15 


Width of head 


10 


From end of snout to 




fore limb 


25 



36 LACERTID^, 

than the interparietal; temporal scales small; tympanic shield 
distinct ; no masseteric or large supratemporal. Gular fold distinct ; 
26 to 35 scales on a line between the collar and the third pair of 
chin-shields ; collar even-edged, with I) to 11 plates. Dorsal scales 
very small, granular, smooth or indistinctly keeled, not larger on 
the sides, where four or five correspond to the length of a ventral 
plate ; GO to 75 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral 
plates square, broader than long, median scries narrower than the 
others, in 6 longitudinal and 25 to 28 transverse series. Pncanal 
bordered by a series of scales. The adpressed hind limb reaches 
usually the elbow or the axilla in the female, the shoulder or the 
collar ill the male. Scales on upper surface of tibia rather smaller 
than dorsals. Femoral pores 16 to 24. Tail once and a half to 
twice the length of head and body ; caudal scales truncate, upper 
keeled. Olive or greyish abov^e, dotted or spotted with greenish 
and black ; frequently a more or less distinct broad black lateral 
baud, dotted with greenish ; lower surfaces greenish, uniform or 
black-dotted. One of the specimens in the collection is entirely 
black. 

millim. inillim. 

Total length 2U9 172 

Head 17 15 

Width of head 13 9 

From end of snout to fore limb 3i) 24 

From end of snout to vent 74 64 

Fore limb 29 21 

Hind limb 39 32 

Tail 135 108 

Madeira ; Canary Islands. 

a. d. Madeira. T. Bell, Esq. [P.]. (Type of 

Teira punctata.^ 

b-d, e. c? 2 . Madeira. Capt. Parry [P.]. 

f-k. c? $ . Madeira. A. Christy, Esq. [P.]. 

l-o. (S 2 . Madeira. J. Macgillivray, Esq. [C.]. 

p, q. Several specs. : Madeira. 

c?,$,&hgr. 

r. 2 • Orotava. R. McAndrew, Esq. [P.]. 

s. Yg. Teueriffe. H.M.S. ' Ciiallenger.' 

14. Lacerta oxycsphala*. 

Lacerta oxycephala, part., Dum. 4" Bihr. v. p. 235 ; Schreib. Herp. 

Eur. p. 404. 
oxycephala, Bedricuja, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 276. 

Head and body much depressed ; snout long, acuminate. Rostral 
not entering the nostril; two superposed postnasals; five upper labials 
anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between the supra- 

* I have examined two Bpecimens ( $ & hgr.) in Dr. v. Bedriaga's collection. 



n 



4. LACHRTA. 37 

oculars and tlie supraciliaries : occipital shorter but a little hroarler 
than the interparietal ; temporal scales {jranular ; masseteric, supra- 
temporal, and tym])aiiic jjlatcs lariie. (iular fold absent (or indi- 
cated) ; gular scales very small, 3;5 to ;38 on a line between the 
collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; collar even-edged, with 
11 to 13 very small plates. Dorsal scales very small, flat, smooth, 
roundish, juxtaposed, a little smaller on the sides, where four 
corres])ond to the length of a ventral plate ; G2 to 70 scales across 
the middle of the body. Ventral plates broader than long, subequal 
in size, in G longitudinal and 27 to 29 transverse series ; additional 
lateral plates very small, if distinct. Pra^anal plate bordered by one 
or two semicircles of small plates. The adpressed hind limb reaches 
the shoulder. Scales on upper surface of tibia nearly as large as 
dorsals, feebly keeled. Femoral pores 22. Tail once and a half to 
twice as long as head and body. Caudal scales truncate, upper 
obtusely keeled. Greyish above, with small black dots and a dark 
network enclosing lighter spots ; lower surfaces whitish (in spirit). 

.^- .?• 

millim. tnillim. 

Total length 170 1G2 

Head 15 13 

Width of head 10 9 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 27 22 

From end of snout to vent 60 62 

Fore limb 23 23 

Hind limb 33 32 

Tail 110 100 

Dalmatia. 

a. cJ. Curzola Island. Florence Museum [E.l. 

15. Lacerta danfordii. (Plate I. fig. 2.) 

Zootoca danfordi, Gilnfli. I'roc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 818. 

Lacerta daufordi, Bcch-kuja, Bull. Soc. Kat. Mvsc. 1879, p. 30 ; Bou- 

leng. True. Zool. Soc. 188], p. 741 ; Bedriatja, Ahh. Senckenh. Ges. 

xiv. 1886, p. 259. 
oxvcepliala, vars. modesta and maculata, part., Bedriaga, Bull. 

Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1881, p. 80. 
grteca, Beclriarfu, Ahh. Senckenh. Ges. xiv. p. 290*. 

Head rather strongly depressed; snout long, obtusely pointed. 
Eostral usually entering or touching the nostril ; two superposed 
postnasals ; five upper labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of 
granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital 
either as large as, or smaller than, or a little larger than, the inter- 
parietal ; temporal scales granular ; masseteric plate usually absent, 
if present very small ; a single supratemporal shield, bordering the 

* I bare examined three specimens of the Greek form, one in Dr. v. 
Bedriaga's, the two other3 in M. Lataste's collection. 



38 LACERTIDiE. 

parietal anterioriy ; tympanic •well developed. Gular fold absent or 
just indicated ; 23 to 30 gular scales on a line between the collar and 
the third pair of chin-shields ; collar even-edged, with 9 to 13 small 
plates. JDorsal scales small, flat, smooth, roundish, juxtaposed, a 
little smaller on the sides, where three or four corres])ond to the 
length of a ventral plate ; 55 to 02 scales across the middle of the 
body. Ventral plates broader than long, subequal, or median series 
narrower, in G longitudinal series ; an additional outer series some- 
times present, but composed of smaller ])lates ; 27 to 30 transverse 
series. Pro^anal bordered by one or two semicircles of small 
plates. The adpressed hind limb reaches about the axilla in the 
female, the shoulder or the collar in the male. Scales on upper 
surface of crus smaller than dorsals, obtusely keeled. Femoral pores 
21 to 26. Tail twice or more than twice as long as head and body ; 
caudal scales truncate, upper obtusely keeled. Olive-grey or brownish 
above, sj)eckled or reticulated with black, with or without roundish 
lighter spots ; sides usually darker, with the light spots more distinct ; 
lower surfaces greenish white (in spirit), uniform or dotted with 
black. 

millim. millitn. 

Total length 227 145 

Head 18 13 

Width of head 13 9 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 32 21 

From end of snout to vent 75 52 

Fore limb 27 20 

Hind limb 41 30 

Tail 152 93 

Asia Minor, Greece. 

a. Several specs.: (5', Zebil Bulgliar Dagh, C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.]. 

2 , & hgr. Cilician Taurus. (Types.) 

6, Hgr. Kaisarieh. C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.], 

16. Lacerta brandtii. 

Lacerta brandtii, De Filippi, Arch. p. l. Zool. ii. 1863, p. 387, aiid 
Viagg. Pers. p. 354; Blanfurd, Zool. E. Pers. p. 362, pi. xx. tig. 1 ; 
Boettger, in liadde, Faun.Flor. Casp.-Geh. p. 42 ; Bedriaga, Ahh. 
SeHcke7ih. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 268. 

Head moderately depressed ; snout moderate, obtusely pointed. 
Rostral touching the nostril ; two superposed postnasals ; five upper 
labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between the 
supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital much smaller than the 
interparietal ; temporal scales small, with distinct masseteric and 
tympanic shields ; three enlarged supra temporals border the parietal. 
Gular fold indicated ; 25 gular scales on a line between the collar 
and the third pair of chin-shields; collar even-edged, composed of 
nine small i)lates. Dorsal scales granular, smooth, 50 to 55 across 



4. LACERTA. 3ft 

the middle of the hofly ; tlirce or four lateral scales correspond to 
the length of a ventral plate. Ventral plates broader than lon<;, sul)- 
e(]iial. in 8 lonjjitndinal and 30 transverse series. Two semicircles 
of scales border the anal. The hind limb reaches nearly or (inite 
the axilla. Scales on npper surface of erus smaller than doisals. 
Femoral pores 1(5 to 20. Tail al)oiit twice as lonj? as head and 
bodv ; upper caudal scales keeled, obtusely pointed posteiiorly. 
Olive-grey above, with four longitudinal series of black spots ; a 
whitish streak along each side of the nape ; side with light spots ; a 
large bluish, black-edged ocellus above the axilla ; lower surfaces 
greenish white, the edges of some of the ventrals black. 

millim. millim. 

Total length* 147 Fore limb 22 

Head 13-5 Hind limb 26 

Width of head 8 Tail (reproduced). . . 80 

Body 53-5 

North-western Persia, Talisch. 

a-b. 2 • Rasano, Talisch. Hr. Leder [C.]. 



17. Lacerta Isevis. 

Lacerta Ifevis, Grai/, Cat. p. 31. 
Lacerta Ifevis, Grai/, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 279 ; Gunth. Proc. Zool. 

Sue. 18G4, p. 488 ; Bonlenf/. Froc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 742 ; Bedriuga, 

Ahh. Senckenb. Gcs. xiv. 1886, p. 263. 
Podarcis judaica, Camerano, Atti Ace. Torin. xiii. 1877, p. 92, pi. ii. 

ti^s. 2-5. 
Lacerta judaica, Bedriaya, Arch.f. Nat. 1880, p. 270; Boeityer, Ber. 

Senckenb. Ges. 1879-80, p. 172. 

Head rather strongly depressed ; snout rather long, obtuse. 
Eostral entering the nostril ; two superposed postnasals ; five upper 
labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between the 
supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital at least as long as, and 
broader than, the interparietal ; temple granular, with a large 
masseteric disk ; tympanic shield present : a supratemporal shield 
bordering the ])arietal anteriorly. Gular fold feebly marked ; 19 
to 23 gular scales on a line between the collar and the third pair 
of chin-shields; collar with even or very slightly serrated edge, 
with 9 to 13 plates. Dorsal scales oval or hexagonal, juxtaposed, 
keeled, 50 to 64 across the middle of the body ; three or four lateral 
scales correspond to the length of a ventral plate. Yentrals much 
broader than long, in 6 longitudinal series, the median pair nar- 
rowest ; 24 to 29 transverse series. Prneanal bordered by one or 
two semicircles of small scales. The hind limb reaches the axilla 
in the female, the shoulder or between the shoulder and the ear in 
the male. Scales on upper surface of cms smaller than dorsals. 

* Dimensions after Bedriaga. 



40 LACERnDJE. 

Femoral pores 10 to 21. Tail about twice as long as head and 
body ; upper caudal scales truncate, strongly keeled. Olive-grey 
above, back uniform or scantily dotted with black ; a blackish 
band or series of black spots on each side, extending to the eye or the 
loreal region ; sides with round white spots ; lower surfaces uniform 
greenish white (in spirit). 

A- 5- 

inillim. millim. 

Total length 232 193 

Head 21 15 

Width of head 15 10 

From end of snout to fore limb 32 25 

From end of snout to vent 8iJ 71 

Fore limb 28 24 

Hind limb 46 39 

Tail 152 122 

Syria. 

a. $. ? [Type.] 

b-d. c? 2 ' Damascus. Dr. J. Anderson [P.]. 

e-ff. d $• Jerusalem. Canon Tristram [0.1. 



h. S , Dead Sea. Canon Tristram [C. 



18. Lacertajayakari. (Plate II.) 

Head moderately depressed : snout long, obtusely acuminate. 
Piostral entering the nostril ; two superposed postnasals ; six upper 
labials anterior to the suboeular ; a series of granules between the 
supraocvilars and the supraciliaries ; occipital broader than the inter- 
parietal ; temple minutely and uniformly granulate, the granules 
much smaller than the dorsal scales ; tympanic shield very small ; 
a large anterior supratemporal shield, followed by a series of smaller 
ones. No trace of a gular fold ; 47 to 50 gular scales on a line 
between the collar and the third pair of chin-shields; collar with 
very slightly serrated edge, composed of 13 or 15 small plates. 
Dorsal scales very small, granular, round, convex, smooth or very 
indistinctly keeled, 85 to 95 across the middle of the body ; four 
or five lateral scales coi respond to the leiigtli of the ventral shield. 
Yeutrals broader than long, in eigbt longitudinal series, the outer 
series narrowest, the others equal ; 27 or 28 transverse series. 
Pra;anal small, surrounded by two or three semicircles of smaller 
plates. The hind limb reaches the collar. Scales on upper surface 
of crus slightly larger than dorsals, obtusely keeled. A series of 
large shields under the arm. Femoral pores 26 to 28. Tail about 
twice as long as head and body ; upper caudal scales truncate, 
strongly keeled. Olive above ; adult uniform, white-spotted on the 
cheeks and sides of the neck ; young spotted with black and whitish 
all over the body, with three black vertical bars on the temjde and a 
black spot on each labial shield. Lower surfaces uniform yellowish. 



4. LACERTA. 41 

millim. millim. 

Total length 472 From end of snout to 

Head 38 vent 152 

Width of head 27 Foro limb 50 

I'lom end of snout to Hind limb 90 

fore limb Go Tuil 320 

Arabia. 

a-b. c? iS: \g. Near Muscat. A. S. G. Jayakar, Esq. [P.]. 



19. Lacerta galloti. 

Zootoca derbiana, Gray, Cat. p. 29. 

galloti, part., Gray, I. c. p. .'jO. 

Lacerta galloti, Dum. Sf IJibr. v. p. 238 ; Boetty. Abh. Senckenb. Ges. 
ix. 1874, p. 174; Bedrinya, Arch. f. Nat. 1879, p. 325; Jiouleny. 
Proc. Zuol. Soc. 1881, p. 740 ; Bedriaya, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 
188G, p. 301. 

Head moderately dejiresscd ; snout long, obtuse. Eostral not 
entering the nostril ; a single postnasal ; five upper labials anterior 
to the subocnlar ; a series of granules between the supraoculars and 
the supraciliaries : occipital, in the adult, longer and broader than 
the interparietal; temporal scales granular ; masseteric and tympanic 
shields distinct; no large supratemporals. Gular fold indicated: 
4U to 40 gular scales on a line between the collar and the third 
pair of chin-shields ; collar with even or very slightly serrated edge, 
composed of 9 to 13 small plates. Dorsal scales very small, 
roundish-rhomboidal, juxtaposed, obtusely keeled, 84 to 90 across 
the middle of the body ; three or four lateral scales correspond to 
the length of a ventral shield. Ventrals in 12 or 14 longitudinal 
and 29 to 31 transverse series. Prscanal small, bordered by two or 
three semicircles of small plates. The hind limb reaches the 
shoulder or the collar. Ujiper crural scales smaller than dorsals. 
Femoral pores 23 to 31. Tail at least twice as long as head and 
body ; upper caudal scales truncate, strongly keeled. Olive-grey 
or dark olive above, with black and pale greenish spots ; females 
and young with two light, black-edged longitudinal streaks on each 
side. Lower surfaces olive or blackish in the adult, paler in the 
young ; throat, in the young, with angular grey bands converging 
forwards. A more or less distinct black band and a few whitish 
spots on the hinder side of the thighs. 

c?, 2. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 305 277 

Head 30 28 

Width of head 24 19 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 52 48 

From end of snout to vent 115 112 



42 LACERTID^. 

millira. luillim. 

Fore limb 45 43 

Hind limb 71 72 

Tail (reproduced) 190 165 

Madeira and Canary Islands. 

a. Yg. Madeira. P. B. Webb, Esq. [P.]. 

b, c. 'S Sc yg-. Tenerifle. II.M.S. ' Cliallenger.' 

d-e. 2 & ligr. ? Lord Derby [P.]- (Types of 

Zootoca derhiana.) 

f-g, h-i. 2 > ■ ? (probably Orotava). Pt. Mc Andrew, Esq. [P.]. 

"hgr., & yg. 



20. Lacerta atlantica. 

Zootoca galloti, part., Oray, Cat. p. 30. 
Lacerta atlantica, Peters ^' Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, xviii. 1882, 
p. 433 ; Bedriaga, Ahh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 314. 

Head rather strongly depressed ; snout long, obtusely pointed. 
Eostral not entering the nostril; a single postnasal; four upper 
labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between the 
supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital, in the adult, broader 
than the interparietal ; temporal scales granular ; no masseteric 
shield ; tympanic distinct ; usual!}' a few enlarged supratemporals ; 
anterior border of ear denticulated. Gular fold distinct ; 24 to 27 
gular scales on a line between the collar and the third pair of chin- 
shields ; collar with serrated edge, composed of 7 to 9 plates. Dorsal 
scales rhomboidal, slightly imbricate, obtusely and diagonally keeled, 
larger than the laterals, of w'hich two or three correspond to the 
length of a ventral shield ; 46 to 50 scales across the middle of 
the body. Ventral plates in 8 or 10 longitudinal and 27 to 29 
transverse series. Pra^anal plate moderately large, bordered by two 
semicircles of small plates. The hind limb reaches the shoulder. 
Upper crural scales much smaller than dorsals. Femoral pores 19 to 
22. Tail not twice as long as head and body ; upper caudal scales 
obtusely pointed posteriorly, diagonally keeled. Brownish above, 
with whitish black-edged ocelli, most distinct on the sides and limbs, 
and a light longitudinal streak on each side of the nape and back ; 
belly and collar whitish ; throat bluish grey or black ; chin-shields 
white, with a longitudinal blackish streak, 

millim. millim. 

Total leugth 152 From end of snout 

Head 15 to vent 60 

Width of head 10 Fore limb 21 

From end of snout Hind limb 38 

to fore limb 24 Tail 92 



Canary Islands ; Madeira. 



H 



4. LACERTA. — 5. ALGIEOIDES. 43 

a. Ilgr. cJ. Lanzarote. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 

((>ue of the types.) 

b. Yg. Madeira. P. B. Webb, Esq. [P.], 

c. Yg. ? (probably Orotava). R. jMcAiidrew, Esq. [P.]. 



21. Lacerta perspicillata. 

Thetia perspicillata, Grai/, Cat. p. .32. 
Larerta pcrspicilhita, Dimi. ^- Bibr. v. p. 249; Guichen. Explor. Sc. 
Ah/., li('))t. ji. 12, pi. i. fig. 3; Sfniiic/i, Erp. AJg. p. 34; Bedrimja, 
Abh. Senclnnb. Ges. xiv. 188G, p. 295. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid Avith an undivided trans- 
parent disk. Piostral not touching the nostril ; two superposed 
])ostnasals; five upper labials anterior to the subocular ; a scries of 
granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital 
shorter and a little broader than the interparietal ; temples uniformly 
granular ; a distinct tympanic shield. Gular fold indicated ; 32 
or 33 gular scales on a line between the collar and the third pair of 
chin-shields ; collar even- edged, with 9 to 11 plates. Dorsal scales 
granular, smooth, 54 to 5G across the middle ot the body. Ventral 
plates subequal, in 10 longitudinal and 29 to 35 transverse series. 
Priieanal small, with one semicircle of smaller plates. When the 
limbs are pressed against the body, the hind limb reaches the elbow. 
19 or 20 femoral pnres C13 according to Bibron). Upper caudal 
scales smooth or very feebly keeled, truncate posteriorly. Green or 
bronzy above, uniform (or with light ocelli) ; uniform greenish 
inferiorly. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 128 100 

Head 14 11 

Width of head 10 8 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 24 19 

From end of snout to vent 58 53 

Fore limb 19 17 

Hind limb 29 24 

Tail (reproduced) 70 47 

Algeria. 

a,b. J 5 . Algeria. 



5. ALGIEOIDES. 

Algiroides, Bibron, in Bt?-)/ de St. Vine. Exped. Sc. Iloree, Eept. 

p. 67 ; Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 391. 
Notopbolis, pai't., Wieijm. Herp. Mex. p. 10. 
Lacerta, part., Drnn. ^- Bibr. v. p. 174. 

Notopbolis, Grai/, Cat. Liz. p. 34 ; Schreib. Herp. Eur, p. 448. 
Algira, part., Lataste, Ann. Mus. Genovcu, (2) ii. 1885, p. 125. 



44 L.VCERT1T).T5. 

Head-shiolds normal. Nostril pierced between three nasals and 
the first labial. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar well marked. Dorsal 
scales very large, imbricate, strongly keeled ; ventrals squarish, 
feebly imbricate, smooth. Digits feebly compressed, with smooth 
or tubercular lamclhc iiiferiorly. Femoral jioie-!. Tail long, cylin- 
drical. 

Eastern coast of the Adriatic, Greece, Sardinia, Corsica. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

The hind limb, stretched forward, reaches 

the axilla or beyond ; lateral scales 

much smaller than dorsals, two or 

three corresponding to the length of 

a ventral 1. nigropunctatus, p. 44. 

The hind limb reaches the axilla or 

beyond ; lateral scales scarcely smaller 

than dorsals, as long as ventrals .... 2. moreoticus, p. 45. 
The hind limb does not reach the axilla ; 

lateral scales scarcely smaller than 

dorsals, as long as ventrals 3. Jitzinr/eri, p. 45. 



1. Algiroides nigropunctatus. 

Notopholis nigropunctata, Grm/, Cat. p. 35. 
Lacerta nigropunctata, Duin. i^'" Bihr. v. p. 190. 
Notopholis nigropunctata, Bonup. Faun. Ital. ; Schreib. Herp. Eur. 

p. 452. 
Algiroides nigropunctatus, Bedriaga, Ahh. Senckenh. Ges. xiv. 188G, 

p. 393. 

Head rather large, rather strongly depressed ; snout long, obtuse. 
Rostral touching the nostril ; two superposed postnasals; normally 
five upper labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules 
between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital (usually) 
a little longer and broader than the interparietal ; temple with 
irregular scales ; masseteric, tympanic, and supratemporal shields 
large. Gular fold distinct ; 18 to 21 scales on a line between the 
collar and the third pair of chin-shields ; collar with serrated edge, 
composed of 7 to 9 plates. Dorsal scales more than twice as large 
as the laterals, diagonally keeled, obtusely pointed, 22 to 2G scales 
across the middle of the body ; two or three lateral scales correspond 
to the length of a ventral. Yeiitrals in 6 longitudinal series, median 
pair narrowest, and 23 or 24 transverse series. Pra?anal plate 
bordered by one semicircle of small plates. The adpressed hind 
limb reaches the shoulder or the collar (or the axilla). Femoral 
pores 15 to 18. Tail about twice as long as head and body. Olive- 
green above, usually with small black spots ; lower surfaces 
creenish or blue. 



5. ALGIROIDES. 45 

milliii). uiillim. 

Total length lUo From end of snout 

Head 17 to vent 62 

^Vidth of head lU Fore limb 23 

From end of snout Hind limb 37 

to fore limb .... 27 Tail 133 

Illyria, Istria, Dulmatia, Ionian Islands. 

a. cJ. Gorice. Florence Museum [E.]. 

b. S- Corfu. R. Frett, ]":sq. [P.I. 

c. c?. Corfu. Sir A. Smith [P.]."" 

2. Algiroides moreoticus. 

Notopbulis monolica, Gray, Vat. p. 3o. 
Alpfiroides moreulic.us, Ihhr. in Bory, JE.rpcd. Moree, Rept. p. 67, 

pi. X. fig. 5 ; Bi'driaya, Abh. Soickenh. Ges. xiv. 1880, p. 399. 
Lacerta moreotica, Duvi. c^ Bibr. v. p. 192. 
Notophohs moreotica, Bunap. Faun. Ital.; Schreib, Het-p. Eur. 

p. 451. 

Snout very short and obtuse. Two superposed postnasals ; four 
upper labials anterior to thesubocular : a series of granules between 
the supraoculars and the supraeiliaries : occipital shorter than the 
interparietal ; temple with irregular scales ; masseteric, tympanic, 
and supratemporal shields distinct. Gular fold distinct; collar with 
serrated edge, composed of 7 to 9 plates. Dorsal scales rather 
sharply pointed, scarcely larger than the laterals, the length of which 
corresponds to that of the ventrals ; 20 to 23 scales across the 
middle of the body. Ventrals in 6 longitudinal series, median and 
outer smallest, and 22 to 24 transverse series. Two elongate plates 
in front of the anal. The hind limb reaches the axilla or a little 
beyond. Femoral pores 12 to 15. Tail about once and a half the 
length of head and body. Olive-green above, sides with black and 
white spots ; a yellowish streak along each side of the body. 

These markings are less distinct in var. doricv, Bedr., from Zante, 
which in other respects also somewhat approaches the following 
species. 

millim. millim. 

Total length llU Fore limb lo'O 

Head 12 Hind limb 27 

Width of head 7 Tail 66 



Morea. 



3. Algiroides fitzingeri. 



I 



Notopholis fitzingeri, Grau, Cat. p. 34. 
Notopholis fitzingeri, Wieym. Herp. Mex. p. 10; Gene, Me7n. Ace. 
Tonti. i. 1839, p. 266, pi. i. fig. 2 ; Bonap. Faun. Ital. ; l)e Betta 
Faun. Ital, Rett. Anf. p. 22 ; ISchreib, Herp. Eur. p. 449 ; Btdriaga 
Arch. f. JS'at. 1883, p. 259. 



46 LACEKTID^. 

Lacerta fitzingeri, Diun. Sf Bihr. v. p. 194; Camer. Mon. Saur. Ital. 

p. m. 

Algiroides fitzingeri, Bedriaya, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 405. 

Head small, strong!}- depressed ; snout moderate, obtusel)' pointed. 
Rostral touching the nostril ; two superposed postnasals ; four upper 
labials anterior to the subocular ; a series of granules between the 
supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; occipital shorter and not broader 
than the interparietal ; temple with irregular scales ; masseteric 
shield sometimes distinct ; tympanic and supratcmporal shields large. 
Gular fold distinct ; 1 8 to 20 scales between the collar and the 
third pair of chin-shields ; collar with serrated edge, composed of 5 
to 7 plates. Dorsal scales acutelj^ pointed, scarcely larger than the 
laterals, the length of Avhich corresponds to that of the ventrals ; 
15 to 18 scales across the middle of the body. Ventrals in 6 
longitudinal series, median and outer smallest, and 22 to 26 trans- 
verse series. ]^ra3anal bordered by one semicircle of small plates. 
The hind limb does not reach the axilla. Femoral pores 10 to 12. 
Tail thick, once and a half to twice the length of head and body. 
Dark bronzy olive above, orange (greenish or greyish in spirit) 
infcriorly. 

A' 2- 

millim. millim. 

Total length 115 114 

Head 9 8 

Width of head 6 6 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 14 14 

From end of snout to vent 37 43 

Fore limb 12 11 

Hind limb 18 16 

Tail 78 71 

Sardinia and Corsica. 

a. (J . Tacqiiisara, Sardinia. Marquis G. Doria [?•]• 

b-c. J 2 • Sassavi, Sardinia. Florence Museum [E.J. 

d-e. S 2 • Sardinia. Baron v. Maltzan [C. j. 

/, g-h. (S 2 • Sardinia. 



6. PSAMMODROMUS. 

Psammodromus, Fifzint/. X. Classif. liept. p. 22 ; Wiefj7n. Herp. Mex. 

p. 10 ; l)um. Si- Bibr. v. p. 251 ; Grai/, Cat. Liz. p. .38 ; Strauch, 

Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. vi. 18G7, p. 408 ; Latuste, Ann. Mus. 

Genova, (2) ii. 1885, p. 125. 
Tropidosaura, part., Fitziny. I. c. ; Wicf/m. I. c. ; Dum. ^- Bibr, p. 163 ; 

Bedriaya, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 417. 
Algira, Cuv. JR. A. 2ud ed. ii. p. 31. 
Aspistis {non Hoffm.), Wctylcr, Syst. Amph. p. 156. 
Psammuros, JVayl. I. c. ; Wiey7>i, I. c. 
Notopholis, Wayl. I. c. 



6. PSAMMODIiUMUS. 47 

Algira, part., Oray, I. c. ; Latnstc, I. c. 

Zurzouniia, Latuste, Le Naturaliste, 1860, p. 299 ; Bedriayu, I. c. 
p. 4il. 

Ilead-shickls normal. Nostril pierced between two nasals, in 
contact with the first labial or separated only by a narrow rim. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Collar absent or very feebly marked ; a short 
fold in front of the arm. Back covered with large, rhombic, strongly 
keeled and imbricate scales ; veuti'al shields smooth. Digits slightly 
compressed, with tubercular or keeled lamella) inferiorly. Femoral 
pores. Tail cylindrical. 

South-western Europe and opposite coast of Africa. 

The four species which are referred to this genus are closely allied, 
and the following characters apply to all of them : — Snout moderately 
long, obtuse ; supraoculars three, first largest, third smallest ; a 
small additional shield is usually present, separating the first supra- 
ocular from tlie loreal ; supraciliaries in contact with the supra- 
oculars ; occipital usually smaller than interparietal ; temporal scales 
irregular, smooth or obtusely keeled; an enlarged tympanic plate; 
no auricular denticulation ; one or two loreals ; subocular reaching 
the lip (except in some specimens of P. hispanicus\ between the 
fourth and fifth labials. Gular scales strongly imbricate, gradually 
increasing in size towards the pectoral plates ; the three anterior 
pairs of chin-shields in contact. Lateral scales passing gradually 
into the ventrals, which are in six straight longitudinal series. A 
large prajaual plate, bordered by one or two series of smaller ones. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Collar distinguishable. 

Digits sharply keeled inferiorly 1. hispanicus, p. 47. 

Digits tubercularlj' keeled inferiorly .... 2. hlanci, p. 48. 

II. No trace of a collar. 

Yentral plates of the median and outer 

series narrower than the others .... 3. microdactylus, p. 49. 
Ventral plates subequal 4. algirus, p. 50. 

1. Psammodromus hispanicus. 

Psammcdromus hispanicu.-;, Graij, Cat. p. -38. 
Psammodronms hi,-paijicu8, Fitzincj. N. Class. Mept. p. 52; Schreib. 

Hcrp. Eur. p. 397 ; Camer. Mon. Saw. Itul. p. 90. 
Lacerta edwardsiana, Dvyes, Ann. 8c. Nat. xvi. 1829, p. 386, pi. xiv. 
Aspistis edwardsiana, Wat/l. Si/st. Amph. p. 15U. 
Notopholis edwardsiana, IVicyin. Ilerp. Mex. p. 10. 
? Algira punctata, Graij, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 283. 
Psammodromus edwardsii, Dum. ^ Bihr. v. p. 253. 
edwardsiauu.s, Bonap. Ann. Sc. Nat. (2) xii. 18.39, p. 62, 

pi. iv. A. tig. 2, and Faun. Ital. 

The suture between the rostral and the first labial falls below the 
anterior border of the nostril ; subocular frequently not reaching 



48 LACEKTID^. 

the lip. Gular fold and collar distinguishable. 32 to 42 scales 
round the middle of the body. Ventrals broader than long, the 
median and outer series narrower than the two others. The 
adprcssed hind limb reaches the axilla or the shoulder in the male, 
not so far in the female ; foot as long as the distance between 
the arm and the anterior border of the orbit ; subdigital lamellae 
sharply bicarinate. 10 to 13 femoral pores on each side. Tail 
once and a half to twice as long as head and body. Olive-grey 
or bronzy above with small black and white spots, and one or two 
longitudinal white streaks on each side; lower surfaces white. 

A- .?• 

millim. millim. 

Total length 146 112 

Head 12 10 

AVidth of head 9 T'o 

Prom end of snout to fore limb .... 20 17 

From end of snout to veut 50 46 

Fore limb 17 14 

Hind limb 28 22 

Tail 96 66 

Mediterranean coast of France, Spain and Portugal ; Sardinia (?). 

a-h. S 5 • Montpellier. 

c-d. (S is. hgr. Albut'era, Spain. Lord Lilford [P.]. 

e-f. S ? • Near Lisbon. II. O. Forbes, Esq. [P.]. 

g'. 5 . Alg-arve. Ur. H. Gadow [C.]. 

Yar. cinereus. 

Psaniniodromus cinereus, Gray, Cat. p. 39, 
Psammodromus cinereus, Bonap. Ann. Sc. Nat. (2) xii. 1839, p. 62, 
pi. iv. A. fig. 1, and Faun. Ital. ; Lataste, Rev. Intern. Sciences, iii. 
1880, p. 177. 

The only constant difference I can find between this form and 
the preceding is the uniform bronzy coloration of the upper surfaces. 
I have examined three specimens in M. Lataste's collection. 
Spain and Mediterranean coast of France. 

2. Psammodromus hlanci. 

Zerzoumia blanci, Lataste, Le Nuturuliste, 1880, p. 299; JBedriaga, 

Abh. Senck. Ges. xiv. 1880, p. 411. 
Algira (Zerzumia) blanci, i?oe^^^. Abh. Senck. Ges. xiii. 1883, p. 116. 

The suture between the rostral and the first labial iisually falls 
below the anterior border of the nostril. A more or less distinct 
gular fold, connecting the ears ; collar distinguishable. 30 or 32 
scales round the middle of the body. Ventrals broader than long, 
the median and outer series narrower than the two others. The 
adpressed hind limb reaches the axilla in the male, not so far in 
the female ; foot as long as the distance between the arm and the 
centre of the eye ; digits iuferiorly with a double series of more or 



6, PSAIOIODEOMTTS. 49 

less strongly or obtusely keeled tubercles. 10 to 12 femoral pores 
on each side. Tail once and a half to once and three fourths as 
long as head and body. Olive or bronzy brown above, with two 
yellowish streaks along each side, bordered with small black spots ; 
sometimes a light vertebral baud ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. niillim. 

Total length 93 101 

Head 10 9 

Width of head 7 65 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 15 14 

From end of snout to vent 38 40 

Fore limb 14 12 

Hind limb 21 18 

Tail 55 61 

Algeria. 
a. 2' Lambesa. M. F. Lataste [E.] (One of the types.) 

3. Psammodromus microdactylus *. 

Algira (Zerzumia) microdactyla, Boettg. Zool. Anz. 1881, p. 571, and 
Abh. Senck. Ges. xiii. 1883, p. Ill, pi. i. fig. 2. 

The suture between the rostral and the first labial falls below the 
centre of the nostril. No gular fold ; no trace of a collar. 28 or 
30 scales rouud the middle of the body. Ventrals broader thau 
long, the median and outer series narrower than the two others. 
The adpressed hind limb reaches, or nearly reaches, the axilla ; foot 
as long as the distance between the arm and the centre of the 
eye ; digits inferiorly with a double series of strongly but obtusely 
keeled tubercles. 11 to 13 femoral pores on each side. Tail once 
and two thirds as long as head and body ; upper caudal scales more 
strongly keeled than the dorsals. Olive above, with small black 
spots ; lower surfaces greenish yellow. 

S. 2- 

millim. millim. 

Total length 117 119 

Head 11 11 

Width of head 7-5 7 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 17 17 

From end of snout to vent 43 46 

Fore limb 15 15 

Hind limb 22 22 

Tail 74 73 

Morocco. 
a. 2 • Tangiers. M. H. Vaucher [C.]. 

* Besides the specimen in the Collection, this description is taken from the 
types in the Senckenberg Museum. 

VOL. III. E 



50 LACERTID^. 

4. Psammodromus algirus. 

A'gira barbarica, Gray, Cat. p. 35. 
Lacerta algira, Linn. S. N. i. p. 363. 
Scincus algira, Daud. Rept. iv. p. "iOQ. 
Tropido.<aura algira, Fxtzimj. N. Class. Rept. p. 52 ; Dum. ^ Bihi: v. 

p. 169; Bonap. Faun. Ital.; Straiich, Erp. Alg. p. 31; Boetfg. 

Abh. Senck. Ges. ix. 1874, p. 129: Schreib. Her p. Eur. p. 455; 

De rianci/. Bull. Soc. Zuol. France, 1878, p. 309 ; Bedriaqa, Arch. 

f. Xat. 1.S79, p. 332, and Abh. Senck. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 418. 
Lacerta (Algira) cuvieri, Gray, Griff". A. K. ix. Syn. p. 35. 
Algira barbarica, Gucr. Icon. R. A., Rept. pi. v. fig. 2. 
Psammiiros algira, Wayl. Syst. Amph. p. 156. 
Algira (Tropidosaura) algira, Boetty. Abh. Senck. Ges. xiii. 1883, 

p. IIG, and in Kobelf, Reis. Aly. Tunis, p. 468. 

TTie suture between the rostral and the first labial falls below the 
centre of the nostril. Xo gular fold ; no trace of a collar. 30 or 
32 (to 3G) scales round the middle of the bodj-, ventrals included. 
Ventrals subequal, a little broader than long, roundish hexagonal, 
strongly imbricate. The adpressed hind limb reaches the axilla 
or the shoulder ; foot as long as the distance between the arm 
and the anterior border of the orbit ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 
tubercular, or feebly but distinctly bicarinate. 16 to 20 femoral 
pores on each side. Tail at least twice as long as head and body ; 
upper caudal scales like the dorsals. Bronzy above, with one or 
two golden, dark-edged lateral streaks ; male with a pale blue 
ocellus above the shoulder, sometimes followed by one or two more ; 
lower surfaces whitish. 

6. 9. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 266 222 

Head 20 16 

Width of head 13 11 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 29 24 

From end of snout to vent 76 72 

Fore limb 27 24 

Hind limb 45 41 

Tail 190 150 

South of France, Spain and Portugal, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis. 

a. 2 • Madrid. M. V. L. Seoane [P.]. 

b-c. (5 2 . Algarve. Dr. H. Gadow [C]. 

d-f. J,?, & yg. Tangiers. M. H. Vaucher [C.]. 

g, h, i, k. (^ 2- Algeria. 

l-m. c? & yg. ? St. George Mivart, Esq. [P.]. 



7. TROPIDOSAURA. 

Tropidosaura, part., Fifzing. N. Classif. Rept. p. 22 ; Dum. ^- Bibr. 

v. p. 163 ; Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 417. 
Tropidosaurus, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 35. 
Tropidosaura, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 35. 



4 



7. TROPIDOSAURA. 51 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between two or three 
nasals, well separated from the first labial. Lower oyehd scaly. 
Collar absent ; a short fold in front of the arm. Back covered with 
large hexagonal-lanceolate, strongly keeled, and imbricate scales ; 
ventral plates smooth, imbricate. Digits subcylindrical, with smooth 
or indistinctly keeled lamellae inferiorly. Femoral pores. Tail 
cylindrical. 

South Africa. 

1. Tropidosanra montana. 

Notopholis ? capensis, Gray, Cat. p. 34. 

Tropidosaura montana, Gray, I. c. p. 35. 
Lacerta (Tropidosaurus) mootanus, Gray, Grif. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 35. 
Tropidnsaura montana, Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. l~-2; Bedr. I. c. p. 428. 
burchellii, iSinith, 111. S. Afr., Rept., App. p. 7. 

In habit similar to Lacerta vivipara. Usually two superposed 
postnasals, the lower of which may form a suture with the rostral ; 
supraoculars in contact with the supraciliaries, first largest and 
separated from the loreal by a very small shield, third smallest ; 
interparietal much longer than broad; occipital small ; two enlarged 
supratemporal shields border the parietal ; temple with irregular 
smooth shields ; an enlarged tympanic shield ; subocular bordering 
the lip, between the fourth and fifth upper labials. Gular scales 
large and strongly imbricate ; the two or three anterior pairs of 
chin-shields in contact. 24 to 30 scales, ventrals included, round 
the middle of the body. Ventrals strongly imbricate, in six lon- 
gitudinal series, those of the median and outer series scarcely 
broader than long, the others much broader than long ; they form 
22 to 26 transverse series. A large median praeanal plate, bor- 
dered by one or two semicircles of small plates. The adpressed 
hind limb does not reach the axilla. 4 to 7 femoral pores on 
each side. Tail about twice as long as head and body. Olive- 
brown above, with two dark and two light longitudinal streaks on 
each side ; a more or less distinct dark vertebral streak ; lower 
surfaces pale, uniform or spotted with black. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 167 142 

Head 12 10 

Width of head 8 6 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 20 15 

From end of snout to vent 57 49 

Fore limb 18 15 

Hind limb 26 19 

Tail 110 93 

Eastern districts of the Cape Colony and Kaffraria. 

a. Stuffed. S. Africa. (Type of Notopholis canensis.) 

h-e. (5 5. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (types of 

Tropidosaura burchellii.) 
E 2 



52 LACEKTID^. 



8. NUCRAS. 



Nucras, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 280; Lataste, Ann. Mus. 

Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 124. 
Lacerta, part., Diim. ^ Bibr. v. p. 174 ; Bedriaga, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. 

xiv. 186G, p. 24. 
Nucras, part., Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 33. 
Zootoca, part., Gray, I. c. p. 27. 
Bettaia, Bedriaga, I. c. p. 435. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril well separated from the labials, 
pierced between two or three nasals. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar 
well-marked. Dorsal scales small, juxtaposed; ventral shields 
squarish, feebly imbricate, smooth. Digits subcylindrical, with 
smooth or very feebly keeled lamella) interiorly. Femoral pores. 
Tail long, cylindrical. 

Tropical and South Africa, 

1. Nucras tessellata. 

Zootoca tfeniolata, Gray, Cat. p. 29. 
Nucras tessellata, Gray, I. c. p. 33. 
Lacerta tessellata, Smith, Mag. N. H. (2) ii. 1838, p. 92; Dtan. 8,- 

Bibr. V. p. 244 : Peters, Reise n. Mossamh. iii. p. 44 ; Bedriaga, 

Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 374. 

livida, Smith, I. c. 

elegaus, Smith, I. c. 

tfeniolata, Smith, I. c. p. 93 ; Dum. (§• Bibr. p. 247 ; Bedriaga^ 

I. c. p. 381. 
Teira ornata, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 58. 
Eremias liolubi, Steindachn. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixxxvi. 1882, p. 83, 

pi. — * . 
Lacerta cameranoi, Bedriaga, I. c. p. 378 *. 

Body elongate ; head moderate, slightly depressed, its length (to 
ear-opening) contained four and one third to five times in the 
distance from end of snout to vent. One or two postnasals ; a few 
granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; inter- 
parietal long and narrow ; occipital very small ; subocular bordering 
the lip, between the fourth and fifth upper labials ; temple granular ; 
two or three enlarged supratemporals border the parietal ; usually 
a small tympanic shield. Gular scales small, smooth ; collar with 
very slightly toothed edge, formed of 7 to 11 plates. Dorsal scales 
granular, roundish or hexagonal, smooth, a little larger on the sides ; 
40 to 48 scales across the middle of the body ; ventrals in 6 or 
8 longitudinal and 27 to 33 transverse series. Preeanal region 
usually with two large median shields, one before the other, or 
three shields forming a triangle. Limbs moderate, overlapping 
when adpressed ; foot longer than the head (to occipital shield). 
Femoral pores 11 to 16. Tail twice to thrice as long as head 
and body ; caudal scales strongly keeled. Colour very variable ; 
upper parts brownish, with or without dark and light longitudinal 

* Tj'pes examined. 



8, NUCRAg. 53 

lines ; sides usually dark browu, with round ■white spots or vertical 
bars ; lower surfaces white, immaculate. 

6. ?. 

millim. milliiu. 

Total length 250 234 

Head 18 19 

Width of head 12 13 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 28 30 

From end of snout to vent 80 94 

Fore limb 25 26 

Hind limb 38 40 

Tail 170 140 * 

Tropical and South Africa. 

a-b, c-d, e-f, g-i, S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

k. d,$,&hgr. 
I. Ho:r. S. Africa. 

in. Yg. Zambesi. Sir J. Kirk [P.]. (Type of 

Teira ornata.) 
n-o. (S 2 . Lake Nyassa. 



2. Nucras delalandii. 

Nucras lalaiidii, Gray, Cat. p. 33. 
Lacerta lalandii, M.-Edw. Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, pp. 70, 84. 

intertexta, Smith, May. N. H. (2) ii. 1838, p. 93. 

Eremias (Nucras) lalandii, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 280. 

Lacerta delaUmdii, Dum. i^- Bibr. v. p. 241, pi. xlviii. 

Bettaia delalandii, Bedriagu, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiv. 1886, p. 435. 

Body much elongate in the adult : head small, not depressed, its 
length (to ear-opening) contained five and one fourth to six times 
in the length from end of snout to vent in the adult, four and a half 
to five times in the young. Two superposed postnasals ; no granules 
between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; interparietal long 
and narrow ; occipital very small ; subocular bordering the lip 
between the fourth and fifth (rarely fifth and sixth) upper labials; 
temple granular ; two or three enlarged siipratemporals border the 
parietal ; tympanic absent or very small. Gular scales small, 
smooth ; collar with very slightly toothed edge, formed of 7 to 13 
plates. Dorsal scales granular, smooth, larger on the sides, where 
they pass into the veutrals ; 35 to 40 scales across the middle of 
the body ; ventrals in 8 longitudinal series, outer narrowest, and 
33 to 37 transverse series. Prceanal region with several plates, 
the postero-median of which is usually the largest. Limbs short, 
separated or just meeting when adpressed in the adult, overlapping 
in the young ; foot not longer than the head (to occipital shield). 
Femoral pores 10 to 14. Tail thick, once and two thirds to twice 



Tail injured. 



54 



LACERTIB^. 



as long as head and body ; upper caudal scales strongly keeled. 
Greyish or brownish above, with large black spots sometimes 
confluent into irregular transverse bands on the back ; the black 
spots with round white ones in the centre ; lips with vertical 
black bars ; lower surfaces white (in spirit), black-spotted in the 
adult. 

<^. 2, 

millim. millim. 

Total length 289 337 

Head 17 20 

Width of head 12 14 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 27 35 

From end of snout to vent 94 112 

Fore limb 24 27 

Hind limb 35 39 

Tail 195 225 

South Africa. 

a, b-d. c?, $ , & hgr. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

e-f, g. d , ? , & yg. S. Africa. 

h. S ■ Peri Bush, S.E. H. Trevelyan, Esq. [P.]. 

Africa. 
i. S ■ Eastern District of F. P. M. Weale, Esq. 

Cape Colony. [P.]. 

k. d . Damaraland. 

9. LATASTIA. 

Latastia, Bedriaga, Ann. Mns. Genova, xx. 1884, p. 307 ; Lataste, 
Arm. Mus. Genova, (2) ii. 1885, p. 125. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between two or three 
nasals and the first upper labial. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar well- 
marked. Dorsal scales juxtaposed or imbricate ; ventral shields 
quadrangular, feebly imbricate, smooth. Digits subcylindrical, with 
keeled lamellae inferiorly. Femoral pores. Tail long, cylindrical. 

East Africa north of the equator ; Arabia. 

Synopsis of iJie Species. 

I. Dorsal and lateral scales small, subequal ; two superposed post- 

nasals. 

More than 50 scales (counting from the ven- [p. 55. 

trals) across the middle of the body 1. longicaudata, 

Less than 50 scales across the body 2. boscee, p. 56, 

II. Scales on the back larger than those on the flanks, imbricate. 

Two superposed postnasals ; dorsal scales sharply 

keeled 3. carinata, p. 56. 

A single postnasal ; dorsal scales smooth or 

obtusely keeled 4. sjmialis, p. 57. 



« 



9. LATASTIA. 65 

1. Latastia longicaudata. 

Lacerta longicaudata, Hetiss, Mus. Senck. i. p. 29 *. 

samharica, Blanf. Zoul. Abyss, p. 449, Mg. 

sturti, Bhmf. I. c. p. 4;j2, tig. 

Ereniias revoili, Vaill. Miss. R^voil aux Pays Comalis, Hept. p. 20, 

pi. iii. fig. 2 *. _ 
Latastia doriai, Bedriaga, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xx. 1884, p. 313. 
samharica, Bedriaya, I. c. p. 319. 

Head rather elongate ; snout obtuse. Two sui^erposed post- 
nasals ; frontal narrowed posteriorly, more or less distinctly grooved 
anteriorly ; two large supraoculars, with a few small shields in 
front and behind, and a series of granules externally ; interparietal 
narrow, much longer than broad ; occipital small ; a small shield is 
occasionally present between the two latter ; a band-like shield 
borders the parietal, and another, curved one, the ear supero- 
anteriorly ; temporal scales granular, smooth or obtusely keeled ; 
no auricular denticulation ; subocular bordering the lip, between 
the fifth and sixth or sixth and seventh upper labials. Gular 
scales small, smooth : the three anterior pairs of chin-shields in 
contact; collar slightly curved, with toothed edge, formed of 9 
to 11 large plates. Dorsal scales small, granular or rhomboidal, 
juxtaposed, smooth on the nape, more or less distinctly keeled 
and increasing slightly in size on the back; 55 to 65 scales across 
the middle of the body (counting from the ventials). Ventral 
plates in G or 8 straight longitudinal and 27 to 30 transverse series 
(from the collar-fold to the pra^anal region) : the shields of the 
two median series narrower ; the outermost series, if present, com- 
posed of still smaller shields ; a group of smaller irregular shields 
on the pectoral region. Preeanal region covered with small irre- 
gular shields, or with a large transverse postero-median shield. 
The hind limb reaches the collar or between the latter and the ear ; 
a series of very large, and one of smaller, subtibial plates. 5 to 
12 femoral pores on each side. Tail more than twice as long as 
head and body ; upper caudal scales strongly keeled, basal sub- 
caudals smooth. Yellowish or pale brown above, with longitudinal 
blackish streaks or series of spots on the back ; the vertebral streak 
is the most constant ; a brown band on each side of the body, usually 
bearing a series of large blue ocelli ; sides of head and body fre- 
quently with vertical black bars ; upper surface of limbs with dark 
network ; lower surfaces white. 

.^.- .2- 

millim. millim. 

Total length 327 333 

Head 24 20 

Width of head 14 12 

From end of snout to fore limb . 43 34 



Types examined. 



56 lACEKTID^. 

c?. .$. 

millim. millim. 

From end of snout to vent .... 107 S3 

Fore limb 34 29 

Hind limb 62 53 

Tail 220 250 

Arabia, Abyssinia, Somaliland, Taita. 

a-h. S . Coast of Abyssinia. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

(Types of Lacerta samharica.) 

c. $ . Komayli Pass, Abys- W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

sinia. (Type of Lacerta stiirti.) 

d. S • Rugdeia Sogbeira, Adal. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. (One of 

tlie types of Latadia doriui.) 
e-ff. (S & yg. Keren, Bogos. Marquis G. Uoria [P.]. (Types 

of X. doriai, var. martensi.) 



2. Latastia boscaB *. 

Latastia boscai, Bedriaffa, Aim. Mus. Genova, xx. 1885, p. 322. 

Very closely allied to the preceding. Dorsal scales elongate, 
hexagonal, keeled only on the hinder part of the back, 42 to 46 
across the middle of the body. No irregular smaller scales on the 
pectoral region. Femoral pores 10. The adpressed hind limb 
reaches the shoulder or halfway between the collar and the 
ear. Pale brown above, -with five or seven blackish longitudinal 
streaks on the back ; sides black, with large round white spots and 
a few blue ocelli. 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 150 From end of snout 

Head 12 to vent 50 

Width of head 7 Fore limb 17 

From end of snout Hind limb 32 

to fore limb .... 21 Tail 100 

Abyssinia. 

3. Latastia carinata. 

Lacerta carinata, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 368, pi. — . fig. 1 f . 

Also very closely allied to L. lomjicaudata. Dorsal scales granular 
and smooth on the nape, rhomboidal, strongly keeled and gradually 
much enlarged on the back, and passing into the caudals; the 
lateral scales smaller ; 45 or 46 scales across the middle of the 
body. Femoral pores 11. Light brown above, tinged with reddish; 
a lateral irregular dark band with a series of large blue ocelli. 



* Described from the type specimens iu the Genoa Museum, 
t Type (8028) examined. 



9. LATA8TIA. 67 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 290 From end of snout 

Head 21 to vent 80 

"Width of head .... 12 Fore limb 25 

From end of snout Hind limb 50 

to fore limb .... 32 Tail 210 

Brava, East Africa. 

4. Latastia spinalis *. 

Laeerta spinalis, Peters, Man. Bed. Ac. 1874, p. 3G9, pi. — . fig. 2. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. A single postnasal ; frontal 
narrowed posteriorly, feebly grooved ; two large supraoculars, pre- 
ceded and followed by a few small shields, and separated from the 
Bupraciliaries by a series of granules ; interparietal very narrow t ; 
a small occipital ; a band-like shield usually borders the parietal 
externally, and another, curved one, the ear supero-anteriorly ; 
temporal scales granular, smooth; no auricular denticulation ; sub- 
ocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth or fifth and 
sixth upper labials. Gular scales moderate, gradually increasing in 
size towards the collar, which is angular, with toothed edge, and 
composed of 8 to 10 plates; the three anterior pairs of chin- 
shields in contact. Xuchal scales granular, convex ; four longitu- 
dinal series of large, irregular, imbricate, smooth, or feebly keeled 
scales along the middle of the back ; lateral scales small, smooth or 
feebly keeled, imbricate ; 34 to 42 scales across the middle of the 
body. Ventral plates in 6 straight longitudinal and 27 to 32 trans- 
verse series ; the plates of the median and outer series narrower 
than the others, but much broader than long ; no small pectoral 
scales. Proeanal plates small and irregular, or two median enlarged. 
Femoral pores 12 to 15. Tail twice to twice and a half as long 
as head and body; upper caudal scales strongly keeled, basal 
subcaudals smooth. The type specimen is brown above, with 
six lighter longitudinal streaks; lower surfaces and upper lip 
white. The specimen in the Collection is pale brown above, 
with a lateral series of black spots. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 168 From end of snout 

Head 12 to vent 55 

^Yidth of head .... 7 Fore limb 19 

From end of snout Hind limb 34 

to fore limb 19 Tail 113 

Abyssinia. 

a- c? • E.ugdeia Sogheira, Adal. Marquis G. Doria [P.]- 

* This species is described from the specimen in the Collection, as well as from 
the type (7()33) and a male from Adal Country (10270) in the Berlin Museum, 
and a female specimen in Dr. v. Bedriaga's collection. 

t Its absence in the type specimen is au individual anomaly. 



58 LACERTIDJi;. 

10. ACANTHODACTYLUS. 

Acantliodactylus (Fifz.), Wicgm. Jlerp. Mcx. p. 10; Binn. ^- Bihr. 
T. p. L^Go ■, Gray, t'ut. Liz. p. 36 ; Schreih. Ilerp. Evr. p. 383 •, 
Boulenq. Bull. Soc. Zoul. Fiance, 1878, p. 181 ; Lat.aste, Ann. 31vs. 
Genoi\ (2) ii. 1885, pp. 125, 477. 

Scapteira, part., Graxj, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 280. 

Ida, part., Gray, I. c. p. 281. 

Meroles, part., Gray, I. c. p. 282. 

Head-sbields normal, occipital absent. Nostril pierced between 
two nasals and the first labial. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar more 
or less distinct. Dorsal scales juxtaposed or imbricate ; ventrals 
smooth, slightly imbricate. Digits keeled inferiorly and more or 
less strongly fringed laterally. Femoral pores. Tail subcylin- 
drical. 

South of Spain and Portugal ; Africa north of the equator ; 
South-western Asia eastwards to the Punjab. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Posterior dorsal scales very much larger than the anterior, 

strongly imbricate, sharply keeled, passing gradually into the 
caudals ; not more than 16 longitudinal rows of keeled scales 
between the hind limbs. 

Snout obtuse ; seldom more than 10 ventral 

plates across the middle of the body. ... 1. bosJcianus, p. 59. 
Snout acute; 12 or 14 ventral plates across 

the middle of the body 2. cantoris, p. 60. 

II. Posterior dorsal scales but little enlarged. 

A. Not more than 10 ventral plates across the middle of the 
body, those of the median series much broader than long. 

1. Four supraoculars, forming sutures with one another. 

Dorsal scales very strongly keeled 3. sijriacus, p. 61. 

Dorsal scales obtusely keeled ; temporal 

scales not keeled 4. schreiberi, p. 62. 

2. A large anterior supraocular, fre- 

quently separated from the second 
by a series of granules ; fourth 
supraocular broken up into gra- 
nules ; the hind limb reaches the 
ear, or beyond 5. micropJiolis, p. 63. 

3. Only two large supraoculars, the first and fourth being 

broken up into small scales or granules ; the hind limb 
not reaching the ear. 

Upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; the 
outer edge of the fourth toe strongly 
pectinate 6. savignyi, p. 63. 



i 



10. ACANTHODACTTT.rS. 69 

Upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; toes 

very feebly but symmetrically pectinate. 9. vulgaris, p. 67. 

Scales on tbe basal third of the tail per- 
fectly smooth ; toes very feebly pectinate 10. tristnimi,'^. %9>. 

B. More than 10 ventral jjlatcs across the middle of the body. 

Yentrals in 14 to 18 longitudinal series, 

not broader than long ; snout acute ; the 

scales forming the digital ])ectiuation 

(fourth toe) at least as long as the dia- 
meter of the corresponding part of the 

toe 7. scutellahcs, p. 64. 

Yentrals in 12 or 14 longitudinal series, the 

median broader than long ; snout more 

obtuse ; the scales forming the digital 

pectination shorter than the diameter of 

the corresponding part of the toe 8. pardalis, p. 65. 

1. Acanthodactylus boskianus. 

Acanthodactyliis boskianus, Gray, Cat. p. 38. 
Lacerta boskiana, Daud. Rept. iii. p. 188, pi. xxxvi. fig. 2 ; Licht. 

Verz. Douhl. Mus. Bed. p. 103 ; And. Descr. Egypte, Rept., Suppl. 

p. 173, pi. i. fig. 9. 

aspera, And. I. c. p. 174, pi. i. fig. 10. 

Acanthodactylus boskiauus, Wiegm. Herp. Me.r. p. 10; Dnm. 8j- 

Bihr. \. p. 278 ; Strauch, Erp. Alg. p. 38 ; Bonleng. Bull. Soc. 

Zool. France, 1878, p. 182, aW Froc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 744, 

pi. ixiii. fig. 2 ; Eimer,Arch. f. Nat. 1881, pi. xv. fig. 26 j Lataste, 

Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 18S5, p. 496. 
Scapteira insequalis, Gray, Ann. K. H. i. 1838, p. 280. 
Acanthodactylus asperus, Bonap. Faun. Ral. 

Snout obtuse. Four supraoculars, the fourth very seldom broken 
up into small scales ; subocular not reaching the lip ; temporals 
smooth or more or less strongly keeled ; front edge of the ear 
usually distinctly denticulated. Dorsal scales strongly keeled, very 
much larger on the hinder part of the back than between the 
shoulders and on the flanks, rhomboidal, strongly imbricate ; 10 to 
14 (seldom 16, according to Lataste) large keeled scales on a 
transverse line between the hind limbs. Yentral plates considerably 
broader than long, in straight longitudinal and transverse series ; 
]0 (seldom 12) plates across the middle of the body. A median 
series of broad praeanal plates, posterior largest. The hind limb 
reaches the shoulder, the ear, or the eye. Digital denticula- 
tions strong, usually shorter than the corresponding diameter of 
the toe, much more developed on the outer than on the inner edge 
of the fourth toe. Upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; the scales 
under the base of the tail smooth or obtusely keeled. Young with 
whitish longitudinal lines separated by blackish interspaces with 



60 LAOTRTID^. 

series of round whitish spots ; these markings become more indi- 
stinct or disappear Avith age, the adult being greyish, brownish, 
or buff, with or without small blackish spots. 

6. 2- 

millim. millim. 

Total length 205 186 

Head 18 15 

Width of head 13 11 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 27 25 

From end of snout to vent 75 66 

Fore limb 26 23 

Hind limb 40 39 

Tail 130 120 

North Africa ; Abyssinia ; Arabia ; Syria ; Persia (?). 

This species presents two extreme forms, graduating into each 
other — the typical {L. hoshiana of Daudin and Audouin) with 
smaller dorsal scales, hitherto found only in Egj'pt ; and the var. 
asjJer, Aud., with larger scales, having a wide geographical range. 
Through the typical form this species is connected with A. syriacus, 
which leads to A. schreiheri, A. micropkolis, and A. savignyi. 
Besides, the transition from A. bosJcianus to A. cantoris is so com- 
plete as to render the naming of certain specimens almost arbitrary. 

a. c?. Algeria. 

6. c?. Bordj Medjej, Algeria. M. Lataste [P.J. 

c. (S . Bou Saada, Algeria. M. Lataste [P.J. 

d. S. Tunis. Mr. Fraser [C.]. 

e. cJ. Zarzis, Tunis. M. Lataste [P.]. 

/. c? • Egypt. J. Burton, Esq. [P.]. (Type 

of Scapteira incequalis.) 

g-h. S ? • Egypt. A. Paul, Esq. [P.]. 

e-?n. cJjSi&yg- Egypt. 

n. cf. Upper Nile. Consul Petberick [C.]. 

0. S ■ Zoulea, Anuesley Bay, W. T. Blauford, Esq. [P.]. 

Abyssinia. 

•p. 5 . Arabia. Capt. Burton [P.]. 

q-r. S & hgr. Siuaitic peninsula. H. C. Hart, Esq. [C.]. 
s-x. cJ,$,&;hgr. Mt. Sinai. 

y. $ . Neby Musa, bills to west Dr. Anderson [P.]. 

of Dead tSea. *" 



2. Acanthodactyliis cantoris. 




pi. Ixiv. fig. 3 ; 31urray, Zool. Sind, p. 3-18 ; Lataste, Ann. 3Ius. 
Genov. {2) ii. 1885, p. 507. 
? Acanthodactylus micropholis (non Blanf.), Murray^ I. c. 

Snout usually longer than in A. bosl-ianus, acutely pointed ; in 
consequence, the frontonasal and prsefrontal shields more elongate. 



10. ACAXTHODACTYLCS. 61 

Four supraoculars ; subocular not reachiii{]j the lip ; temporal scales 
keeled ; front edge of the ear usually rather feebly, but distinctly, 
denticulated. Dorsal scales strongly keeled, very much larger on 
the hinder part of the back than between the shoulders and on the 
flanks, rhomboidal, strongly imbricate ; 10 to IG large keeled 
scales on a transverse line between the hind limbs. Ventral plates 
usually broader than long, narrower than in A. bosJdanus, in straight 
longitudinal and slightly angular transverse series ; 12 or 14 
plates across tho middle of the body. Usually a median series 
of broad pra^anals, posterior largest. The hind limb reaches the ear 
or the eye. Digital denticulations strong, usually as long as the 
diameter of the corresponding part of the toe, much more developed 
on the outer than on the inner edge of the fourth toe. Upper caudal 
scales strongly keeled : basal subcaudals smooth or obtusely keeled. 
Coloration as in A. boslianus. 

6: J. 

millim. raillim. 

Total length 22-5 From end of snout 

Head 17 to vent 70 

Width of head 11 Fore limb 26 

From end of snout Hind limb 49 

to fore limb 2S Tail 155 

North-western India, from Agra to Sind, Baluchistan, South- 
eastern Persia. 

a-f. c? , $ , & hgr. Ramnugsrar. Dr. Cantor. (Types.) 

g-l. Hgr. & yg. Hissar, Delhi. T. C. Jerdon, P^sq. [P.]. 

m, n-q, r-w. d', $ , Sind. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

ligr-, & yg. 
•V- 6- Mand, Baluchistan. AV. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 

y-z. J$. Dasht Ptiver, Balu- W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.J. 

chistan. 
a-y-d2- Between Nushki and Dr. Aitchison [C.]. Afghan 

Helmand River. Boundary Commission. 

5. c?. Helmand River. Dr. Aitchison [C.]. Afghan 

Boundarv Commission. 
f- cJ- Near Bam, S.E.Persia. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 



3. Acanthodactylns syriacus. 

Acanthodactylus hoskiauus, var. svi'iacus, Boettff. Ber. Senck. Ges, 
1878-79, p". 69 ; LaUtste, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 496. 

savignyi, part., Boettg. Ber. Senck. Ges. 1879-80, p. 178. 

syriacus, Boulencj. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 745, pi. Ixiii. fio-, 4. 

Snout obtuse. Four supraoculars : subocular not reaching the 
lip ; temporal scales smooth or indistinctly keeled ; front edge of 
ear not or but very feebly denticulated. Dorsal scales strongly 
keeled, very small on the nape, gradually increasing in size towards 
the posterior part of the back, where they are very much smaller 
than the caudals, rhomboidal, imbricate; 18 to 22 keeled scales 



62 LACERTIDiE. 

in a cross series between the hind limbs. Ventral plates broader 
than long, not quite so broad as in A. boskianus, in 10 longi- 
tudinal series. Usually a median series of broad praeanals, pos- 
terior largest. The adpressed hind limb reaches the t3'mpanum, 
or between the latter and the shoulder. Digital denticulationa 
strong, shorter than the diameter of the corresponding part of the 
toe, more developed on the outer than on the inner edge of the 
fourth toe. Upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; basal subcaudals 
smooth. Coloration as in A. boslianiis, but the light dorsal lines 
narrower. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 210 From end of snout 

Head 17 to vent 75 

Width of head 13 Fore limb 27 

From end of snout Hind limb 49 

to fore limb 29^ TaU 135 

Syria, Northern Egypt. 

a-b. c? & hgr. Spia. 

c-d. 2 & ^D^- Beyrut. 

4. Acanthodactylus schreiberi. 

Acanthodactylus sarignyi (7ion And.), Sclireib. Herp. Eur. p. 387. 
. , var. schreiberi, Bouleng. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1878, 

p. 188. 

, part., Boettg. Ber. Senck. Ges. 1879-80, p. 178. 

schreiberi, Boideny. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 746; Lataste, Ann. 

Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 505. 

Snout obtuse. Four supraoculars ; subocular not reaching the 
lip ; temporal scales not keeled ; front edge of the ear indistinctly 
denticulated. Dorsal scales minute, granular, smooth on the nape 
and between the shoulders, slightly enlarged, rhomboidal, imbricate, 
very obtusely keeled or tectiform towards the hinder part of the 
body. Yentral plates broader than long, in 8 or 10 longitudinal 
series. A median series of broad praeanals, posterior largest. 
The hind limb reaches the shoulder. Digital denticulations rather 
feebly developed, much shorter than the diameter of the correspond- 
ing part of the toe, more developed on the outer than on the inner 
edge of the fourth toe. Upper caudal scales keeled ; basal sub- 
caudals smooth or indistinctly keeled. Greyish above, the young 
with longitudinal white bands and series of small round white 
spots in the interspaces ; adult with longitudinal series of blackish 
spots. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail re- From snout to vent . 74 
produced) 174 Fore limb 27 

Head 18 Hind limb 44 

Cyprus. 
a. Hgr. Cyprus. Lord Lilford [P.J. 



10. ACANTIIODACTYLtrS. 



63 



5. Acanthodactylus micropliolis. 

Acanthodactylus micropliolis, lUanf. Ann. Sf Mag. N. II. (4) xiv. 
Ls74, p. .3.'5, and E. Persia, Zool. p. ;38;5, pi. xxxl. H'^. 2 ; Bouleng. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 74o, pi. Ixiii. tig. 3; Lataste, Ann. Mus. 
Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 50^. 

Snout obtuse. Three supraoculars, the fourth beiuiij broken up 
into granules, the first usually separated from the second by a series 
of granules ; subocular usually bordering the lip ; temporal scales 
smooth ; front edge of the ear very feebly denticulated. Dorsal 
scales more or less strongly keeled, very small on the nape, gra- 
dually increasing in size tosvards the posterior part of the back, 
where they are very much smaller than the caudals, rhomboidal, 
feebly imbricate. Ventral plates broader than long, in 10 longitu- 
dinal series. Praianals usually small, irregular or with a mediau 
series of transversel}' enlarged ones. The adpressed hind limb 
reaches the tympanum or the eye. Digital dcnticulations mode- 
rately developed, much shorter than the diameter of the correspond- 
ing part of the toe, usually more developed on the outer than on the 
inner edge of the fourth toe *. Upper caudal scales keeled ; basal 
subcaudals smooth or obtusely keeled. Grey above, with white 
longitudinal lines on the body and round spots on the limbs ; the 
interspaces between the light lines frequently blackish, with a series 
of small round white spots. 



6- 

millim. 

. 187 
. 15 



Total length 

Head 

Width of head 10-5 

From end of snout to fore limb 26 

from end of snout to vent 62 

Fore limb 26 

Hind limb 48 

Tail 125 



5, 

millim. 
— t 
14 
10 
24 
60 
24 
43 



Baluchistan, South-eastern Persia. 

a-b. (^ 2 • Magas, Baluchisian. 
2 ■ Bampur, Baluchistan. 

Near Rigan, Narmashir, 
S.E. Persia. 



d. J. 



W. T. Blanford,Esq. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. 




6. Acanthodactylus savignyi *. 

Lacerta savignvi, Aud. Desa: Egypte, Rept., Suppl. p. 172, pi. i. 

fig. 8 ; M.-E'dio. Ann. Se. Nat. xvi. 1829, pp. 73, 85. 
Acanthodactylus savignyi, part., Vaill. Miss. Revoil aux Pays Comalis, 

Rept. p. 19. 
vaillanti, Lataste, Ann. Mus, Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 509. 

* The digital structure described by Lataste is abnormal, 
t Tail lost. 

X Described from a specimen from Somaliland in the Paris Museum (no. 
6484, type of A. vaillanti). 



64 LACERTIB^. 

Snout obtuse. Two supraoculars, the first and fourth being 
broken up into numerous small scales and granules ; subocular 
bordering the lip ; temporal scales keeled ; front edge of the ear 
not distinctly denticulated. Dorsal scales strongly keeled, minute 
anteriorly and on the sides, larger, rhomboidal, strongly imbricate 
and keeled posteriorly. Ventral plates considerably broader than 
long, in straight longitudinal and transverse series ; 1 plates across 
the middle of the body. A median series of broad pra^anals, pos- 
terior largest. The hind limb reaches between the collar and the 
ear. Digital denticulations strong, shorter than the corresponding 
diameter of the toe, much more developed on the outer than on the 
inner edge of the fourth toe. Upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; 
basal subcaudals smc)oth. Yellowish grey above, with four longitu- 
dinal series of squarish brown spots on the nape and the anterior 
part of the body ; these spots more irregular on the hinder part of 
the back ; flanks and limbs with rather indistinct light ocelli. 



millim. 


millim 


Total length 215 


From end of snout to 


Head 17 


vent 73 


Width of head 12 


Fore limb 26 


From end of snout to 


Hind limb 46 


fore limb 29 


Tail 142 



Egypt, Somaliland. 

7. Acanthodactylus scutellatus. 

Acanthodactylus scutellatus, Gray, Cat. p. 37. 

• inornatus, Gray, Cat. p. .38. 

Lacerta grammica, part., Licht. Verz. Doubl. Mvs. Berl. p. 100. 
scutellata, Aud. Descr. Er/ypte, Rept., Suppl. p. 172, pi. i. fig. 7 ; 

M.-Edio. Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi.'i829, pp. 74, 85, pi. vi. fig. 3. 

olivieri, part., Aud. I. c. p. 174, pi. i. fig. 11. 

dumerilii, M.-Edw. I. c. pp. 75, 85, pi. vii. fig. 9. 

Scapteira inornata, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 281. 

Meroles dumerilii, Gray, I. c. p. 282. 

Acanthodactylus scutellatus, Dum. Sf Bibr. v. p. 272 ; Strauch,Erp. 

Alg. p. 36 ; Steiyid. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixii. i. 1870, p. 331 ; Boideng. 

Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1878, p. 18o, and Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, 

p. 744, pi. ixiii. fig-. 2 ; Boetty. Ahh. Se^ick. Ges. xii. 1881, p. 401 ; 

Lataste, An7i. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 491. 
savignyi, var. schreiberi (iion BouL), Vaill. Miss. Bevoil aux 

Pays Coynalis, Rept. p. 20. 

Snout acute. Four supraoculars, fourth sometimes broken up ; 
subocular not reaching the lip ; temporals more or less distinctly 
keeled ; front edge of the ear usually strongly denticulated. Dorsal 
scales very small, rhomboidal, very slightly enlarged towards the 
posterior part of the body. Ventral plates as long as broad, or a 
little longer than broad, in irregular longitudinal and angular trans- 
verso series ; 14 to 18 plates in a transverse scries in the middle 
of the body. Pra^anals usually small and irregidar. The hind 
limb reaches the tympanum or between the latter and the shoulder. 



10. ACANXnODACTTLTTS, G5 

Digital deuticulations strong, at least as long as tho diameter of the 
corresponding part of the toe, much more developed on the outer 
than on the inner edge of the fourth toe. Greyish above, dotted 
or reticulated with darker ; young with or without white longitu- 
dinal lines. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 17;} 144 

Head 16 13 

^Vidthofhead 12 10 

From end of snout to fore limb 23 21 

From end of snout to vent 63 57 

Fore limb 23 20 

Hind limb 44 35 

Tail 110 87 

Senegambia, North Africa, Soraaliland, Sinaitic Peninsula, Syria. 

Lataste has distinguished three varieties, which do not seem to 
me to deserve special denominations : the typical form (var. scutel- 
lata), of which measurements are given above, from Egypt and 
Syria; a smaller variety, var. exiyua, Lat. ( = inornata. Gray), 
apparently restricted to the Sahara ; and var. dumerilii, M.-Edw., 
from Senegambia. 



a-e. S & Vg. 


Senegambia. 


Baron v. Maltzan [C.]. 


f-ff. Ilgr. 


Cape Verd. 


M. Boucard [C.]. 


h. 2- 


Tuggurt, Algeria. 


M. Lataste 


P.'. 


i. 6- 


Bled Abmar, Algeria. 


M. Lataste 


^P.J. 


k-n. c? 2 . 


Hadjira, Algeria. 


M. Lataste 


'P.' . 


o-r. J ? . 


Lagiiouat, Algeria. 


M. Lataste 


■P.\ 


s. $. 


Ouargla, Algeria. 


M. Lataste 


[P.-. 


t-v. cS. 


Bou Saada, Algeria. 


M. Lataste 


p:. 


w. $. 


Tripoli. 


J. Ritchie, I 


isQ. [P.]. (Type 






of Scapteira tuornata.) 


X. d. 


Eg}T*- 




y-=- 6 2- 


Mt. Sinai. 




«-(3, y. J $ . 


Jerusalem. 




8-e. d . 


Jaffa. 







8. Acanthodactylus pardalis. 

Acanthodactyliis savignyi, Grcnj, Cat. p. 37. 
Lacerta pardalis, Licht. Verz. Douhl. Mus. Beii. p. 99 *. 
? Lacerta deserti (iion Lep^ch.), M.-Edw. Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, 

pp. 79, 86, pi. vi. fig. 8, and pi. viii. fig. 6. 
Scapteira maculata, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 18.38, p. 281. 
Acanthodactylus savignyi, part., Dum. ^- Bib}-, v. p. 746 ; GuicJien. 

Explor. Sc. Ah/., Rept. p. 14. 
Zootoca deserti, (?(i«//^. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 470, and 1864, p. 488. 
Acanthodactylus savignyi, Licht. Nom. Rept. Mus. Bei'ol. p. 15 ; 

Strauch, Erp. Alg. p. 36 ; Lataste, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, 

p. 483. 
Lacerta deserti, Strauch, I. c. p. 32. 

• Types (nos. 1072, 1074, 1075, 1076) examined. 
OL. IIT. F 



66 LACERTID^. 

Acanthodactylus bedrinjrai, Latadc,Lc Natur. 1881, p. 3o7 ; Bcnileng. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 74G, pi. Ixiii. fig. 1 ; Boetty. in Kobelt, 

Reis. Alg. u. Tun. p. 460. 
vulgaiis (non D. 4" -C-), Vaill. Miss. Itevoil aux Pays Comalis, 

Rept. p. 19. ' 

Snout obtuse or, at any rate, less acute than in A. scutellatus. 
Three supraoculars, the anterior frequently divided into two or 
three ; subocular usually not reaching the lip ; temporal scales not 
keeled; front edge of ear more or less distinctly denticulated. 
Dorsal scales very small, subgranular or rhomboidal, smooth or 
more or less distinctly keeled. Ventral plates broader than long, 
sometimes very slightly, in 12 or 14 regular longitudinal series ; 
the transverse series usually slightly angular. Usually a median 
series of transversely enlarged prajanals, posterior largest. The 
hind limb usually reaches the axil or the shoulder, seldom a 
little beyond the latter. Digital denticulations feebly or moderately 
developed, constantly much shorter than the diameter of the corre- 
sponding part of the toe, slightly more developed on the outer than 
on the inner side. Upper caudal scales keeled ; basal subcaudals 
smooth or feebly keeled. Young longitudinally streaked, as in 
A. vulgaris. Coloration of the adult very variable, usually with 
longitudi]ial blackish and yellowish spots, the latter sometimes con- 
fluent into longitudinal bands ; the desert specimens pale, greyish 
or reddish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 162 — * 

Head 15 16 

Width of head 12-5 12 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 25 27 

From end of snout to vent 70 77 

Fore limb 23 24 

Hind limb 35 35 

TaU 92 _ 

North Africa, Somaliland, Syria. 

A. pardalis is a transitional form between A. scutellatus and A. 
vulgaris. It is represented by two ill-defined varieties, which have 
been named by Lataste var. bedriagce, the larger, stouter form, 
approaching A. vulgaris in structure as well as coloration, of which 
dimensions are given above ; and var. deserti (=:S. maculata. Gray, 
Z. deserti, Gthr.), the smaller form from the Sahara, which often 
closely approaches A. scutellatus. 

a, b. (S 2- Algeria. 

c-d. J . El Guerah, Algeria. M. Lataste [P.]. (Types of A. 

bedriayai, var. bedriayai.) 



* Tail reproduced. 



10. ACANTIIODACTVLFS. 67 

e. S- Rotwoen Risln-a and INI. Lataste [P.]. ■] 

Laji-lioiiat, Algeria. I (Typos of ,1. 

f-g_ ^, Lnp-liouat. M. Lntaste [P.]. }■ bedririt/ai, 

h-i. cJ. Oiied Derinel, Algeria. M. Lataste | P."|. | w&wdeserti.) 

h-q. S ?• -1^'^" Saada, Algeria. M. Lataste [P.]. J 

r. Hgr. NXioussa, Algeria. Canon Tristram [C.]. 

(Type of Zootoca dcserti.) 
g. Yg. Riisa, Tunis. Mr. Fraser [C]. 

t-tt. 2 ^ ^S^- Tripoli. J. liitchie, Esq. [P.]. 

(Ty]ies of Svapteivd maculatu.) 
v-iv. S- Beorsbeba. Canon Tristram [0.]. 

0. Acanthodactylus vulgaris. 

Acanthodactvlus velox, Gray, Cat. p. 3G. 

bellii, Gray, I. c. 

lineomaeulatus, Gray, I. c. p. 37. 

Lacerta velox {non Pall.), M.-Ediu. Ann. Sc. Kat. xvi. 1829, pp. 78, 

85, pi. vi. fig. 0, and pi. vii. fig. 4; Duyls, Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. 

p. 383, pi. XV. fig. 6. 
Acanthodactvlus vulgaris. Dam. Sf Bihr. v. p. 268 ; Guichen. Explur. 

Sc. Alg., Bcpt. ^.\-\\ Straxch, Erp. Alg. p. 35 ; Sehreib. He.rp. 

Eur. p. 3iK); Bouleng. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1878, p. 195; 

Bvdriaga, Arch. f. Nat. 1879, p. 335 ; Boulenr/. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1881, p. 747, pi. Ixiv. fig. 4; Lataste, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 

1885, p. 477. 
lineomaeulatus, Dum. Sf Bibr, p. 276; Strauch, I. c. p. 37; 

Boetfy. Ahh. Scnck. Ges. ix. 1873, p. 129 ; Sehreib. I. c. p. 385 ; 

Boulcng. II. cc. pp. 191, 747 ; Boettg. Abh. Scnck. Ges. xiii. 1883, 

p. 114. 
Lacerta pardalis, Schleg. in Wagn. lieis. Algicr, iii. p. 115. 
Acanthodactylus boscliianus, Bonai). Faun. Ital. 

Snout obtuse. Two supraoculars, the first and fourth being 
broken up into small scales or granules ; subocular usually bordering 
the lip ; temporal scales smooth ; front edge of the ear not or but 
feebly denticulated. Dorsal scales smooth, or more or less distinctly 
keeled, small, rhomboidal, feebly imbricate on the back. Ventral 
plates much broader than long (the largest nearly or quite twice 
as broad as long), in straight longitudinal and transverse series ; 
8 or 10 plates across the middle of the body. A median 
series of broad pra3anals, posterior largest. The hind limb reaches 
usually the collar or the tympanum, sometimes not beyond the axil. 
Digital dcnticulatious very feebly developed, about equally on both 
sides. Upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; basal subcaudals smooth 
or feebly keeled. Young longitudinally streaked black and white 
on the body, with round white spots on the limbs. Adult greyish 
or brownish, with more or less distinct traces of light and dark 
longitudinal lines and longitudinal series of black and pale spots ; 
sometimes with large blue ocelli on the sides. 



Total length . 
Head 



6- 

millim. 


ri 

millim. 


177 


109 


16 


17 




p2 



68 LACERTIDiE. 

millim. millim. 

Width of head 13 13 

From ond of snout to fore Hmb .... 25 29 

From end of snout to vent 70 77 

Fore limb 25 2Q 

Hind limb , 41 44 

Tail 107 122 

S. France ; Spain and Portugal ; Morocco and Algeria. 

This species shows two extreme forms connected by inter- 
mediate ones, viz. the typical form, with smooth or nearly smooth 
dorsal scales, and the var. lineomaculatus, with all the dorsal scales 
keeled. 

a, h-d. S & y^- Tabernes de Valldigna, Lord Lilford [P.]. 
Spain. 

e. $ . Spain ? P. B. Webb, Esq. [P.]. 

f. Hgr, Abrantes, Portugal. Dr. H. Gadow [C.J. 

g. (5'. Tangiers. Mr. Fraser [C.l. 
h. (S . Rorta des Beni Salam, M. Lataste [P.j. 

Algeria. 
i, 5. Bordj-bou-Arrerij, M. Lataste [P.]. 

Algeria. 
Ti~7i. Yg. Algeria. (Types of A. bellii.') 

0. S- Algeria. 

P,q- 6 ^- N. Africa. 

10. Acanthodactylus tristrami. 

? Scapteira leiocerca, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 281. 

Zootoca tristrami, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 491 ; Tristram, 

Faim. Palest, pi. xvi. fig. 2. 
Acanthodactylus dorsalis, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 18G9, p. 62 *. 
tristrami, Bouleng. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 746, pi. bdv. fig. 1 ; 

Lataste, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 482, 

Snout obtuse. Two supraoculars, the first and fourth being 
broken up into small scales or granules ; subocular bordering the 
lip ; temporal scales smooth ; front edge of the ear not denticulated. 
Dorsal scales perfectly smooth, rhomboidal, flat, larger on the middle 
of the back. Ventral plates much broader than long (the largest at 
least twice as broad as long), in straight longitudinal and transverse 
series ; 10 plates across the middle of the body. A median series 
of broad pneanals, posterior largest. The hind limb reaches the 
axilla or the coUar. Digital denticulations very feebly developed, 
as in A. vulgaris. The scales on the basal third of the tail, above 
and inferiorly, perfectly smooth. Greyish, brownish, or reddish 
above, sides ind limbs with round white spots ; back with black 
spots, which may be very small and irregular, or large and in lon- 
gitudinal series. 

* Types (1056, 1057, 1058) examined. 



11. CABRITA. 



69 



milliin. inillini. 

Total length — * UKi 

Head 18 18 

Width of head 15 14 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 29 31 

From end of snout to vent 77 83 

Fore limb 28 30 

Hind limb 47 46 

Tail — 110 

Syria. 

2 . Lebanon. Canon Tristram [C.]. (Type.) 

2 . N.E. slope of Mt. Hermon. Dr. Anderson [P " 

(S . Between Kefr Ilawar and Dr. Anderson [P 

Artuz. 

c3". Between Baalbeck and Dr, Anderson [P.]. 

Shtora. 



11. CABRITA. 

Cabrita, Grai/, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 282, and Cat. Liz. p. 43 ; 

Gi'mth. Sept. Brit. Ind. p. 71 ; Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Petersh. 

vi. ISO", p. 408 ; Lntaste, Ann. Mus. Qenov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 126. 
Calosaura, Dum. 4" Bihr. v. p. 261. 
Cabritopsis, Beddome, in Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, 

p. 348. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between two or three 
nasals. Lower eyelid distinct from the rudimentary upper, with a 
very large transparent disk. Collar absent. Dorsal scales imbri- 
cate and strongly keeled. Ventral plates imbricate, smooth. Digits 
compressed, with sharply keeled scales inferiorly. Femoral pores. 
Tail cylindrical. 

India. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

More than 40 scales round the middle of 
the body (ventrals included) ; occipital 
shield present; 12 to 16 femoral pores 
on each side 

Not more than 30 scales round the body ; 
no occipital ; 11 to 15 femoral pores . . 

Not more than 30 scales round the body ; 
occipital present ; 20 to 22 femoral pores 



1. leschenaultii, p. 

2. jerdonii, p. 71. 

3. chaperi p. 71. 



70. 



* Taillost. 



70 LACERTID-^. 

1. Cabrita leschenaultii. 

Cabrita leschenaultii, Gray, Cat. p. 43. 
Lacerta leschenaultii, M.-Edio. Atm. Sc. Nat. xvi. 1829, pp. 80, 86, 

pi. vi. fijj. 9. 
Cabrita brunnea, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 282 ; Blanf. Joiirn. 

As. <S'oe. Jienr/. xxxix. 1870, p. 3o0. 
Calosaura leschenaultii, Ihim. v.y Bibr. p. 2G2. 
Cabrita leschenaultii, Gilnth. liept. Brit. In/1, p. 70 ; Blanf. I. c. 

p. 345 ; Gihith. I'roc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 225 ; Blanf. Journ. As. 

Soc. Bemj. xlviii. 1879, p. 112. 

Upper head-shields strongly keeled and striated ; anterior labials 
keeled, forming a projecting margin ; canthus rostralis very strong ; 
nostril in the horizontal suture between two largo nasals which are 
extensively in contact with the rostral, and followed by one or two 
small postnasals, the upper of which sometimes enters the nostril ; 
no azygos proefrontal ; frontal long and narrow ; a small occipital ; 
four supraoculars, first and fourth small, the two principal separated 
from the supraciliaries by a scries of granules ; subocular bordering 
the lip, between the fourth and fifth (or fifth and sixth) upper 
labials ; temporal scales small, keeled ; two large shields border the 
parietals exteriorly ; a curved large shield on the supero-anterior 
border of the ear-opening ; six large chin-shields on each side, the 
three anterior in contact with their fellows. Dorsal scales mode- 
rately large, scarcely larger on the back than on the sides ; ventrals 
broader than long, in 6 longitudinal and 25 to 29 transverse series, 
the median longitudinal series narrower than the others ; 42 to 48 
scales round the middle of the body, ventrals included. A large 
postero- median pra^anal plate. The hind limb reaches the ante- 
humeral fold or a little beyond the ear ; the length of the foot equals 
the distance between the antehumeral fold and the nostril or the 
tip of the snout. 12 to IG femoral pores on each side. Tail nearly 
twice as long as head and body ; caudal scales much larger than 
dorsals. Erownish or golden above ; a pale band, edged above with 
a black one, along each side of the bodj^ and tail, commencing from 
the supraciliary edge ; another pale, black-edged band along the 
upper lip and the side of the body ; the space between the two light 
bands on each side usually black, or spotted with black ; lower 
surfaces yellowish white, tail and hind limbs often reddish. 

inilliin. millim. 

Total length 15U 153 

Head 13 13 

Width of head 7-5 7*5 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 20 20 

From end of snout to vent 49 55 

Fore limb 21 21 

Hind limb 34 33 

Tail 101 98 

Central and Southern India. 



11. CABRITA. 



71 



a-c. S & ligr. 

d. 2- 

e-y. Ilgr. 

h. 2. 

t. Several spec, hgr. & yg. 



Ganjam. 
S.E. Berar. 
Godaverv valley. 
Sevaghorry. 
Carnatic. 



Col. Beddome [C.l. 
Col. Beddome [C.J. 
AV. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 
Col. Beddome [CI. 
Col. Beddome [CJ. 



2. Cabrita jerdonii. 

/Cabrita jerdoni, Beddome, Madras Montldy Journ. Med. Sc, 1870, 
p. 'M ; Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, p. 348, and xlviii. 
1879, p. Hi 

Differs from the preceding in the following points : — A single 
anterior nasal, followed by two postnasals ; labials not keeled, no 
projecting labial margin ; usually one or two small azygos shields 
between the pair of pra)frontals ; no occipital. Dorsal scales as large 
as the caudals, much larger than the laterals ; ventral plates sub- 
equal ; 27 to 30 scales round the middle of the body. The length 
of the foot is less than the distance between the antehumeral fold 
and the nostril. The number of femoral pores varies between 11 
and 15. Brownish or golden above, with two light lateral bands as 
in C. leschenmdtii, which are, however, not bordered with black bands, 
but with longitudinal series of black spots ; lips, and frequently also 
the throat, speckled with black. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 134 121 

Head 11 10 

Width of head 7 6-5 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 17 16 

From end of snout to vent 39 41 

Fore limb 16 16 

Hind limb 28 26 

Tail 95 80 

Central India. 

a. (S ■ Eaipur. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 

b-c. S- Near Bhadrachalam, W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 

Godaverv valley. 

d. Several specs. ; Godavery valley. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.l. 

c?,$-&hgr. 

e-h. (S 2- Cuddapur. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

3. Cabrita chaperi. 

Calosaura chaperi, Sauvage, Bidl. Soc. Philom. (7) viii. 1884, p. 142. 

Apparently agreeing with C. jerdonii in the size of the dorsal 
scales. Occipital rather large. 20 to 22 femoral pores. Black above, 
with light brown longitudinal bands and a white lateral line ; two 
series of white spots on the sides. 

Total length 100 millim. 

Bellary, Central India. 



72 LACEETIDiB. 



12. OPHIOPS. 



Opliiops, Mcnctr. Cat. JRais. p. 0-3 ; Dum. Sf Bilr. v. p. 2o7 ; Gray, 

Cat. p. 44 ; Gimth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 72 ; Stravch, Mel Biol. Ac. 

St, Petersb. vi. 18G7, p. 408; Schreib. Herp. Eur. p. 3G9 j Lataste, 

Anil. Mm. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 126. 
Amystes, Ehrcnherg, Arch. f. Nat. 1835, ii. p. 1. 
Pseudopliiops, Jerdun, Proc. As. Soc. Beiuj. 1870, p. 71. 
Gymnops (non Cuv.), Blanf. Jvurn. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, 

p. 351. 
Chondrophiops, Blanf. Journ. As, Soc. Betig. xlii. 1873, p. 144. 

Head- shields normal. Nostril pierced between two to four nasals. 
Eyelids immovable, the lower united with the upper, with a very 
larj^e transparent disk. Collar absent or very indistinct. Dorsal 
scales imbricate and strongly keeled. Ventral plates imbricate, 
smooth. Digits compressed, with sharply keeled scales inferiorly. 
Femoral pores. Tail cylindrical. 

Korth Africa, Turkey, South-western Asia, India. 

All preceding authors have described the Lizards of this genus as 
deprived of eyelids, or as having the eyelids in a rudimentary con- 
dition. This is erroneous, and it is really surprising that herpeto- 
logists who have had an opportunity of comparing Ophiops with 
Cabrita, which latter is said to differ by having " well-developed 
eyelids," should not have seen that the only difference between the 
two genera is that the slit which separates the lower from the upper 
ej'elid in Cahrita has disappeared in Opliiops. What was supposed 
to be the exposed eye of Opldo^is is the transparent disk of the 
lower lid, which is neither more nor less developed thaii in Cahrita. 
This Avindow, as it may be called, in the eyelid is, for Lizards living 
in the sand, a useful adaptation ; the larger the transparent disk, 
the less necessity for the animal of exposing its eye. Hence the 
lower lid is scarcely movable in Cahrita, although distinct from the 
upper ; as a step further, Opliiops has the eye protected permanently 
by the lower eyelid, the border of which is coalesced with the rudi- 
mentary upper lid. These remarks apply also to the genus Able- 
p)harus in the following family, which stands in the same relation 
to the species of Lycjosoma with large transparent palpebral disk 
(iy. entrecasteauxii and others) as Opliiops to Cahrita. 



Sipiopsis of the Species. 

I. Snout moderate, feebly depressed. 

A. Upper head-shields strongly rugose, keeled and striated. 

A single frontonasal 1. jerdonii, p. 73. 

Two or three frontonasals 2. beddomii, p. 74, 



12. opniops, 73 

B. Upper head-shields smooth or feebly rugose. 

Supraoculars in contact with the supra- 

ciliarics ; 2G to 30 scales round the 

middle of the body, ventrals included ; 

7 to 10 femoral pores on each side .... 3. occidentalis, p. 75. 
Supraoculars separated from the supracili- 

aries by a series of granules ; 30 to 40 

scales round the body ; 7 to 12 femoral 

pores 4. elegans, p. 75. 

Supraoculars separated from the supracili- 

aries by a series of granules ; 42 to 46 

scales round the body ; 12 to 14 femoral 

pores 5. scJilueteri, p. 77. 

n. Snout long, much depressed 6. mkrolepis, p. 77. 



1. OpMops jerdonii. 

Ophiops jerdoni, Blyth, Joiirn. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1853, p. 653 ; 

Sfoliczi-a, Journ. As. Soc. Bemj. xli. 1872, p. 89, and Proc. As. Soc. 

Bene/. 1872, p. 74. 
Tropidosauva jerdoni, Theobald, Cat. Rept. As. Soc.Mus. p. 22. 
Pseudophiops jerdoni, Jerdon, Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1870, p. 71. 
theobaldi, Jerdon^ I. c. 

Head moderate, feebly depressed. Upper head-shields rugose, 
keeled and striated ; nostril lateral, pierced between three or four 
shields, viz. an anterior, or an upper and a lower anterior nasal and 
two superposed postnasals ; a large frontonasal ; frequently one or 
two small azygos shields between the pair of praefrontals ; four 
supraoculars, first and fourth small, the two principal separated 
fi-om the supraciliaries by a series of granules ; occipital small, 
sometimes a little broader than the interparietal, with which it forms 
a suture ; subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth 
(or third and fourth) upper labials ; temporal scales small, keeled ; 
one or two large supratemporal shields border the parietals exter- 
nally ; tympanic shield small or indistinct. JSTo gular fold extend- 
ing from ear to ear ; collar quite indistinct. Dorsal scales large, 
strongly keeled, strongly imbricate, scarcely larger on the back than 
on the sides ; 28 to 35 scales round the middle of the body (ventrals 
included). A large postero-median prseanal plate. The bind limb 
reaches the shoulder or halfway between the latter and the ear in 
the male, not to axilla in the female. 7 to 1 1 femoral pores on each 
side. Tail once and a half to twice as long as head and body ; caudal 
scales about as large as dorsals. Coppery brown above, with two 
pale golden lateral streaks bordered with black, the upper extendino- 
from the supraciliaries to the tail, the lower from the upper lip to 
the groin ; frequently a series of large black spots between the two 
lateral streaks ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 



7-lr LACERTID.^. 

millim. millira. 

Total length 125 IIG 

Head 10 9 

Width of head 6 6 

Prom end of snout to fore limb .... 17 16 

From end of snout to veut 43 48 

Fore limb 16 14 

Hind limb 24 21 

Tail 82 68 

Northern and Central India. 

a. c? • Himalayas. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

b. Several specs. : c?, Alpine Punjab. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.], 
hgr., & yg. 

c-e. c?,$,&h?:i'- Cutch. F. Stoliczka, Esq. [C.]. 

/. Many specs. : J , 5 , Bellary District. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

hgr./& yg. 

ff. Several specs. : cf , 5 , Carnatic (?). Col. Beddome [C.]. 

hgr., & yg. 



2. Ophiops beddomii. (Plate III. fig. 3.) 

Pseudophiops beddoniei, Jerdon, Proc. As. Soc. Benff. 1870, p. 72. 
Ophiops monticola, Beddome, Madras MontJdij Jouni. Med. !Sc. 1870. 
beddomii, Stoliczka, Journ As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 90. 

Very closely allied to the preceding. Two or three frontonasals 
on a transverse line ; one or two azygos pra)frontals nearly always 
present ; first and fourth supraoculars usually broken up into several 
very small shields or granules. Lateral scales distinctly smaller 
than dorsals ; 28 to 32 scales round the body. Femoral pores 8 to 13. 
Coloration as in 0. jerclonii, but the upper lateral light streak fre- 
quently absent. 

6. 9 . 

millim. millira. 

Total length 107 99 

Head 8 7 

Width of head 6 5 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 14 13 

From end of snout to vent 37 33 

Fore limb 13 12 

Hind limb 19 18 

Tail 70 66 

Southern India. 

a. c?. Brumagherrv Hills, T. G. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 

r)000 ft., Wynaad. (Type.) 

b. Several specs., c? $. Brumagherrv Hills, Col. Beddome [C.]. 

5000 ft., Wynaad. (Types of O. monticola.) 

c,d. 2 & yg. S. Canara. Col. Beddome [C.]. 



12. orniops. 



75 



3. OpMops occidentalis. (Plate III. fig. 2.) 

Opliiops eli'gans {iion Menclr.), Boettger, in Kubelt, Heis. Alg. Tunis, 
p. 4(J7. 

Head moderate, fecldy depressed. Upper head-shields smooth ; 
nostril lateral, pierced between an iipper and a lower nasal, and fol- 
lowed by one or two postnasals ; frontonasal single ; four supra- 
oculars, first and fourth small, all in contact with the supraciliaries ; 
occipital very small, widelj' separated from the interparietal, or 
absent ; subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth 
iippcr labials ; temporal scales small, smooth ; two large supratem- 
porals, bordering the parietal ; a very large, opercle-like tympanic 
shield. Xo gular fold ; collar undistinguishable. Dorsal scales 
very large and sharjily keeled, larger than the laterals, and but little 
if at all smaller than the caudals ; 20 to 30 scales round the middle 
of the body, ventrals included. A more or less enlarged postero- 
median prteanal plate. The hind limb reaches the ear, or halfway 
between the latter and the arm, in the male, the axilla or not quite 
so far in the female. 7 to 10 (usually 7 or 8) femoral pores on each 
side. Tail once and a half to twice as long as head and body. Olive 
or bronzy above, with black spots, and one or two light longitudinal 
streaks on each side ; lower surfaces white. 



d-i 



Total length 

Head 

Width of head 


millitn. 
142 
11 
8 
17 
44 
17 
27 
98 

M. 
M. 
M. 
Mr 


F. 
F. 
F. 
.1 


2- 

millim. 

110 

10 

7 


From end of snout to fore limb . . . . 

From end of snout to vent 

Fore limb 

Hind hmb 


16 
45 
16 

25 


Tail 

Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli. 

$ . Porte de Fer, Algiers. 
6- Youkous, Algeria. 
$. Haded] des Matmata, Tunis 
?. c? • Susa, Tunis. 


65 

Lataste [P 
Lataste [P 
Lataste [P 
raser [C.]. 



4. Ophiops elegans. 

Ophiops elegans, Gray, Cat. p. 44. 

macrodactylus, Gray, I. c. 

Ophiops elegans, Menetr. Cat. Bais. p. G3 ; Dum. ^- Sibr. t. p. 2o9, 
pi. liii. tig. 1 ; Ekhw. Faun. Ca^p.-Caiic. p. 78, pi. xii. figs. 1-5; 
Berth. Abh. Ges. Gcittinq. 1840, p. oG; Anders. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1872, p. 374; Schrei'b. Herp. Ear. p. 372 ; Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, 
p. 367 ; Boetty. Ber. Senckenb. Ges. 1879-80, p. 174, and in Radde, 
Faun. Flor. Casp.-Geb. p. 48. 



/ O LACEETID^. 

Amystes ehrenbergii, Wiegm. Arch.f. Nat. 1835, ii. p. 1. 

? Algira punctata, Gi-aij, Ann. N. 11. i. 1838, p. 283. 

Opbiops macrodactylus, Berth. I. c. 

Gyiiiiiops nieizolepis, Stolkzka, Proc. As. Sac. Beng. 1872, p. 124. 

Ophiops meizolepis, Blanf. l. c. p. 309, pi. xxv. tig. 2. 

schlueteri, part., Boettg. Ber. JSenckenb. Ges. 1879-80, p. 176. 

Head moderate, feebly depressed. Upper head-shields smooth or 
slightly rugose ; nostril lateral, pierced between an upper and a 
lower nasal, and followed by one or two postnasals ; frontonasal 
single ; four supraoculars, first and fourth very small, the two 
principal separated from the supraciliaries by a series of granules; 
occipital small, in contact with or separated from the interparietal ; 
suboeular bordering the lip, normally between the fourth and fifth 
upper labials ; temporal scales small, smooth ; usually two large 
supratemporal shields bordering the parietal ; a large tympanic 
shield. A gular fold may be distinguishable ; collar absent or 
feebly marked. Dorsal scales variable in size, as large as or larger 
than the laterals ; 30 to 40 scales round the middle of the body, 
ventrals included. A more or less enlarged postero-median prteanal 
plate. The hind limb reaches about the ear in the male, the shoulder 
or a little beyond in the female. 7 to 12 (usually 9 to 11) femoral 
pores on each side. Tail about twice as long as head and body. Olive 
or bronzy above, with black spots usually forming longitudinal series, 
sometimes forming a network ; frequently one or two light longi- 
tudinal streaks on each side ; lower surfaces white. 

c?. 2: 

millim. millim. 

Total length 155 145 

Head 12 10 

Width of head 9 7 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 20 17 

From end of snout to vent 53 50 

Fore limb 21 17 

Hind limb 37 29 

Tail 102 95 

Turkey, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, Punjab. 



R. McAndrew, Esq. [P.]. 

C. Fellows, Esq. [P.]. 
C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.]. 
C:. G. Dauford, E.vq. [P. I. 
C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.]. 

C. G. Danford, Esq. [P.]. 
Canon Tristram [C.l. 
Canon Tristram [C.]. 



a. c?- 




Constantinople. 


b. d. 




Suivrna. 


c-d, e. S, 


2, 


'S'allev of the Meinder, 


&yg- 






/. s. 




Xanthus. 


U-l. c?$. 




Kai^arieh. 


m. $. 




AlbLstan. 


n-7'. S 6 




Zebil Bulpar Dagh, Cili- 
cian Taurus, 4000 ft. 


8-u. (5 & hgr. 


Euphrates. 


V. c?. 




Mount Ilermon. 


W. cJ. 




Lake Phiala, under 
Mount Hei'mon. 



12. OPHIOPS. 



y- 



z. 2. 

n. 2. 

/3-y. 2 & hgr. 

s. d. 

6-r;. $. 
6-1. Hgr. 

hgr. 

TT. $. 

p. 2. 

T-V. $. 

«^- ?. 



N.E. slope of Mount Dr. Anderson [C] 

Ilermon. 
Bauias, S. slope of 

Mount Ilormon. 
Seba>tiyeli, Samaria. 
Baalbeck. 
Galilee. 
Foot of Mount Tabor, 

Galilee. 
Jerusalem. 

Basrah, Mesopotamia. 
Persia. 



Kiili-i-hazar, S.E. of 

Karman. 
Karman. 

Niriz, E. of Shiraz. 
Between Karman and 

Shiraz. 
North of Isfahan. 



Dr. Anderson [C.]. 

Dr. Anderson [C.l 
Dr. Anderson [0.1. 
Canon Tristram [C.]. 
Dr. Anderson [P.]. 



Dr. Anderson [P.]. 

W. T. lUanford, Esq. [C.]. 

Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 



W. T. Blanford, Esq. [0.]. 



W. T. Blanford, Esq. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. 



W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 



5. Opliiops schlueteri. 

Ophiops schlueteri, part., Boettger, Ber. Senckenb. Ges. 1879-1880, 
p. 176, pi. iii. fig. 3. 

Very closely allied to 0. elegaas, of which it should perhaps rather 
be regarded as a variety than as a distinct species. The following 
are the differences : — Scales smaller, dorsals a little smaller than 
laterals, not one-fourth the size of caudals ; 42 to 46 scales round 
the middle of the body. Femoral pores 12 to 14. The giilar fold 
and the collar are distinguishable. 

Cyprus. 

a-b. c? 5 . Cyprus. Lord Lilford [P.], 

c-d. Hgr. Cyprus. 



6. Ophiops microlepis. 

Ophiops (Gymnops) microlepis, Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 

1870, p. .3ol, pi. XV. figs. 1-5. 
Gymnops microlepis, Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 90, 

and Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1872, p. 74. 

Head much depressed ; snout long ; loreal region concave ; upper 
labials projecting, angular. Upper head-shields smooth; nostril 
latero-superior, pierced between an upper and a lower nasal ; a 
small postnasal wedged in between the two nasals ; these three 
shields more or less distinctly swollen ; frontonasal single ; prte- 
frontals obtusely keeled ; frontal much narrowed posteriorly, grooved 
longitudinally ; four supraoculars, first and fourth smallest, the two 
principal separated from the supraciliaries by a series of granules • 
occipital small, broader than the interparietal, with which it is 
usually in contact ; subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth 
and fifth upper labials ; temporal scales smaU, obtusely keeled ; two 



/ O LACERTIDiE. 

large supratemporals bordering the parietal ; tympanic shield verj' 
large, opcrcle-like. No gular fold ; collar usually distinguishable. 
Dorsal scales small, as large as or slightly larger than the laterals ; 
52 to 64 scales round the middle of the body, ventrals included. 
Yentrals in six longitudinal series. A large postero-median pra^anal 
plate. The hind limb reaches the ear, or between the latter and the 
eye. 13 to 10 femoral pores on each side. Tail about twice as long 
as head and body ; caudal scales Tery large. Brown or greyisli above, 
with small black spots which may form a network on the sides ; 
usually one or two pale longitudinal streaks on each side ; lower 
surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 207 From end of snout 

Head 15 to vent 65 

Width of head 10 Fore limb 23 

From end of snout Hind limb 42 

to fore limb 24 Tail 142 

Northern India. 



a-c. S & hgr. Cutch. F. Stoliczka, Esq. [C] 

d. S . Ajmere. W. T. IJlanford, Esq. 

e-f. <S • Karharbari, Bengal. W. T. Blaaford, Esq. 



m. 



13. ICHNOTROPIS. 

Tropidosaura, part., Dmn. ^- Bihr. v. p. 163. 

Algira. part., Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 35. 

Ichnotropis, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 617, and Reise n. 
Mossamb. iii. p. 45 ; Strmtch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. \\. 1867, 
p. 408 ; Lataste, Ann. Mns. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 125. 

Eremias, part., Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1866, p. 888. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between three nasals. 
Lower eyelid scaly. No trace of a collar, save a curved fold on the 
side of the neck. Dorsal scales large, strongly imbricate, strongly 
keeled ; ventral shields strongly imbricate, smooth. Digits sub- 
cylindrical, with sharply keeled, spinose lamelliB inferiorly. Femoral 
pores. Tail cylindrical. 

Africa south of the equator. 

1. Ichnotropis capensis. 

Algira capensis. Gray, Cat. p. 36. 

dumerilii, Gray, I. c. 

Algyra capensis, Smith, Mag. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 94. 

Tropidosaura capensis, Dum. ^- Bihr. p. 171 ; Bianconi, Spec. Zool. 

Mosamb. p. 61. 

dumeiilii, Smith, HI. S. Afr., Rept, App. p. 7. 

Ichnotropis macrolepidota, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 617, and 

Reise n. Mossanib. iii. p. 46, pi. viii. fig. 1. 

dumeriUi, Bocaye, jorn. Sc. Lish. i. 1866, p. 43. 

bivittata {Bocaye), Peters, Reise n. Mossamb. p. 48. 



13. icnxoTKoris. 79 

Head-shields strongly striaied and keeled; frontonasal single; 
interparietal pentagonal, its posterior border forming a suture with 
a distinct occipital ; parietals with rounded or angular posterior 
border ; two or three elongate shields on the outer border of the 
parietals ; subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth 
(or fifth and sixth) upper labials. Dorsal scales nearly as large as 
caudals ; ventrals rounded, in 10 longitudinal series ; 35 to 40 
scales round the middle of the body. Pra>anal scales small, sub- 
equal. The hind limb reaches the axilla or the shoulder. 9 to 12 
(or 13) femoral pores on each side. Tail once and a half to twice 
the length of head and body. Yellowish or reddish brown above, 
with three longitudinal series of black spots on cacli side, more or 
less confluent into longitudinal bands, sei)arated by light yellowish 
streaks ; the lower black baud extends along the upper lip ; lower 
surfaces yellowish white. 

c^. ?■ 

milliin. uiillira. 

Total length 137 1-36 

Head 15 14 

AVidth of head 9-5 9 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 24 23 

From end of snout to vent 61 66 

Fore limb 21 21 

Hind limb 32 31 

Tail 76 * 90 

Inhambane, Delagoa Bay, Kalahari Desert, Angola. 

a. cJ , bad state. N.E. of Lattaku, to- Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Type of 

wards the tropic Tropidosaura dmncrilii.) 
of Capricorn. 

h-c. cJ 5 . Duque de Bragance, Prof. Barboza du Bocage [P.]. 

Angola. (As typical of /. biiittata.) 

2. Ichnotropis squamulosa. 

Ichnotropis squamulosa, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 617, and 
Reise n. Mossamb, iii. p. 40, pi. viii. tig. 2. 

Head-shields strongly striated and keeled ; frontonasal longi- 
tudinally divided ; interparietal rhomboidal ; no distinct occipital ; 
parietals obliquely truncated posteriorly ; a large shield bordering 
the parietals exteriorly ; subocular not reaching the lip, resting on 
the fifth, sixth, and seventh upper labials. Dorsal scales consider- 
ably smaller than caudals ; ventrals rounded, in 10 longitudinal 
series ; 46 or 48 scales round the middle of the body. The 
hind limb reaches the shoulder or the antehumeral fold. 13 to 15 
Cor 16) femoral pores. Tail nearly twice as long as head and body. 
Coppery brown above, with two or three longitudinal series of small 



* Tail reproduced. 



80 LACERTID^. 

black and •whitish spots on each side ; j'oung with two whitish longi- 
tudinal streaks on each side ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

6. .9- 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 203 227 

Head 10 18 

Width of head 11 12 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 27 31 

.From end of snout to vent 68 77 

Fore hmb 26 28 

Hind limb 37 42 

Tail 135 150 

Damaraland, Kalahari Desert, South-east Africa. 

a, b-d. (S k yg. Kalahari Desert. Sir A Smith [P.]. 

e. $ . Lake Nyassa. B. TheUwall, Esq. [C.]. 



14. EREMIAS. 

Podarcis, part., Wai/Ier, Si/sf. Amph. p. loo; Struuch, Mel. Biol. Ac. 

St. Petersh. vi. 1867, p. 408. 
Eremias {Fitz.), IVieym. Ilcrp. Mex. p. 9 ; Dmn. 4' Bibr. v. p. 286 ; 

Pete7-s, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1869, p. 60 ; Lataste, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) 

ii. 1885, p. 126. 
Eremias, part., Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 280, cmd Cat. Liz. p. 39. 
Scapteira, part., Gray, I. c. p. 281. 
Ida, part., Gray, I. c. 
Mesalina, Gray, I. c, and Cat. p. 42. 
Aspidorhinus, Eichtv. Faun. Casp.-Cauc. p. 74. 
Podarcis, Schreib. Hcrp. Fur. p. 374. 

Pseuderemias, Boettyer, Abh. Senck. Ges. xiii. 1883, p. 118. 
Bouleugeria, Lataste, I. c. p. 116. 

Head-shields normal ; occipital often absent. Nostril pierced 
between three or four nasals. Lower eyelid scaly, or with a small 
transparent disk. Collar more or less distinct. Dorsal scales small, 
juxtaposed or imbricate ; ventral shields feebly imbricate, smooth. 
Digits subcylindrical or compressed, with keeled lamellae iiiferiorly. 
Femoral pores. Tail cylindrical. 

Africa; Asia. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I, Ventral plates in straight or somewhat irregular longitudinal 
series ; occipital shield usually present ; lower nasal, if un- 
divided, resting on the first labial onl}'. 

A. Yentrals in 6 to 10 longitudinal series, the outer series 
(composed of much smaller plates) included. 

1. Supraoculars in contact with the frontal. 

Ventral plates in 6 longitudinal scries ; 

dorsal scales strongly keeled 1. nitida, p. 83. 



14. EREMIAS. 81 

Ventrals in S series ; dorsal scales smooth 5. pardaloides^ p. 87. 
Ventrals in I series ; scales on upper 

surface of tibia not larger than dorsals. G. (juttulata, p. 87. 
Yentrals in 10 series ; scales on upper 

surface of tibia much larger than 

dorsals, imbricate, strongly keeled.. 11. undata,^.^2. 

2. Supraoculars entirely surrounded by granules ; ventral 
plates in 6 longitudinal series. 

Lower nasal undivided, normal ; upper 

head-shields strongly striated 2. spelcii^ p. 84. 

Lower nasal undivided ; upper head- 
shields not striated ; scales on upper 
surface of tibia not larger than dorsals 3. lugubris, p. 84. 

Lower nasal divided, the nostril being 
pierced between four shields ; scales 
on upper surface of tibia much larger 
than dorsals 4. brenneri, p. 86. 

B. Ventrals in 12 to 16 series. 

1. The distance between the lorcal and the first of the two 

largest supraoculars is less than the length of the latter 
shield. 

Frontonasal separated from the rostral 

by the nasals ; ventral plates of the 

two median series as large as the 

others '. 7. hrevirosiris, p. 89. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral ; 

occipital present ; subocular bordering 

the lip 8. ruhropunctata, p. 89. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral; 

no occipital ; subocular not reaching 

the lip 9. suhorhitalis, p. 90. 

Frontonasal separated from the rostral ; 

ventral plates of the two median series 

smaller than the others 10. namaquensis, p. 91. 

2. The distance between the loreal and the first supraocular 

equals or exceeds the length of the latter shield. 

a. Lower eyelid with a large transparent disk formed of 
two scales. 

Scales on upper surface of tibia much 

larger than dorsals ; latter keeled only 

on the hinder half of the body 12. pulchella, p. 93. 

Scales on upper surface of tibia not, or 

but slightly larger than the posterior 

dorsals ; latter keeled from between 

the shoulders 13. lineo-ocellata, p. 94. 

VOL. Ill, a 



82 



LACEETID^. 



b. Lower eyelid with a semitransparent disk formed of 
several small scales ; dorsal scales perfectly smooth. 

Frontonasal shield separated from the 

rostral , 14. hurchrJlii, p. 95. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral. . 15. capensis, p. 96. 

II. Ventral plates forming very irregular or oblique longitudinal 
series, converging posteriorly ; occipital absent ; lower nasal 
forming a suture with the two or three anterior labials. 

A. Not more than 30 gular scales on a line extending from the 

collar to the suture between the chin-shields. 

1. 15 to 25 femoral pores on each side ; subocular bordering 

the lip. 

The length of the foot in the adult less 

than the distance between the coUar- 

fold and the nostril ; 50 to 65 scales 

(counting from the ventrals) across 

the middle of the body . 16. velooc, p. 97. 

The length of the foot equals the distance 

between the collar-fold and the nostril 

or the end of the snout ; 45 to 50 

scales across the middle of the body. . 17. fasciata, p. 99. 

2. 8 to 15 femoral pores on each side. 

a. The distance between the loreal and the anterior supra- 

ocular is less than the length of the latter shield. 

Nasals swollen , 18. intermedia, p. 100. 

Nasals not swollen 21. multiocellata, p. 103. 

b. The distance between the loreal and the anterior supra- 

ocular equals or exceeds the length of the latter shield. 

Ventral plates 16 to 20 in the longest 

transverse series 19. arguta, p. 101, 

Ventral plates 12 or 14 in the longest 

transverse series ; frontonasal divided. 20. argus, p. 102. 

B. More than 30 gular scales between the collar and the suture 

between the chin-shields. 

Supraoculars in contact with the frontal ; 

four priBfrontals ; ventral plates 14 

or 16 in the longest transverse series; 

13 femoral pores on each side 22. quadrifrons, p. 105. 

Supraoculars in contact with the frontal : 

two prtefrontals ; ventral plates 1 6 to 

20 in the longest transverse series ; 11 

to 17 femoral pores 23. prztwcdsl'ii, p. 105. 



14. EREMIAS. 83 

Supraoculars bordered internallj' by a 
series of granules ; 19 to 23 femoral 
pores 24. vermiculata., p. lOG. 

1. Eremias nitida. (Plate IV. fig. 1.) 

Eremias nitida, Giinth. Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (4) ix. 1872, p. 381. 

Head rather elonQ:ate ; snout obtuse. Nasals not at all swollen, 
the lower in contact svith the rostral on a very small point ; fronto- 
nasal much broader than long, separated from the rostral by the 
long suture of the upper nasals ; two prasfrontals ; frontal feebly 
grooved anteriorly ; two large supraoculars, with a few small scales 
in front and behind, and a series of granules on their outer border ; 
a single scale between the lorcal and the anterior supraocular ; inter- 
parietal twice as long as broad, quite as long as the suture between 
the frontoparietals ; a small occipital ; a small shield may be present 
between the latter and the interparietal; a band-like shield borders 
the parietal externally, and another, curved one the ear supcro- 
anteriorly ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; no auricular dcnti- 
culation ; lower eyelid scaly ; subocular bordering the lip, between 
the fifth and sixth upper labials ; the three anterior pairs of chin- 
shields in contact. Gular scales increasing gradually in size towards 
the coUar; latter slightly curved, perfectly free, formed of 9 or 
10 plates. Dorsal scales rhomboidal, juxtaposed, keeled, 42 across 
the middle of the body. Ventral plates in straight longitudinal 
and transverse series, all much broader than long ; in six lon- 
gitudinal series, the median pair narrower than the two others ; 
27 to 29 transverse series from the collar-fold to the prasaual 
region. Praeanal scales small and irregular, the postero-median a 
little larger than the others. The hind limb reaches between the 
collar and the ear ; foot as long as the distance between the an- 
terior border of the orbit and the fore limb ; a single series of 
large subtibial plates. 12 or 13 femoral pores ou each side. Tail 
more than twice as long as head and body ; all the caudal scales 
strongly keeled. Upper surface of head, limbs, tail, and a band 
along the middle of the back brown ; a fine paler brown line sepa- 
rating the latter from the sides, which are black, with two longi- 
tudinal white lines ; limbs with round paler spots ; lower surfaces 
white, limbs and tail pinkish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 137 From end of snout 

Head 10 to vent 41 

Width of head .... 6 Fore limb 14 

From end of snout Hind limb 26 

to fore limb ... . 17 Tail 96 

West Africa. 

A transition-form between Eremias and Nucras. 

a-b. Yo-. W. Africa. (Types.) 

g2 



84 LACERTIDiE. 

2. Eremias spekii. (Plate IV. fig. 2.) 

Eremias spekii, Gdiith. Ann. i^ Mag. N. H. (4) ix. 1872, p. 381. 
rugiceps, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1878, p. 202, pi. ii. ng. 1*. 

Head moderate ; snout rather obtuse ; upper head-shields strongly 
striated ; nasals feebly swollen ; frontonasal broader than long, 
separated from the rostral ; two prififrontals ; frontal scarcely 
grooved ; two large supraoculars, completely surrounded with gran- 
Tiles ; two scales on a line from the loreal to the anterior supraocular, 
the length of which equals its distance from the loreal ; interparietal 
rhomboidal, as long as or a little shorter than the suture between 
the frontoparietals ; occipital absent or minute ; parietals as long as 
broad, with an elongated shield on their outer border; temporal scales 
small, strongly keeled ; a curved band-like scale on the supero- 
anterior border of the ear ; no auricular denticulation ; lower eyelid 
scaly ; subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth (or 
fifth and sixth) upper labials ; the three anterior pairs of chin-shields 
in contact. Collar curved, perfectly free, with nine plates. Dorsal 
scales rhomboidal, juxtaposed, strongly keeled, 64 or 66 across the 
middle of the body. Ventral plates in straight longitudinal and 
transverse series, all much broader than long ; in six longitudinal 
series, the median pair narrower than the two others ; 27 or 28 
transverse series. Praeanal scales small, irregular. The hind limb 
reaches the ear or the eye ; foot as long as the distance between the 
arm and the nostril or the end of the snout ; a single series of 
large sub tibial plates. 14 to 18 femoral pores on each side. Tail 
more than twice as long as head and body ; caudal scales strongly 
keeled, except the basal subcaudals, which are obtusely keeled. 
Brownish above, with three longitudinal paler lines, and a more 
indistinct one along each flank ; small black cross bars between the 
light streaks ; lower surfaces and upper lip white. 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 199 From end of snout 

Head 12 to vent bb 

Width of head 8 Fore limb 19 

From end of snout Hind limb 37 

to fore limb .... 19 Tail 144 

East Africa. 

a~h. J. 5° 7' S. lat., between the Capt. Speke [P.]. (Types.) 

coast and Unyamwesi. 

3. Eremias liigubris. 

Eremias dursalis, 6-'/y///, Cat. p. 41. 

lugubris, Gray, I. c. 

Lacerta lugubris, S^niih, Mag. N. H. ii. 1?<.'J8, p. 93. 
Eremias lugubris, Bum. l<f Bibr. v. p. 309 ; Smith, III. S. Afr., Kept. 
pi. xlvi. tig. 2, and xlviii. fig. 5 ; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1862, p. 18, 
and 1870, p. 114. 
dursalis, Duni. S) Bibr. p. 305, 

* ""'-oes (Mus. Berol. 9287) examined. 



14. EREMIAS. 85 

Head moderate ; snout rather pointed. Nasals feebly swollen ; 
frontonasal broader than long, separated from the rostral : two prae- 
frontals ; frontal feebly grooved anteriorly ; two large supraoculars, 
completely surrounded with granules ; two or three small scales on 
a line from the loreal to the anterior supraocular, the length of 
which equals or a little exceeds its distance from the loreal ; inter- 
parietal rhomboiilal, sliorter than the suture between the fronto- 
parietals ; occipital absent or minute ; parietals not longer than 
broad, usually forming a suture behind the interparietal ; a more or 
less elongate shield on the outer border of the parietals ; a curved 
band-like scale on the supero-anterior border of the ear ; temporal 
scales small, Mat, smooth ; no auricular denticulation ; lower eyelid 
scaly ; subocular bordering the lip, between the fifth and sixth 
(exceptionally fourth and tifth) upper labials ; the three anterior 
pairs of chin-shields in contact. Collar curved, perfectly free, 
with 7 to 11 plates. Dorsal scales granular, hexagonal, juxta- 
posed, obtusely keeled, (jo to 73 across the middle of the body. 
Ventral plates in straight longitudinal and transverse series, all 
much broader than long, in six longitudinal series, the median 
pair usually a little narrower than the others ; 27 to 30 trans- 
verse series. Praeanal scales small, subequal, irregular. The hind 
limb reaches the eye ; the length of the foot equals the distance 
between the arm and the nostril or the end of the snout ; a series 
of very large subtibial plates. 12 to 16 femoral pores on each side. 
Tail more than twice as long as head and body ; caudal scales 
strongly keeled, except the basal subcaudals, which are smooth. 
Upper surface of head yellowish brown shaded with brownish red, 
the sides cream-yellow : back and sides of body liver-brown, varie- 
gated with longitudinal stripes and spots of gamboge-yellow ; the 
strijies three in number, sometimes broken up into spots, the median 
bifurcates on the nape ; upper surface of limbs with round yellow 
spots ; tail yellowish or pinkish, with two longitudinal brown bands 
on the upper surface of the basal portion ; lower surfaces whitish or 
reddish brown. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 162 170 

Head 12 12 

Width of head 7 8 

From end of snout to fore limb 19 20 

From end of snout to vent .... 45 50 

Fore limb 17 19 

Hind limb 34 38 

Tail 117 120 

South-western Africa, from the northern boundary of Cape Colony 
to Hereroland. 

a, h. Several spec: (^ , $ , & hgr. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

c. ... (Types.; 

c. 6- S. Africa. 



86 LACEETIDJ;. 

4. Eremias "brenneri. 

Eremias brenneri, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1860, p. 432 *. 
Acantbodactylus mucronatus, Blanf. Zool. Abyss, p. 453, fig. 
Eremias mucronata, Giinth. Zool. liec. 1870, p. 71. 

brenneri, var. striatus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac, 1874, p. 370 *. 

lugubris (lion SmitJi), Vaill. Miss. Revoil aux Pays Comalis, 

Pept. p. 23. ' 

Pseuderemias lineolata, Bocttg. Ahh. Senck. Ges. xiii. 1883, p. 118*. 
Boulen<reria mucronata, Lataste, Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) ii. 1885, 

p. 117. 
brenneri, Lataste, I. c. p. 122. 

Head much depressed ; snout long and acutely pointed. Xasals 
Blightly swollen, lower divided, the nostril being pierced between 
four shields ; frontonasal longer than broad, separated from the 
rostral ; two prjefrontals ; frontal strongly grooved ; three large 
supraoculars, anterior smallest and sometimes broken up into two 
or three, the two others bordered externally, internally, and pos- 
teriorly with granules ; interparietal small, separated from the very 
small occipital by another small shield ; an elongate shield on the 
outer border of the parietals ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; 
no auricular denticulation ; lower eyelid scaly ; subocular usually 
reaching the lip, wedged in between the sixth and seventh (excep- 
tionally fifth and sixth, or seventh and eigbth) upper labials ; the 
two first labials in contact with the nasals ; the two or three 
anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. Collar curved, per- 
fectly free, with 7 to 9 plates. Dorsal scales granular, juxtaposed, 
smooth or obtusely keeled, 65 to 70 across the middle of the 
bady. Six straight longitudinal series of large, broad ventral 
plates, and an outer series of small, narrow ones on each side ; 
they form 24 to 27 straight transverse series. A large median 
praeanal. The hind limb reaches the eye or a little beyond ; toes 
strongly compressed ; the length of the foot equals the distance 
between the arm and the nostril or the tip of the snout ; a 
series of very large and one of smaller subtibial plates ; scales 
on upper surface of tibia much larger than dorsals, rhomboidal, 
imbricate, keeled ; a series of large, hexagonal, transverse shields 
on the upper surface of the arm. 15 to 18 femoral pores. Tail 
more than twice as long as head and body ; upper caudal scales 
strongly keeled ; basal subcaudals smooth. Pale yellowish or 
greyish above ; a black, light-edged vertebral band ; sides of the 
back reticulated with blackish, or with two blackish, white-dotted 
longitudinal bands on each side ; limbs blackish above, with round 
whitish spots ; lower surfaces white. 

millira. millim. 

Total length 162 From end of snout to 

Head 14 vent 50 

Width of head .... 7-5 Fore limb 18 

From end of snout Hind limb 42 

to fore limb 22 Tail 112 

* Tjpes examined. 



1-J. KKT.MIAS. 87 

Abyssinia, Somaliland, Arabia. 

a. J . Anseba valley, Abyssinia. AV. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

(Type of Acnnthodactyhis mucronatus.) 
b.^. Walker's Torrent, Abyssinia. W. Jesse, Esq. [C.]. 

c. cJ. Mt. Sinai. 

5. Eremias pardaloides. 
Iklesalina pardaloides, Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. '381. 

Agrees in every respect with E. r/tdhilata, except in having only 
eight longitudinal rows of ventral plates instead of ten, the outer 
row consisting of very small plates. The hind limb reaches the 
ear. 

Hcnjam Island, Persian Gulf. 

6. Eremias guttulata. 

Eremias guttulata, Grot/, Cat. p. 41. 
Mesalina pardalis, Gray, I. c. p. 43. 
Lacerta guttulata, Lichf. Verz. JDoubl. Mm. Berl. p. 101 *. ^ 
olivieri, part., Atid. Bescr. Egypte, Hept., Suppl. p. 175, pi. ii. 

figs. 1. 2. 
oUvieri, M.-Edw. Ann. Sc. ^'at. xvi. 1829, pp. 13, 84, pi. vi. 

fig. 5. 
Scapteira punctulata, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 281. 
Eremias guttulata, Dmn. ^ Bibr. v. p. 310 ; Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept. 

pi. xlviii. fig. 8; Strauch, Erp. Alg. p. 38; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 

1880, p. 308. 
paidalis, Dkwi. (§• Bihr. ^. 312; Smith, I. c. fig. 13; Guichen. 

E.vplor. Alf/., Bept. p. 15, pi. i. fig. 2 ; Strauch, I. c. p. 309. 
(Mesalina) watsonana, Stoliczka, Proc. As. Soc. Beny. 1872, 

p. 86; Murray, Zool. Si^ul, p. 349. 
Mesalina pardalis, Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. 377 ; Murray, I. c. 

p. 350. 

guttulata, Blanf. Jmn-n. As. Soc. Beny. xlviii. 1879, p. 127. 

Podarces (Mesalina) simoni, Boetty. Zool. Anz. 1881, p. 571, and 

Ahh. Senck. Ges. xiii. 1883, p. 116, pi. i. fig. 3*. 
Eremias (Me.salina) balfouri, Blanf. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 407. 

In habit very similar to Lacerta muralis. Snout rather pointed. 
Nasals more or less swollen ; frontonasal separated from the rostral 
by the upper nasals ; two praefrontals ; frontal feebly grooved ; four 
supraoculars, first and fourth very small, sometimes broken up, the 
first in contact with the loreal ; a series of granules between the 
two principal supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; interparietal 
pentagonal, in contact with a small occipital ; temporal scales 
granular, smooth : no auricular denticulation ; lower eyelid with 
a more or less transparent disk formed usually of two, not un- 
frequently of several, seldom of one, scales ; subocular bordering 
the lip, normally between the fourth and fifth upper labials ; tho 

* Types examined. 



88 



lacertidvt:. 



three anterior pairs of chin-sliiekis in contact. A more or less 
marked transverse gular fold, connecting the ears ; collar curved 
or more or less angular, free or attached (sometimes indistinct) 
in the middle, formed of 8 to 11 plates. Dorsal scales roundish, 
convex, smooth, juxtaposed, 40 to 55 across the middle of the 
body. Ventral plates in straight longitudinal and transverse series, 
broader than long ; in ten longitudinal series, the outer series com- 
posed of very small plates ; 20 to 32 transverse series. Normally 
a large pra;anal plate, bordered by two semicircles of smaller ones. 
The hind limb reaches the shoulder, or not so far, in the female, the 
shoulder or halfway between the shoulder and the ear in the male ; 
foot as long as the distance between the arm and the anterior border 
of the orbit or the centre of the eye ; one series of large, and two of 
small, subtibial plates. 10 to 17 femoral pores. Tail once and a half 
to t^vice the length of head and body ; upper caudal scales strongly 
keeled ; basal subcaudals smooth or very obtusely keeled. Greyish or 
rufous-brown above, with verj' variable markings ; series of black 
spots and white ocelli, or series of more or less confluent blackish 
spots along the body ; some specimens with irregularly scattered 
blackish dots, or with regular blackish and white longitudinal 
lateral bands ; others with a broad dark grey vertebral band with 
a series of shaft-like blackish marks on each side of it, &c. ; lower 
surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 152 168 

Head 13 11 

Width of head 8 8 

From end of snout to fore limb 20 20 

Prom end of snout to vent 50 55 

Fore limb 19 17 

Hind limb 31 28 

TaU 102 113 



North 


Africa 


; South-western Asia 


Sind. 






a. J. 




Avimale, Algeria. 


b. Hgr. 




Laghouat, Algeria. 


c. $. 




Tibremt, Algeria. 


d. 2. 




Oabes, Tunis. 


e. c?. 




Siisa, Tunis. 


f-ff-e2- 




N. Africa. 


h-l. c?$. 




Socotra. 


m. Hgr. 




Sinaitic Peninsula. 


n. Several 


spec: 
Iigr. 


Mt. Siuai. 


6,2, Si 




0. cT. 




Beerslieba. 


p. ?. 




Neby Musa, Dead Sea. 


q.6. 




Near Isfahan, between 
Shiraz and Teheran. 



M. Lataste [P.]. 

M. Lataste [P.]. 

M. Lataste "P.j. 

M. Lataste [P. |. 

Mr. Eraser [C.]. 

Berlin Museum. 

Prof. I. B. Balfour [C.]. 

(Tvpes oiE. balfoufi.) 
H. 0. Hart, Esq. [C.]. 



Canon Tristram [C.]. 

Dr. Anderson [P.]. 

W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 



14. EREMIAS. 80 



r . Karnian, S.E. Poma. W. T. TJlanford, Esq. [C.]. 

- ■ ■ " "^ rd, Esq. [C.J. 

Karman. 



2 . l{a\ in, south-west of W. T. Jilanford, 



t-ii. Hgr. Dasht River, Baluchistan. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 

i<^ ^t'-?/. J, hgr., G-wadar, Baluchistan. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [O.J. 

it yg. 

z.(S- Ilclmand River. Dr. Aitchison [C.]. 

Af^i-han I'oundary Comm. 

a. 2 • Between Quetta and Dr. Aitchison [C.]. 

Nushki. Afghan ]5oundary Comm, 

p. 2. Tirphul. Dr. Aitchison [C.J. 



y-S. 2- Sind. 



Afghan Boundary Comm. 



Eremias brevirostris. 



Eremias watsonanus, Stoliczka, Proc. As. Soc. Bevg. 1872, p. 125 

{iH'c ante, p. 80). 
Mesalina brevirostris, Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. o79. 

Very closely allied to E. f/uthtJnta. Snout shorter, nasals strongly 
swollen ; interparietal not in contact with the occipital, which is 
minute. Yentrals in twelve longitudinal series, only the two 
median distinctly broader than long. 

Tumb Island, Persian Gulf; Punjab. 

a. Hgr. Tumb Island. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.l. I .rr. 

b. 2- Kalabagh, Punjab. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. j ^^^^P*^^--' 

8. Eremias rubropunctata, 

Mesalina rubropunctata, Grat/, Cat. p. 43. 
Lacerta rubropunctata, Lichtcnst. Verz. Doiihl. Mus. Perl. p. 100*. 
Scapteira nebulosa, Graif, Ann. N. If. i. 1838, p. 281. 
Mesalina lichtensteinii, Gray, I. c. p. 282. 

Eremias rubropunctata, Dtim. (^- Bibr. v. p. 297 ; Smith, HI. S. Afr., 
Pept. pi. xlviii. fig. 9. 

Snout rather pointed. J^asals strongly swollen ; frontonasal in 
contact with the rostral ; two praefrontals ; frontal very feebly 
grooved ; two large supraoculars, second separated from the supra- 
ciliaries by two or three series of granules ; one or two scales on a 
line from the loreal to the anterior supraocular ; interparietal 
pentagonal, in contact with an occipital ; temporal scales granular, 
smooth ; no auricular denticulation ; lower eyelid with a semitrans- 
parent disk formed of several scales ; subocular bordering the lip, 
normally between the fourth and fifth upper labials ; the three 
anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. A rather indistinct trans- 
verse gular fold, connecting the ears ; collar angular, attached 
mesially. Dorsal scales round, convex, smooth, juxtaposed, 60 to 
65 across the middle of the body. Ventral plates in straight lon- 
gitudinal and angular transverse series, not or scarcely broader 

* Types (Berlin Mus., 1113-1116, 1127) examined. 



90 



XACERXIDJE. 



than long ; in twelve longitudinal scries, the median and outer 
pairs narrowest, longer than broad ; 33 to 3G transverse series. 
A large pra^anal plate, bordered by two or three semicircles of 
smaller ones. The hind limb reaches the axilla or the shoulder 
in the female, between the shoulder and the ear in the male ; 
foot as long as the distance between the arm and the anterior 
border of the orbit or the centre of the eye ; one series of large, 
and one or two of small, subtibial plates. 13 to 17 femoral pores. 
Tail once and half to once and two thirds the length of head and 
body ; upper caudal scales feebly keeled, lower smooth. Pale grey 
above, uniform or with scattered round darker spots, which usually 
form a regular series on each side of the tail ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. luillim. 

Total length — * 112 

Head 14 10 

Width of head 10 7 

From end of snout to fore limb 22 16 

From end of snout to vent 53 45 

Fore limb 21 16 

Hind limb 34 24 

Tail — 67 

Egypt, Sinaitic peninsula. 

a-d. cJ , $ , & hgr. Egypt. Sir J. Wilkinson [P.]. 

(Types of Scapteira nehuhsa.) 

e. 2 • Near Cairo. Dr. Anderson [P.]. 

f. Hgr. N. Africa. Berlin MuR«um. 

(Type of Mesalina lichfensteinii.) 

g. S Sinaitic Peninsula. H. C. Hart, Esq. [C.]. 
h -i. S 2 ■ Mt. Sinai. 

9. Eremias suborbitalis f. 

Eremias suborbitalis, Pdcrs, Oifvers. Vet. Ah. Fork. 1869, p. 658. 

Snout rather pointed, l^asals strongly swollen ; frontonasal in 
contact with the rostral ; two pra'frontals ; frontal grooved anteriorly ; 
three large supraoculars, second and third separated from the supra- 
ciliaries by a series of granules ; interparietal rhomboidal ; no occi- 
pital ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; two large auricular loliules ; 
lower eyelid entirely granular ; subocular not reaching the lip, 
resting on the fifth, sixth, and seventh upper labials ; the three 
anterior pairs of chin-sliields in contact. No gular fold ; collar 
straight, entirely free. Dorsal scales round, convex, smooth, 
juxtaposed, 70 across the middle of the body. Ventral plates in 
straight longitudinal and slightly angiilar transverse series, a 
little broader than long ; 12 longitudinal and 33 transverse series. 
Two slightly enlarged azygos praeanals. The adpressed hind 

* Tail lost. 

t Described from the type specimen (6150) in the Berlin Miir>eum. 



14. EREMIAS. 01 

limb roaches the posterior border of the orbit; foot as long as 
the distance between the arm and the anterior border of the 
orbit ; one series of large, and two of small, subtibial plates. 18 
femoral pores. Tail a Httle over twice the length of head and body ; 
upper caudal scales feebly keeled, lower smootli. Grey above, with 
small black spots ; lower surfaces white. 

millira. millim. 

Total length 198 From end of snout 

Head 16 to vent 61 

AVidth of head 12 Fore limb 25 

From end of snout Hind limb 49 

to fore limb .... 27 Tail 137 



Damaraland. 



10. Eremias namaqiiensis. 



Eremias namaqiiensis, Gray, Cat. p. 41. 
Eremias namaquen.sis, Dum. i^- Bihr. v. p. 307 ; Smith, HI. S. Afr., 

Jiept. pi. xliv. fig. 2, and pi. xlviii. fig. 0. 
benguelensis, Socage, Jom. Sc. Lisb. i. 1867, p. 229. 

Head moderate ; snout rather pointed. Nasals feebly swollen ; 
frontonasal separated from the rostral : usually a small azygos pree- 
frontal between the two large ones : frontal grooved anteriorly ; two 
large supraoculars, bordered anteriorly, posteriorly, and externally 
with granules ; two or three small scales or granules on a line from 
the loreal to the anterior supraocular, the length of which ecjuals or 
exceeds its distance from the loreal ; usually a single series of 
granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; interpa- 
rietal normally pentagonal, longer than the suture between the 
frontoparietals, in contact with a trapezoid occipital ; a curved 
band-like scale on the supcro-anterior border of the ear ; temporal 
scales granular, smooth ; no auiicular denticulation ; lower eyelid 
with a semitransparent disk formed of several scales ; subocular bor- 
dering the lip, normally between the fourth and fifth upper labials ; 
the three anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. A more or 
less indistinct gular fold from ear to ear ; collar straight, per- 
fectly free, with 9 to 11 plates. Dorsal scales granular, smooth, 
juxtaposed, blending into the ventral plates, 60 to 65 across the 
middle of the body. Ventral plates in straight longitudinal and 
transverse series ; in twelve longitudinal series : the plates of the 
median and outer series longer than broad, the others as broad 
as long, or a little broader than long ; 29 to 34 transverse 
series. Prseanal scales usually small, subequal, irregular ; some- 
times an enlarged postero-median plate. The adpressed hind limb 
reaches the shoulder, or halfway between the shoulder and the 
ear, in the female, the ear, or between the ear and the eye, in the 
male ; the length of the foot equals the distance between the arm 
and the anterior border of the orbit or the nostril ; a series of very 
large and one of smaller subtibial scales ; scales on upper sur- 



92 LACERTID^. 

face of tibia much larg-cr than dorsals, rhomhoidal, feehly imbricate, 
keeled ; scales on ii])per surface of arm much larger than the 
largest gulars, rhomboidal, strongly imbricate, smooth or obtusely 
keeled. 13 to IG femoral pores. Tail more than twice as long as 
head and body : upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; basal subcaudals 
smooth or obtusely keeled. Pale buff above, Avith five longitudinal 
blackish bands, the median usually narrowest and bifurcate on the 
nape, the outer passing through the ears : these bands do not extend 
on the upper surface of the head ; sometimes series of whitish dots 
on the black bands ; limbs brown, with round whitish spots ; lower 
surfaces white. 

6. 9- 

millim. millim. 

Total length 179 132 

Head 12 11 

^yidth of head 7 7 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 19 18 

From end of snout to vent 51 52 

Fore limb 19 17 

Hind limb 37 31 

Tail 128 80 * 

South Africa. 

a,b-d. (S,2,&^ hgr. Great Namaqnnland. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Types.) 

e. (5 . Great Namaqualand. 

f-a, 2 • Damaralaud. 

h. Hgr. Cape Colony. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.]. 

i-k. J 2 ' Kaffi-aria. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.J. 

I. (^ . S. Africa. 

11. Eremias undata. 

Eremias undata, Grot/, Cat. p. 42. 
Lacerta undata, Smith, Maq. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 93. 
Eremias imdata, Bmn. ^- Bihr. v. p. 316; Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept. 
pi. xliv. hg. 1, and pi. xlviii. fig. 11. 

Very closely allied to E. namaquensis, from which it differs in the 
following points : — Snout longer and narrower; the length of the 
granular space between the loreal and the anterior supraocular con- 
siderably greater than the length of the latter ; two series of granules 
between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; anterior border of 
ear subdenticulated : lower eyelid with two large transparent scales. 
Ventral plates in ten longitudinal scries, tbose of the median and 
outer series longer than broad, the others a little broader tlian 
long. Yellowish above, with five longitudinal dark brown bands, 
the outer passing through tbe ears. 

From snout to vent 62 millim. 

South Africa, between Cape Town and Little Xamaqualand. 

a. S- S.Africa. Earl of Derby [P.]. 

* Eeproduced. 



14. KREMIAS. 93 

12. Eremias piilchella. 

Eremias pulehella, Cjraij, (hit. p. 42. 
Eremias annulifora, Smith, 111. S. Afr., Rept. pi. xlvii. fig. 1, and 
pi. Iviii. tig. 14 {Oct. 1845). 

pulclira, Smith, I. c. figs. 2, 12. 

iuruiosa, Smith, I. c. figs. 3, 15. 

Head moderate ; suout rather obtuse. Head-shields rather rugose 
in the adult. Nasals swollen ; frontonasal separated from the 
rostral (abnormally a small azygos shield may be present between 
the nasals); two praifrontals, sometimes a small azygos shield between; 
frontal grooved anteriorly ; two large supraoculars, bordered ante- 
riorly, posteriorly, and externally with granules ; four or five small 
scales or granules on a line from the loreal to the anterior supra- 
ocular, the length of which is loss than its distance from the loreal ; 
two or three series of granules between the supraoculars and the 
supraciliaries ; interparietal pentagonal, longer than the suture 
between the frontoparietals, in contact with a trapezoid occipital ; 
temporal scales granular, smooth or obtusely keeled ; anterior border 
of ear subdeuticulated ; lower eyelid with a large transparent disk 
formed of two scales ; subopular bordering the lip, normally between 
the fifth and sixth upper labials ; the two anterior pairs of chin- 
shields in contact. Collar straight, perfectly free, with 11 to 
15 plates. Dorsal scales granular anteriorly, gradually larger, 
rhomboidal, subimbricate, and more or less distinctly keeled poste- 
riorly ; 55 to 75 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral 
plates in straight longitudinal and slightly angular transverse 
series ; in twelve longitudinal series ; the plates of the median 
and outer series longer than broad, the others as broad as long, 
or a little broader than long ; 31 to 3G transverse series. Prae- 
anal plates subequal, irregular. The adpressed hind limb reaches 
the ear, or between the latter and the eye ; the length of the foot 
equals the distance between the arm and the anterior border of the 
orbit or the nostril ; a series of very large subtibial shields, and one 
of smaller ones ; scales on upper surface of tibia larger than dorsals, 
rhomboidal, imbricate, keeled ; scales on upper surface of humerus 
larger than gulars, rhomboidal, strongly imbricate, obtusely keeled. 
13 to 16 femoral pores. Tail twice, or less than twice, as long 
as head and body ; upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; basal 
Bubcaudals smooth or obtusely keeled. Greyish or brownish above, 
usually with black and white or blue ocelli on the back and limbs ; 
sometimes a black, light-edged band along each side of the back ; 
lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 143 From end of snout 

Head 14 to vent 58 

Width of head 10 Fore limb 23 

From end of suout Hind limb 42 

to fore limb ... 24 Tail (reproduced) . . 85 

South Africa. 



94 LACERTID^. 

a. S' S.Africa. Earl of Derby [P.]. I 

b. Urn-. S. Africa. Saffron Walden Nat. Hist. \ (Types.) 

Soc. [P.]. I 

c. c? . Interior of S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Type of E. an- 

nuUfera.) 

d. J. Interior of S. Africa. Sir A'. Smith [P.]. (Type of K 2Jul- 

clwn.) 

e. (^ . Karroo. S. -African Museum [P.]. 

/. d". W. coast of S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Type of ^. /o;-- 

tnosa.) 
q. 2 . Great Namaqualand. 

A. <S' Cape Colony. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.]. 

13. Eremias lineo-ocellata. 

Eremias lineo-ocellata, Graij, Cat. p. 41. 
Eremias lineo-ocellata, Dam. 4'- Bihr. v. p. 314 j Smith, III. S. Afr.y 
Rept. pi. xliii. tig. 2, and pi. xlviii. fig. 10. 

Head rather short ; snout obtuse. Head-shields rather rugose in 
the adult. Nasals sw.ollen ; frontonasal separated from the rostral ; 
two praefrontals, frequently a small azygos shield between ; frontal 
grooved anteriorly ; two large supraoculars, often bordered entirely, 
or nearly entirely, with granules ; four to six small scales or granules 
on a line from the loreal to the anterior supraocular, the length of 
which is much less than its distance from the loreal ; two or three 
series of granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; 
interparietal usually pentagonal, longer than the suture between the 
frontoparietals, in contact with a trapezoid occipital ; temporal scales 
granular, smooth or obtusely keeled ; anterior border of ear subden- 
ticulated ; lower eyelid with a large transparent disk formed of two 
scales ; subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth or 
fifth and sixth (rarely sixth and seventh) upper labials ; usually the 
two anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. Collar straight, per- 
fectly free, with 9 to 15 plates. Dorsal scales granular on the 
nape, rhomboidal, feebly imbricate, distinctly keeled from between 
the shoulders, gradually increasing in size towards the tail ; 55 to 
60 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral plates not, or 
scarcely, broader than long, in 12 or 14 straight and 33 to 
36 angular transverse series. Prasanals subequal, irregular. The 
adpressed hind limb reaches the ear, or a little beyond, in the 
male, the shoulder or the collar in the female ; the length of 
the foot equals the distance between the arm and the centre of 
the eye or the anterior border of the orbit ; a series of very large 
sub tibial shields, and one or two of smaller ones ; scales on upper 
surface of tibia imbricate and strongly keeled, not, or but slightly, 
larger than the posterior dorsals ; scales on upper surface of 
arm larger than gulars, rhomboidal, strongly imbricate, obtusely 
keeled. 12 to 16 femoral pores. Tail about twice as long as head 
and body ; upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; basal subcaudals 
smooth or obtusely keeled, lirownish above, usually with four lon- 
gitudinal blackish bands, in each of which is enclosed a series of 



14. LKEMI.VS. 95 

whitish spots ; sometimes with irregularly arranged ocelli ; lower 
surfaces whitish, 

millim. millim. 

Total length 166 From end of snout 

Head 13 to vent 54 

Width of head 10 Fore limb 21 

From end of snout Hind limb 37 

to fore limb 22 TaU 112 

South Africa. 

a. (S- S. Africa. Earl of Derby [P.]. 

b, c, d, e-f. (5 , $ , and bgr. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.J. 
y-h. 5- S. Africa. 



14. Eremias hurchellii. 

Erertias burchellii, Gray, Cat. p. 40. 
Eremias burchellii, Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 40 ; Sruith, III. S. Afr., Rept. 
pi. xlv. fig. 1, and pi. xlviii. fig. 4. 

Head moderate ; snout obtuse. Nasals feebly swollen ; fronto- 
nasal separated from the rostral ; two prsefrontals, forming a very 
short suture, or separated by a smaU az^-gos shield ; frontal not, or 
very feebly, grooved ; two large supraoculars, bordered anteriorly, 
posteriorly, and externally with granules ; two or three small scales 
or granules on a line from the loreal to the anterior supraocular, the 
length of which equals, or is a little less than, its distance from the 
loreal ; one or two series of granules between the supraoculars and 
the supraciliaries ; interparietal pentagonal, longer than the suture 
between the frontoparietals, in contact with an occijiital ; temporal 
scales granular, smooth ; no auricular denticulation : lower eyelid 
with a semitransparent disk formed of several small scales ; subocular 
bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth or fifth and sixth, 
exceptionally sixth and seventh, upper labials ; the three anterior 
pairs of chin-shields in contact. Collar straight, perfectly free, 
with 9 to 13 plates. Dorsal scales granular, flat, perfectly 
smooth, 70 to 75 across the middle of the back. Ventral 
plates not broader than long, in 14 straight or slightly irregular 
longitudinal, and 29 to 35 angular transverse series. Prieanal 
scales small, subequal, irregular. The adpressed hind limb reaches 
the shoulder or the ear; the length of the foot equals the dis- 
tance between the arm and the centre of the eye or the anterior 
border of the orbit ; a series of very large subtibial shields, and 
one or two of smaller ones ; scales on limbs small, smooth. 11 
to 14 femoral pores. Tail about twice as long as head and body ; 
basal upper caudal scales feebly keeled, subcaudals smooth. 
Greyish or brownish above, with series of smaller or larger black 
spots, sometimes confluent into three or four bands on the body, five 
on the nape ; these black markings extend on the head-sluelds ; 



96 LACERTID^. 

round light spots among the black ones, or along the black bands ; 
limbs with round whitish, black-edged spots ; lower surfaces white. 

c?. 2, 

millim. millim. 

Total length 167 178 

Head 13 13 

Width of head 10 10 

Prom end of snout to fore limb 21 23 

From end of snout to vent 57 62 

Fore hmb 22 22 

Hind limb 34 33 

Tan 110 116 

(South Africa. 

a,b. J $ . S. Africa. Earl of Derbv [P.]. 

c. cJ. Cape Colony. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.l. 

d. S- Kaffraria. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.]. 
e-g. 6 & hgi-. Karroo. Sir A. Smith [P.], 

15, Eremias capensis. 

Eremias capensis, Gray, Cat. p. 40. 
Lacerta capensis, Smith, Mag. JV. H. ii. 1838, p. 9.3. 
Eremias capensis, Dum. <$• Bihr. v. p. 302 ; Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept. 

pi. xlv. tig. 2, and pi. xlviii. fig. 7 ; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1870, 

p. 114 
laticeps, Smith, I. c. pi. xlvi. fig. 1, and pi. xlviii. fig. 3. 

Head moderate ; snout obtuse. jSTasals swollen ; frontonasal form- 
ing a suture with the rostral ; two pra^froutals, forming a very short 
suture, or separated by a small azygos shield ; frontal not grooved ; 
two large supraoculars, bordered anteriorly, posteriorly, and exter- 
nally, and sometimes internally, with granules ; four or five granules 
on a line between the loreal and the anterior supraocular, the length 
of which is less than its distance from the loreal ; one or two series 
of granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; inter- 
parietal pentagonal, longer than the suture between the fronto- 
parietals, in contact with an occipital ; temporal scales granular, 
smooth ; no auricular denticnlation ; lower eyelid with a semitrans- 
parent disk formed of several small scales ; subocular bordering 
the lip, between the fifth and sixth, sixth and seventh, or 
seventh and eighth upper labials ; the three anterior pairs of chin- 
shields in contact. Collar straight, perfectly free, -with 9 to 11 
plates. Dorsal scales round, flat, perfectly smooth, granular 
or slightly imbricate, 50 to 55 across the middle of the body. 
Ventral plates not broader than long, forming 14 or 16 rather irre- 
gular longitudinal, and 32 to 36 angular transverse series. Prse- 
anal scales small, subcqual, irregular. The adpressed hind limb 
reaches the ear or the eye ; the length of the foot equals the 
distance between the arm and the anterior border of the orbit 
or the nostril; a series of very large subtibial shields and one 



14. ERExriAa. 97 

or two of smaller ones. 12 to 14 femoral pores. Tail about 
twice as long as head and bod}' ; upper caudal scales, at tho 
base, smooth or feebly keeled ; basal subcaudals smooth. Coppery- 
brown above, with black reticulations, sometimes couliiied to the 
sides ; sometimes a light or a dark vertebral band, bifurcating on 
the nape, and one or two light lateral bands ; limbs with round 
whitish, black-edged spots ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 2u0 From cud of snout 

Head 16 to vent 68 

Width of head 13 Fore limb 28 

From end of snout Hind limb 45 

to fore limb 28 Tail 132 

South Africa. 

a-5. cf. Cape Colony. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Tvpes.) 

c-d. S- Cape Colony. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.]. 

e. S- Mouth of the Orange Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Type of 

Kiver. E. laticeps.) 

f-S- S. Africa. 

16. Eremias velox. 

Eremias velox, Gray, Cat. p. 40. 
Lacerta velox, Pallas, Reise, i. p. 4-57 ; Daud. Rept. iii. p. 202 ; 

Eversm. Xouv. Mem. Soc. Muse. iii. 1834, p. .355, pi. xxx. fig. 3. 

cruenta, Pall. I. c. 

deserti, Lepechin, Tageh. Reise Russ. R. i. p. 318, pi. xxii. 

figs. 3, 4 ; Daud. Rept. iii. p. 199. 
Scincus cruentatus, Daud. I. c. p. 278. 
Lacerta coccinea, Merr. Tent. p. G9. 

tigrina, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. Vergl. Anat. p. 119. 

• argulus, Eichw. Zool. Spec. Ross. Pol. iii. p. 188. 

Podarcis velox, Menetr. Cat. Rais. p. 62; Eichw. Faun. Casp.-Cauc. 

76 : Sch-eib. Herp. Eur. p. 376. 
Lacerta vittata, Eversm. I. c. p. 358, pi. xxxi. fig. 4. 
Eremias velox, Wiegm. Herp. Me.v. p. 9 ; Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, 

p. 374 ; Eessler, Tr. St. Petersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 1878, Suppl. 

p. 166. 

cajruleo-ocellata, Eu7n. ^- Bibr. v. p. 295. 

Aspidorhiims gracilis, Eichw. Faun. Caxp.-Cauc. p. 74, pi. xi. 

figs. 4-6. 
Eremias variabilis (non Pall.), De Fit. Viag. Pers. p. 354. 

erythrurus, Severzow, Faun. Turkest. p. 71. 

persica, Blanf. Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (4) xiv. 1874, p. 370, and 

Zool. E. Pers. p. 370, pi. xxvi. fig. 1. 
Podarces (Eremias) velox, Strauch, Voy. Przeicalski, Rept. p. 26. 

( ) persica, Strauch, I. c. 

? Eremias straiichi, Kessler, I. c. p. 166, pi. ii. 

Eremias velox, var. persica, Boettger, in Radde, Faun. Flor. Casp - 

Geh. p. 50. 

Head moderate ; snout rather obtuse. JS'asals swollen, the lower 
usually in contact with the rostral ; frontonasal separated from the 
rostral ; two praefrontals (occasionally with a small additional median 

VOL. ni. H 



98 LACERTIDiE. 

shield) ; frontal usually feebly grooved anteriorly ; two large supra- 
oculars, with a smaller one in front and behind, which are frequently 
broken up into small scales or granules ; the length of the first prin- 
cipal supraocular equals or exceeds its distance from the loreal ; the 
supraoculars usually in contact with the frontal ; interparietal small ; 
no occipital ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; usually an elongate 
scale on the supero-antcrior border of the ear ; no auricular denti- 
culation ; lower eyelid opaque ; subocular bordering the lip, usually 
between the sixth and seventh upper labials ; the two or three first 
labials in contact with the lower nasal ; the three, or rarely four, 
anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. A more or less distinct 
transverse gular fold, connecting the ears ; not more than 30 gular 
scales on a line extending from the collar to the suture between 
the chin-shields ; collar slightly curved, perfectly free, with 9 to 
11 plates. Dorsal scales granular, round, juxtaposed, perfectly 
smooth, 50 to 65 across the middle of the body. Ventral plates 
forming more or less regular oblique longitudinal, and slightly 
angular transverse series ; the longest transverse series contain 
14 or 16 plates, which are as long as broad, or a little longer 
than broad ; 29 to 34 transverse series. Praeanal scales usually 
small and irregular, sometimes with a much enlarged posterior 
shield. The adpressed hind limb usually reaches the collar or 
between the latter and the ear, in some female specimens not 
beyond the axil ; foot as long as the distance between the arm and 
the centre of the eye, or the anterior border of the orbit ; an outer 
series of large subtibial shields, which are more than thrice the size 
of the others. 17 to 25 femoral pores on each side, the two series 
sometimes nearly meeting in the middle. Tail once and a half to 
twice as long as head and body ; upper caudal scales, at the base, 
more or less distinctly keeled, or smooth ; basal subcaudals smooth. 
Young blackish above, with whitish longitudinal lines along the 
back, and round whitish spots on the sides and limbs ; these mark- 
ings usually disappear more or less completely in the adult, which 
are greyish or brownish, spotted or longitudinally streaked with 
black, with or without round whitish spots on the back, sides, and 
limbs ; sometimes a series of large blue and black ocelli on each 
side ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 170 197 

Head 17 17 

Width of head 12 12 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 27 28 

From end of snout to vent 70 72 

Fore limb 28 28 

Hind limb 44 41 

Tail 100 125 

Southern llussia, Transcaucasia, Turkestan, Persia, Baluchistan, 
Afia;anistan. 



14. EEEMIAS. 



99 



a. Yg. 

b. Yg. 

c. (S. 

d. 6- 

e. cT. 

f-i. $ k hgr. 
k-n. S 2 • 

o-p. 6 2- 
q. Hgr. 

/•-«. 6 2 . 

f. $. 

w-x. s & yg- 

y-2. 2 & hgr. 
y- 6- 

8-r,. cS & hgT- 
^. d- 
t. d. 
»c-X. d. 

M-f Yg. 

O-TT. $. 

p. Hgr. 
(T. Hsrr. 



raui-asus. 
Mangischlak. 
Novo Alexandrovsk. 
W. Turkestan. 
Bokhara. 

Golodnaja Steppes. 
Kiver Tschimlselieili, 

Desert oi Kara Kuin. 
Upper part of River Hi. 
Ka^ialpai Settleuieut, 

Kiver Lepsa. 
Tschinas, Sir Daria. 
Arganatiiisk. 
Khongos, Tiaiischan. 
Ferghana district. 
Lovver part of lliver 

Kungess. 
New Gulran. 

N. Persia. 
Clhilan, N. Persia. 
Naserabad, Sistan. 
Near Isfahan. 

Between Karnian and 

Shiraz. 
Ravin, S.E. of Kar- 

mau. 
Helmand River. 

Between Quetta and 
Nushki. 



St. Petersburg Museum [E.l 
St. Petersburg Museum [E.j 
St. Petersburg Museum [E.], 
M. Severzow [0.1. 
St. Peter.-burg Museum [E.], 
St. Petersburg Museum [E. 
St. Petersbury: Museum TE. 



m 



St. Petersburg Museum 
St. Petersburg Museum 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.] 
St. Petersburg Museum [E. i 
St. Petersburg Museum [E." 
St. Petersburg Museum [E 
St. Petersburg Museum [E 

Dr. Aitchison [C.]. Afghan 

Boundary Commission. 
Marquis G.' Doria [P.]. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 
Gen. Goldsmid [P.]. 
W. T. Blanford, ] 

Esq. [C.]. 
W. T. Blanford, 

Esq. LC.]. 
W. T. Blanford, | 

Esq. [C.]. J 
Dr. Aitchison [C.]. 

Boundary Commission. 
Dr. Aitciiison [C.]. Afghan 

Boundary Commission. 



> 



(Types of 

-Zi. per- 

sica.) 

Afffhau 



17. Eremias fasciata. 

Eremias fasciata, Blanf. Ann. ^ Mag. N. II. (4) xiv. 1874, p. 32, 

and Zool. E. Persia, p. 374, pi. xxv. fig. 3. 
Podarces (Eremias) fasciata, Strauch, Voy. Przewahki, Sept. p. 26. 

Very closely allied to the preceding, but smaller and more slender. 
Head-shields and temporal granules flatter ; supraoculars fre- 
quently bordered internally by a series of granules; lower nasal 
constantly resting on the three anterior labials ; subocular between 
the sixth, and seventh labials ; 45 to 50 dorsal scales across 
the middle of the body. The adpressed hind limb reaches the 
collar in the female, slightly beyond the ear in the male ; the 
length of the foot equals the distance from the collar-fold to the 
nostril or the end of the snout. 16 to 19 femoral pores. Upper 
caudal scales distinctly but obtusely keeled. Body pale brown to 
white above, with from six to eight longitudinal dark-brown bands, 
as wide as the interspaces between them ; limbs dark brown, with 
large round white spots ; lower parts white. 



h2 



100 LACERTID^. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 14(» KilJ 

Head 12 12 

Width of head 8 8 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 20 20 

From end of snout to vent 52 5-4 

Fore limb 21 20 

Hind limb 38 33 

Tail (reproduced) 88 85 

Southern Persia, Baluchistan, 
fl-c. c? $ • Near Saidabad.Sarjan, W. T. Blaaford, Esfj. [C.]. 

south-west of Karman. (Types.) 

d. 2- Helmand. Dr. Aitchison [C.]. 

Afghan Boundary Commission. 

18. Eremias intermedia. 
Podarces (Eremias) intermedia, Strauch, Voy. Przewalski, Rept. p. 28. 
Head moderate ; snout rather pointed. Nasals swollen, the 
lower separated from the rostral ; frontonasal separated from 
the rostral ; two praefrontals ; frontal feebly grooved ; two large 
supraoculars ; a small shield and several granules in front of 
the anterior supraocular ; the length of the latter shield exceeds 
its distance from the loreal; supraoculars in contact with the 
frontal ; interparietal small ; no occipital ; temporal scales granular, 
smooth ; an enlarged scale on the supero- anterior border of the 
ear ; no auricular denticulation ; lower eyelid opaque ; subocular 
not reaching the lip, resting on the sixth, seventh, and eighth upper 
labials ; the two first labials in contact with the lower nasal ; the 
three anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. A slightly distinct 
transverse gular fold, connecting the ears ; about 30 gular scales 
on a line extending from the collar to the suture between the chin- 
shields ; collar slightly curved, perfectly free, with very smaU 
plates. Dorsal scales granular, round, juxtaposed, perfectly smooth, 
55 to 60 across the middle of the body. Ventral plates in oblique 
longitudinal and slightly angular transverse series ; latter 28 to 30, 
the longest of which contain 14 or 16 plates. Praeanal scales 
small and irregular. The adpressed hind limb reaches the shoulder 
or the collar ; foot as long as the distance between the arm and 
the centre of the eye ; an outer series of large subtibial shields, 
which are more than thrice the size of the others. 13 (to 15) 
femoral pores. Tail once and one third to twice as long as head 
and body ■ upper caudal scales very feebly keeled, smooth on the 
basal portion. Grey above ; young ocellated, the ocelli becoming 
less distinct in the older animal. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 119 From end of snout 

Head 13 to vent 53 

Width of head 9 Fore limb ly 

From end of snout to Hind limb 30 

fore Hmb 20 Tail 66 



14. EBBMIA8. 101 



Aralo-Caspian Desert. 



a-b. 2 & yg. Desert of Kizil Kiim. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 

(As typical of E. intermedia.) 

]9. Eremias arguta. 

Eremias arguta, Grey, Cat. p. 39. 
Lacerta arguta, Pall, lieise, ii. p. 718; Daud. Hept. iii. p. 240. 
variabilis, Vail. Zuogr. lioss.-As. iii. p. 31 ; Licht. in 

Evensm. Eeise, p. 14 ; Eversm. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Mosc. iii. 1834, 

p. 3ol, pi. xxi.x. 

leucosticta, Licht. I. c. p. 142. 

Podarcis variabilis, Menetr. Cat. Rais. p. 62 ; Schreih, Kerp. Eur. 

p. 380. 

irritans, Menetr. I. c. 

Lacerta deserti, Andrzej. Num. Mem. Soc. Mosc. ii. 1832, p. 324. 
Eremias variabilis, Ji'ief/m. Jlerj). Mex. p. 9; Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 292; 

D6mid. Voij. Euss. Mir. iii. p. 339, Eept. pi. i. tigs. 3, 4 ; Smith, 

III. S. Afr., Eept. pi. xlviii. fig. 2. 
Podarcis deserti, Eichiv. Faun. Casp.-Cauc. p. 77. 
Podarces (Eremias) arguta, Stratich, Voy. Przewalshi, Eept. p. 27. 
Eremias arguta, Kesskr, Tr. St. Eetersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 1878, p. 170; 

Boettger, in Eadde, Faun. Flor. Casp.-Geh. p. 54. 

Habit stout ; head short, snout obtuse. Nasals swollen, the 
lower not in contact with the rostral ; frontonasal separated from 
the rostral ; two pra3frontals, frequently with one or two small 
azygos shields between them ; frontal feebly grooved antei'iorly ; 
two large supraoculars, in contact with the frontal, bordered ante- 
riorly and posteriorly by several rows of granules ; the length of 
the first supraocular is less than, or equals, its distance from the 
loreal ; interparietal small ; no occipital ; temporal scales granular, 
smooth ; enlarged tympanic shield frequently absent ; no auricular 
denticulation ; lower eyelid ojiaque ; subocular not reaching the 
lip, resting on three or four labials ; the two (rarely three) first 
labials in contact with the lower nasal ; the three (rarely two) 
anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. A more or less distinct 
transverse gular fold, connecting the ears ; 25 to 30 gular scales on 
a line extending from the collar to the suture between the chin- 
shields ; collar slightly curved, perfectly free, with 9 to Vd plates. 
Dorsal scales granular, flat, smooth, surrounded by smaller granules, 
45 to 66 across the middle of the body. Ventral plates about as 
long as broad, forming more or less regular oblique longitudinal 
and slightly angular transverse series ; latter 31 to 35, the longest 
of which contain 16 to 20 plates. Prseanal scales small and irre- 
gular. The adpressed hind limb usually does not reach the axilla, 
very rarely reaches as far as the shoulder ; foot as long as the distance 
between the arm and the commissure of the mouth or the posterior 
border of the orbit, or, very rarely, the centre of the eye ; an outer 
series of subtibial shields, which are usually not thrice the size of 
the others. 7 to 14 femoral pores on each side. Tail as long as 
or a little longer, sometimes even shorter, than the head and body, 



102 LACEETID-aE. 

slightly compressed posteriorly : upper caudnl scales smooth or 
feebly keeled. Yoiinp; greyish above, with wliite, black-edged 
ocelli, which may be confluent into transverse bands, rarely into 
longitudinal ones ; the ocelli persist in the adult or are replaced by 
black marblings or irregular transverse bands. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 15:3 140 

Head 18 16 

Width of head 14 13 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 30 25 

From end of snout to vent 73 70 

Fore limb 20 24 

Hind limb 37 33 

Tail 80 70 

The largest specimens, male and female, with broken or repro- 
duced tail, measure 98 and 94 millim., from snout to vent, respec- 
tively. 

Southern Russia, Transcaucasia, Turkestan. 

St. Petersburg Museum [E. ' 
St. Petersbur<r Museum fE." 



a. 2. 




Odessa. 


b. d. 




Crimea. 


c-e. c?$. 




Baku. 


/• Hgr. 




Transcaucasia. 


ff- ?. 




Dongus, Ctov. Orenburg. 


h-i. c?$. 




Kirghiz .Steppes. 


k. Yg. 




River Emba. 


l-m. Yg. 




Mangisclilak. 


n-o. 2 • 




Novo Alexaudrovsk. 


P- d. 




Isbes Khan, North of 
Sir Darin. 


q. $■ 




Tschinas, Sir Daria. 


r-s. 2- 




Lake Alakul. 


t-w. 6,2> 


&yg. 


Lake Sassyk Kul. 


^. Yg. 




Lake Sassyk Kul. 


y- 6. 




Tarbagatai Mts. 


z,a. 2- 




Western Turkestan. 


13-8. c?$. 




Turkestan. 



St. Petersburg Museum 
St. Petersburg Museum 
St. Petersburg Museum 
St. Petersburg Museum 
St. Petersburg Museum 
St. Petersburg Museum 
St. Petersburg: Museum 



St. Petersburg Museum [E.J. 

St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 
St. Petersburg Museum [E.J. 
Geographical Society of 

Bremen. 
St. Petersburg J\ruseum [E.]. 
St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 
M. Severzow [C.]. 



20. Eremias argus. 

Eremias argus, Feters, M<m. Berl. Ac. 1869, p. Gl, pi. — . fig. 3; 

Steindachn. Sitzh. Ak. Wien, Ixii. 1870, i. p. 336, pi. ii. tigs. 1, 2. 
brenchleyi, Giinth. Ann. 8f Mar/. N. H. (4) ix. 1872, p. 419, 

and in Bremhlni\ ' Curaqoa^ p. 306, pi. xxii. fig. A. 
Podarces (Eiemias) argus, Strotich, Voy, Przc%cahki, Rept. p. 32. 
( ) breuchleyi, Strauch, I. c. p. 30. 

Head short, snout obtuse. Nasals swollen, the lower rarely in 
contact with the rostral ; frontonasal divided longitudinally, sepa- 
rated from the rostral ; usually one or two azygos shields between 
the pair of prspfrontals ; frontal feebly grooved anteriorly ; two 
large supraoculars, usually with a small one behind ; the space 



14. EREMIAS. 



103 



between the anterior supraocular granular, equal to or exceeding 
the length of the latter shield ; sometimes a series of granules 
separating the anterior supraocular from the frontal ; interparietal 
small ; no occipital ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; enlarged 
tympanic scale usually absent ; no auricular denticulation ; sub- 
ocular usually not reaching the lip ; the two first labials in contact 
with the lower nasal ; the three anterior pairs of chin-shields in 
contact. A more or less distinct transverse gular fold, connecting 
the ears ; 18 to 25 gular scales on a line extending from the collar 
to the suture between the chin-shields ; collar slightly curved, with 
7 to 11 rather large plates. Dorsal scales granular, smooth, con- 
siderably larger on the sides, 44 to 60 across the middle of the 
body. Ventral plates as long as broad or a little broader than long, 
in very irregular oblique longitudinal series ; 28 to 31 transverse 
series, the longest of which contain 12 or 14 plates. Prajanal 
scales small and irregular. The adpressed hind limb usually 
reaches the axilla or not quite so far, rarely the shoulder ; the 
length of the foot equals the distance between the arm and the 
centre of the eye or the anterior border of the orbit ; an outer 
series of very large subtibial plates. 8 to 12 femoral pores. Tail 
once and one fourth to once and a half the length of head and body; 
upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; basal subcaudals smooth, 
Olive-grey or brownish above, with large black and white ocelli, 
the lateral of which are sometimes confluent into one or two whitish 
longitudinal bands. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 135 135 

Head 13 13 

Width of head 9-5 9-5 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 22 22 

From end of snout to vent 56 62 

Fore limb 19 21 

Hind limb 30 31 

Tail 79 73 

Northern China, Mongolia, Manchuria. 

a-e. S 2 . Chefoo. E. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.l. 

f-ff- 6 2- -Pekin. J. Brenchlev, Esq. [P.], 

h-k. c? ?. Pekin. Pt. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.]. 

I. Yg. Pekin. Dr. S. W. Busbell [C.]. 

m. 2 • Pekin. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 

n. 2 ■ N. China. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.J. 

0-2). (S 2- N. China. _ Mr. A. Adams [C.]. 

q. 2 • Land of Grass, Mongolia. J. Brenchlev, Esq. [P.]. 

(Type of iJ. brencldeiji.) 

r. c? . Manchm-ia. Mr. A. Adams [C.]. 

21. Eremias multiocellata. 

Eremia-- multiocellata, Gilnth. Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. (4) x. 1872, 
p. 419, and in Brenchley's ' Curagoa,' Rept, p. 400. 



104 lACERTID^. 

Eremias cfenileo-ocellata (non D. ^- B.), Anders. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1872, p. 37;}. 
yarkandensis, Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xliv. 1875, 

p. 194, a7}d 2nd Ynrkand Miss., Rept. p. 16, pi. ii. lig. 3. 
Podarce3 (Eremias) multiocellata, Stranch, Vuy. Przetvalski, Rept. 

p. 26. 
( ) planiceps, Strauch, I. c. p. 39, pi. iv. fig. 3, 

Head moderate ; snout obtuse. Nasals not swollen ; lower nasal 
not forming a suture with the rostral ; frontonasal separated from 
the rostral ; two prcefrontals, sometimes with an azygos shield 
between ; frontal not distinctly grooved ; two large, and a small 
posterior third, supraoculars ; a few small scales or granules between 
the anterior supraocular and the loreal : the distance between the 
latter shields is less than the length of the anterior supraocular ; no 
granules between the supraoculars and the frontal ; interparietal 
small ; no occipital ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; an enlarged 
scale on the supero-anterior border of the ear ; no auricular denti- 
culation ; lower eyelid opaque ; subocular (usually) reaching the 
lip, between the six|;h ,and seventh u]>per labials ; lower nasal in 
contact with three nasals V~the three anterior pairs of chin-shields 
in contact. A rather indistinct transverse gular fold, connecting 
the ears ; 27 * gular scales on a line from the collar to the suture 
between the anterior chin-shields ; collar slightly curved, perfectly 
free. Dorsal scales granular, flat, juxtaposed, perfectly smooth, 
45 across the middle of the body. Ventral plates forming irregular 
oblique longitudinal and slightly angular transverse series ; the 
longest transverse series contain 14 or 16 (seldom 18) plates, which 
are as long as broad or a little longer than broad ; 32 (28 to 35) 
transverse series. The adprcssed hind limb reaches the axil ; the 
length of the foot equals the distance between the arm and the 
centre of the eye ; digits rather feebly keeled inferiorly ; an outer 
series of very large subtibial shields. 13 (9 to 14) femoral pores. 
Tail a little longer than head and body (usually once and a half the 
length of the latter); basal caudal scales all smooth, posterior upper 
caudals feebly keeled. Olive-grey above, head and middle of the 
back spotted or reticulated with black ; sides and limbs with 
•whitish, black-edged ocelli. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 120 From end of snout 

Head 14 to vent 58 

Width of head 9 Fore limb 20 

From end of snout Hind limb 30 

to fore limb 21 Tail 62 

Eastern Turkestan, Mongolia. 

o. 2- Gobi Desert. J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.]. (Type.) 

* 24 or 25 in the type of E. planiceps, as Dr. Strauch kindly informs me. 



14. EREMIAS. 105 

Tar. saturata. 
Eremias yarkandensis, var. saturata, Blanf. II. cc. fig-. 4. 

Differs from the type in the subocular not reaching the lip, and 
in darker colour ; neither character, however, is quite constant. 
Valleys of the Kuenluen Kange, South of Yarkand. 

22. Eremias quadrifrons. 

Podarces (Eremias) quadrifrons, Strauch, Vvy. PrzetcalsJii, Rept. 
p. ;J4, pi. iv. tig. 2. 

Ts^asals not swollen, lower divided and forming a suture with the 
rostral ; frontonasal separated from the rostral ; four praefrontals, 
outer narrow, band-like, wedged in between the frontonasal, the 
normal prajfrontals, and the loreals ; two large, and a small posterior 
third, supraoculars ; a series of granules between the supraoculars 
and the supraciliaries and two in front of the anterior supraoculai" ; 
interparietal small ; no occipital ; lower eyelid opaque ; subocular 
not reaching the lip ; lower nasals in contact with three labials ; 
the three anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. 37 or 38 gular 
scales on a line from the collar to the suture between the anterior 
gular scales*; collar curved, perfectly free, with ten plates. Dorsal 
scales granular, smooth. Yentral plates in 32 transverse, and 14 or 
16 oblique longitudinal series. An outer series of large transverse 
tibial shields. 13 femoral pores. Tail about once and one third 
the length of head and body. Olive-grey above; head irregularly 
spotted with black ; a light streak along each side of the back, 
bordered internally by an inteiTupted black streak, externally by a 
series of black ocelli with bluish-white centre. Total length 138 
millim. : tail 38. 



Alashan Desert. 



23. Eremias przewalskii t. 



Podarces (Eremias) kessleri, Strauch, Toy. Przewalshi, Rept. p. 36, 
pi. V. 

( ) brachydactyla, Strauch, I. c. p. 41, pi. vi. 

( ) przewalskii, Strauch, I. c. p. 43, pi. vii. 

Head moderate ; snout obtuse. Nasals scarcely swollen, the 
lower sometimes divided, not reaching the rostral; fronto-nasal 
separated from the rostral ; two praefrontals ; frontal feebly grooved 
anteriorly; a small supraocular in front of and another behind 
the two large ones, the anterior sometimes broken up into small 
scales or granules ; the distance from the loreal to the first prin- 
cipal supraocular is less than the length of the latter shield ; 
the supraoculars in contact with the frontal ; interparietal small ; 

* According to a communication from Dr. Strauch. 

t Complying with a request from Dr. Strauch, I have adopted for this 
species the name which recalls its discoverer. 



106 LACEETID^. 

no occipital ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; an elongate scale 
on the supero-anterior border of the ear; no auricular denticnlation; 
lower eyelid opaque ; subocular usually not reaching the lip, resting 
on the sixth, seventh, and eighth, or seventh, eighth, and ninth 
upper labials ; lower nasal in contact with two or three labials ; 
the three or four anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. A 
distinct transverse gular fold, connecting the ears ; 32 to 38 gular 
scales on a line from the collar to the suture between the anterior 
chin-shields ; collar slightly curved, perfectly free, with 11 to 13 
small plates. Dorsal scales granular, suboval, juxtaposed, per- 
fectly smooth, 60 to 65 across the middle of the body. Ventral 
plates forniiug irregular oblique longitudinal, and slightly angular 
transverse series ; the longest transverse series contain 16 to 20 
plates, which are longer than broad ; 35 to 38 transverse series. 
Praeanal scales small, irregular, a few postero-median slightly 
enlarged. The adpressed hind limb reaches the axil or the collar ; 
foot as long as the distance between the arm and the centre of the 
eye or the posterior border of the orbit ; usually an outer series of 
large transverse shields, which are sometimes smaller and more 
irregular. 13 to 16 (11 to 17) femoral pores. Tail once and one 
fourth to once and a half as long as head and body ; upper caudal 
scales obtusely keeled, basal subcaudals smooth. Pale yellowish or 
brownish above, spotted, marbled, or largely reticulated with black, 
the black spots extending on the head ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 175 From end of snout 

Head 17 to vent 75 

Width of head 12 Fore limb 25 

From end of snout to Hind limb 40 

fore limb 29 Tail 100 

Mongolia. 

a. 5 . Alashan Desert. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. (As typical 

of E. kesskri.) 
h. 2 ■ Tschirgu-Bulyk. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. (As typical 

of E. brachyclactyla^ 
c. 2- Kbara-Morit^. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. (As typical 

of -E. 2}J'!^ew(dsku.) 



24. Eremias vermiculata. 

Eremias vermiculata, Blanf. Joum. As. Soc. Bevg. xliv. 1875, p. 194, 
and '2nd Yarkcnid Miss., Itept. p. 18, pi. ii. tig. o. 

Podarces (Eremias) pylzowi, Strcmch, Voy. Przeicahki, liept. p. 28, 
pi. vi. fig. ^ . 

Head moderate ; snout rather pointed. Nasals swollen, lower 
not reaching the rostral ; frontonasal separated from the rostral ; 
two prsefrontals ; frontal feebly grooved anteriorly ; two large 



14. EREMIAS. 15. SCAPTEIRA. 107 

supraoculars, with a very small one behind, bordered anteriorly, 
externally, and internally with granules ; the distance between 
the loreal and the anterior supraocular is less than the length 
of the latter shield ; interparietal small ; no occipital ; . tem- 
poral scales granular, smooth ; an enlarged scale on the supero- 
anterior border of the ear ; no auricular denticulation ; lower 
eyelid opaque ; subocular bordering the lip, between the sixth and 
seventh upper labials ; lower nasal in contact with three labials ; 
the three antt^rior pairs of chin-shields in contact, A distinct 
transverse gular fold, connecting the ears ; 39 gular scales on a 
line from the collar to tlie suture between the anterior gular 
shields ; collar curved, perfectly free, with 7 or 9 small plates. 
Dorsal scales granular, round, juxtaposed, perfectly smooth, 62 
across the middle of the body. Ventral plates forming irregular 
oblique longitudinal and nearly straight transverse series ; the 
longest transverse series contain 18 or 20 plates, which are longer 
than broad ; 38 transverse series. Praeanal scales small, irregular, 
a few postero-median slightly enlarged. The adpressed hind limb 
reaches halfway between the collar and the ear ; foot as long as 
the distance between the arm and the anterior border of the orbit ; 
infradigital scales feebly keeled ; an outer series of large transverse 
subtibial shields. 21 or 22 (19 to 23) femoral pores. Tail more 
than twice as long as head and body ; upper caudal scales keeled, 
basal subcaudals smooth. Greyish above, dotted or vermiculated 
with black on the head and body ; limbs with round whitish 
spots ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 186 From end of snout 

Head 16 to vent 64 

AVidth of head 11 Fore limb 24 

From end of snout to Hind limb 40 

fore limb 20 Tail (reproduced) . . 122 

Eastern Turkestan to Mongolia. 

a. (5 . Khami Desert. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. (As typical 

of ^. injlzoioi.) 



15. SCAPTEIRA. 

Scapteira (Fiiz.), Wicr/m. Ilerp. Mex. p. 9 ; Dum. Sf Bihr. v. p. 281 ; 

Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 39 ; Lataste, Atin. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, 

p. 126. 
Meroles, part., Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 18.38, p. 282. 
Eremias, part., Bum. i^- Bihr. v. p. 286 ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 39. 
Acantbodactylus, part., Gray, Cat. p. 36. 

Podarces, part., Strauch, M6l. Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. vi. 1867, p. 408. 
Saurites, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1869, p. 60 ; Lataste^ I. c. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between three nasals 



108 LACEETIDiE. 

Lower eyelid scah'. Collar distinct. Dorsal scales small ; ventral 
shields feebl}- imbricate, smooth. Digits compressed or depressed, 
smooth or keeled interiorly, fringed laterally. Femoral pores. 
Tail cylindrical. 

Central Asia ; South Africa. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Yentral plates forming straight longitudinal series : snout conical. 

A. Lower nasal forming a suture with the rostral. 

Subdigital lamellae keeled ; frontonasal 

separated from the rostral by the nasals . 1. hnoxii, p. 109. 
Subdigital lamellte keeled ; frontonasal in 

contact with the rostral 2. depressa, p. 110. 

B. Lower nasal separated from the rostral. 

Subdigital lamellae keeled; subocular not 

reaching the lip 3. serripes, p. 11] . 

Subdigital lamellae smooth ; subocular bor- 
dering the lip 4. reticulata, p. 112. 

II. Ventral plates forming oblique longitudinal series. 

A. Snout conical ; lower nasal separated from the rostral. 

Digits not flattened, keeled infcriorly ; two 
large supraoculars, surrounded by gra- 
nules 5. scApta, p. 112. 

Digits flattened, smooth infcriorly ; two 
large supraoculars, surrounded by gra- 
nules 6. grammica, p. 113. 

Digits flattened, smooth or indistinctly 
keeled infcriorly ; three large supra- 
oculars, second and third bordered by 
granules 7. acutirostris, p. 114. 

B. Snout wedge-shaped ; lower nasal forming a suture with the 

rostral. 

Frontonasal not forming a suture with the 

rostral ; a lateral series of enlarged 

keeled scales on the posterior part of the 

back 8. ctenodacti/la, p. 115. 

Frontonasal forming a suture with the 

rostral ; no lateral series of enlarged 

scales 9. cuneirostris, p. 116. 



15. SCAPTEIRA. 109 



1. Scapteira knoxii. 

Eremias knoxii, part., Gray, Cat. p. 40. 
Lacerta knoxii, iM.-Edw. Ann. b'c. Nat. xvi. 182U, pp. 76, 85, pi. vi. 

fig. 0. 
Meroles knoxii, Gray, Ami. N. II. i. 1838, p. 282. 
Eremias knoxii, Duni. ^- liihr. v. p. 291) ; /Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept, 

pi. xiiii. fig. I, and pi. xlviii. fig. 1. 
? Acantbodaetyhis nilgheirensis, Jerdon, Joiirn. As. Soc. Bcng. xxi. 

ISo^-J, p. 47fc), and P)-oc. As. Soc. IJcny. 1870, p. 79. 
Eremias fordii, Giinth. Attn, e^- May. N. II. (4) ix. 1872, p. 381. 

Head rather short ; snout obtuse. Nasals feebly swollen, lower 
forming a suture with the rostral ; frontonasal (sometimes longi- 
tudinally divided) separated from the rostral ; usually one or two 
small azygos scales between the prefrontals ; frontal grooved 
anteriorly ; three or four supraoculars, first small and in contact 
with the loreal, sometimes broken up into several small scales, 
fourth very small, if present; a series of granules between the 
principal supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; interparietal penta- 
gonal or rhomboidal, usually in contact with a small occipital ; a 
band-like shield borders the parietals externally ; temporal scales 
granular, not, or but very obtusely, keeled; anterior border of ear 
denticulated ; subocular not reaching the lip, resting on the fifth, 
sixth, and seventh upper labials ; the first pair or first two pairs of 
chin-shields in contact, the third, or second and third, separated 
by granules. Collar curved, perfectly free, with 7 to 9 plates. 
Dorsal scales hexagonal or rhomboidal, keeled, larger, slightly 
imbricate, and strongly keeled on the posterior part of the back. 
42 to 60 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral plates in 
straight longitudinal and transverse series ; 12 or 14 longitudinal 
series, the outer very small ; the two median series not broader 
than long, the others a little broader than long ; 28 to 32 trans- 
verse series. Prteanals usually subequal, the median posterior 
sometimes more enlarged. The adpressed hind limb reaches between 
the shoulder and the ear ; foot as long as, or a little longer than, the 
distance between the arm and the anterior border of the orbit ; 
digits subcylindrical, strongly keeled interiorly, feebly fringed 
laterally ; a series of large, and two of small, subtibial plates. 14 
to 20 femoral pores. Tail nearly twice as long as head and 
body ; caudal scales strongly keeled, except the basal subcaudals, 
which are obtusely keeled. Yellowish brown or olive above, with 
longitudinal series of whitish, black-edged ocelli or blackish spots 
usually confluent into four longitudinal bands, with or without 
round whitish spots ; limbs with light ocelli ; young with light 
and dark bands, the vertebral light band bifurcate on the nape, 
and series of round light spots along the dark ones ; lower surfaces 
white. 



1 10 LACERTIB^. 

6. 2 ■ 

millim. millim. 

Total length — * 161 

Head 14 15 

Width of head 10 11 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 24 26 

From end of snout to vent 60 66 

Fore limb 21 23 

Hind limb 40 42 

Tail — 95 

South Africa ; Comoro Islands. 

a-d. (S 2 ■ S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. I (T}^es oi Eremias 

e. 2' S. Africa. j fordii.) 

f. S' S. Africa. 

>. Yg. S.Africa. Sir .I.Smith [P.]. 

h. Yg. Johanna. C. E. Bewsher, Esq. [0.]. 



2, Scapteira depressa. 

Eremias knoxii, part., Gray, Cat. p. 40, 
Lacerta depressa, Merrem, Tent. p. 63, and Beitr. Oesch, A7nph. 

p. 106, pi. viii. 
Scapteira depressa, Boettg. Ber. Senchenh. Ges. 1886, p. 12. 

Head short ; snout obtuse. Nasals rather strongly swollen, 
lower forming a suture with the rostral ; frontonasal in contact with 
the rostral ; a pair of praefrontals ; frontal grooved anteriorly ; three 
supraoculars, anterior smallest and in contact with the loreal and 
the anterior supraciliary ; one or two small scales or granules 
between the anterior supraocular and the frontal ; a series of 
granules between the two principal supraoculars and the supra- 
ciliaries ; interparietal rhomboidal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the latter ; occipital minute or absent ; a band-like shield 
borders the parietals externally ; temporal scales granular, not 
keeled ; anterior border of ear denticulated ; subocular not reaching 
the lip, resting on the fifth, sixth, and seventh, or fourth, fifth, 
and sixth upper labials ; the two anterior pair of chin-shields in 
contact, the third pair separated by a row of granules. Collar 
curved, perfectly free, with 7 to 9 plates. Dorsal scales granular, 
smooth, rhomboidal, and obtusely keeled towards the sacrum ; 
70 to 75 scales across the middle of the body. Ventral plates in 
straight longitudinal and transverse series ; those of the series 
on each side of the median pair a little broader than long, the 
others not broader than long ; they form 12 or 14 longitudinal 
and 31 to 35 transverse series. Prieanal plates small, sub- 
equal. The adpressed hind limb reaches the tympanum, or half- 
way between the latter and the shoulder ; foot as long as the 

* Tail lost. 



15, SCAPTEIRA. Ill 

distance between the arm and the anterior border of the orbit 
digits subcylindrical, strongly keeled inferiorly, feebly fringed ; a 
series of very large, and one or two of smaller, subtibial plates. 
15 to 21 femoral pores. Tail nearly twice as long as head and 
body ; upper caudal scales keeled ; basal subcauduls smooth or 
obtusely keeled. Young dark brown above, with five longitudinal 
white bands, as wide as the interspaces between them, the median 
bifurcating on the nape ; series of small white spots along the 
dark bands ; limbs with large round spots. These markings become 
indistinct or disappear in the adult, which are greyish or coppery 
brown above, with longitudinal series of irregular black spots, some- 
times forming a reticulation ; lower surfaces white. 

milliiu. millim. 

Total length 103 From end of snout 

Head 18 to vent 58 

Width of head 10 Fore limb 20 

From end of snout to Hind limb -37 

fore limb 23 Tail 105 

South Africa. 

a. d- S. Africa. Earl of Derby [P.J. 

b-d. 2 & hgr. S. Africa. 

e. Yg. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

3. Scapteira serripes *. 
Eremias serripes, Peters, (Efvers. Vet. Ak. Fork. 1869, p. 659. 

Snout long and pointed, loreal region concave. Nasals feebly 
swollen, lower not reaching the rostral ; frontonasal separated from 
the rostral ; frontal grooved anteriorly ; three large supraoculars, 
first with a small shield on each side, the two others bordered 
externally with granules ; interparietal rhomboidal ; no occipital ; 
no band-like supratemporal shield; temporal scales obtusely keeled ; 
anterior border of ear with two or three large projecting scales ; 
subocular not reaching the lip, resting on the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth upper labials : the two or three anterior pairs of chin-shields 
in contact. Collar curved, perfectly free, with 9 or 10 plates. 
Dorsal scales granular and smooth on the nape and between the 
shoulders, larger, subimbricate, and obtusely keeled on the back. 
Ventral plates about as long as broad, subequal, in straight longi- 
tudinal series ; 29 or 30 transverse series, the longest of which 
contains 18 plates. Two large prajauals, posterior largest. The 
adpressed hind limb reaches the eye ; foot as long as the distance 
between the arm and the nostril ; digits compressed, keeled 
inferiorly, strongly fringed laterally ; one series of very large 

* Described from two specimens in the Berlin Museum — the tjpe (6151) 
from Damaraland, and one from Benguela (6475) sent bj Bocage as iS. reticulata. 



112 LACERTIDiE. 

and two or three of small subtibial plates. 21 to 23 femoral porea. 
Upper caudal scales strongly keeled. Sandy grey above, -with 
blackish reticulation ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail re- From end of snout 

produced) 118 to vent 47 

Head 11 Fore limb 20 

Width of head .... 9 Hind limb 37 

From end of snout 

to fore limb .... 19 

Damaraland, Benguela. 

4. Scapteira reticulata. 

Scapteira ? reticulata, Bocage, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. (3) xx. 1867, 

p. 225. 
Podarces (Scapteira) reticulata, Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St, Peter sb. 

vi. 18G7, p. 424. 

Head narrow, with elongate and pointed snout. Nasals swollen ; 
two large supraoculars, bordered with granules externally and 
posteriorly, preceded by a large shield placed between two very 
small ones ; no occipital ; subocnlar bordering the lip, between 
the seventh and eighth labials ; anterior margin of ear furnished 
with three denticulations. Scales on the nape and the anterior half 
of the back very small, juxtaposed, rounded, smooth ; on the 
posterior half of the back the scales become larger and more 
distinctly keeled and imbricate. Yentral plates quadrilateral, 
arranged in longitudinal and transverse series; the widest of the 
latter includes 18 plates. A large median pra^anal, surrounded by 
smaller ones. Digits compressed, smooth beneath. Femoral pores 
20 to 22. Caudal scales keeled. Fulvous above, reticulated 
with dark brown ; three blackish streaks, more or less interrupted, 
along the tail ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. 

Total length 150 

Head 14 

TaU 99 

Mossamedes, "W. Africa. 

5. Scapteira scripta. 

Podarces (Scapteira) scripta, Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Petersh. vi. 
18G7, p. 424. 

Snout pointed. Nasals feebly swollen, lower not reaching the 
rostral ; frontonasal separated from the rostral ; frontal grooved 
anteriorly; two large supraoculars, entirely surrounded with 
granules; a small posterior supraocular; interparietal rhomboidal ; 
no occipital ; no band-like supratemporal shield ; temporal scales 



15. 8CAPTEIRA. 113 

granular, smooth ; edge of ear not denticulated ; subocular border- 
ing the lip, between the sixth and seventh upper labials : the three 
anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. Collar curved, perfectly 
free, with about nine plates. Dorsal scales minutely granular, 
smooth, larger on the sides. Ventral plates as long as broad, sub- 
equal, in oblique longitudinal scries ; 34 transverse series, the 
longest of which contain 16 plates. Traeanals small, irregular. 
The adpressed hind limb reaches the collar ; foot slightly longer 
than the distance between the arm and the anterior border of 
the orbit ; digits not depressed, keeled interiorly, moderately fringed 
laterally ; the ungual lamellae much enlarged, forming a su])ovaI 
disk ; one series of very large and one of small subtibial plates. 
12 or 13 femoral pores. Tail about twice as long as head and 
body ; caudal scales feebly keeled. Pale sandy grey above ; back 
with small dark brown dots or vermiculations confluent into 
longitudinal lines ; sides with three regular dark longitudinal 
streaks, median broadest and commencing from the eye and ex- 
tending along the tail ; upper surface of limbs with wide-meshed 
dark brown reticulations ; lower surfaces white. 

raillim. millim. 

Total length 127 From end of snout 

Head 10 to vent 42 

Width of head Fore limb 16 

From end of snout Hind limb 28 

to fore limb .... 16 Tail 85 

Aralo-Caspian desert to Eastern Turkestan. 

a-b. $. River Lepsa. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 

6. Scapteira grammica. 

Scapteira grammica, Grai/, Cat. p. .32. 
Lacerta grammica, Lichf. in Erers7n. lieise, p. 140. 

grammica, part., Licht. Verz. Douhl. Mus. Berl. p. 100, 

Scapteira grammica, Wiegm. I. c. ; Dion. ^- Bibr. p. 283, pi. liv. 

fig. 1 ; Feters, Mo7i. Berl. Ac. 1869, p. 61. 
Podarces (Scapteira) grammica, Strauch, I. c. p. 409. 

Snout long and pointed. Nasals swollen, lower not reaching the 
rostral ; frontonasal separated from the rostral ; frontal grooved 
anteriorly ; two large supraoculars, entirely surrounded with 
granules ; a small posterior supraocular ; interparietal pentagonal ; 
a minute occipital ; a small elongate shield on the outer border of 
the parietals ; anterior border of ear scarcely denticulated ; temporal 
scales granular, smooth ; subocular not reaching the lip, in contact 
with the sixth to eighth or seventh to ninth upper labials ; the 
three anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. Collar straight, the 
marginal scales very feebly enlarged. Dorsal scales minutely granular, 
smooth, or very feebly keeled, larger on the sides. Ventral scales 
longer than broad, subequal, in oblique longitudinal series ; about 
40 transverse series, the longest of which contain 20 or 22 plates. 

VOL. III. I 



114 LACERTI]).!-:. 

Prfeanals small, irregular. The adpressed hind limb reaches the 
collar ; foot as long as the distance between the arm and the an- 
terior border of the orbit ; digits flattened, smooth inferiorly, 
strongly fringed laterally ; the ungual lamellae much enlarged, 
forming a suboval disk ; subtibial plates rather small, outer series 
largest, 15 to 17 femoral pores. Tail not quite twice as long as 
head and body ; tipper caudal scales rather feebly keeled. Greyish 
above, with blackish network enclosing round lighter spots; lower 
surfaces white. 

6- .2- 

millira. millim. 

Total length 17G 144 

Head 17 14 

AVidth of head 11 9 

From end of snout to fore limb .... 26 22 

From end of snout to vent 66 56 

Fore limb 23 20 

Hind limb 40 33 

Tail 110 88 

Aralo-Caspian desert to Eastern Turkestan. 

a. c? , River Hi. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 

b-c. 5 & ligr. River Lepsa. St. Petersburg Museum [E.]. 

7. Scapteira acutirostris. 

Snout conical, acutely pointed ; loreal region nearly vertical. 
Kasals slightly swollen, lower not reaching the rostral, upper 
forming a long median suture ; frontal grooved anteriorly ; three 
large supraoculars, forming sutures with one another, first in contact 
with the first supraciliary, the second loreal, the pmDfrontal, and the 
frontal ; second and third supraoculars separated from the supra- 
ciliaries and from the frontal bj- a series of granules ; two or three 
minute granules between the first and second supraoculars ; a small 
band-like posterior supraocular, separated from the others by 
granules ; interparietal pentagonal ; no occipital ; parietals forming 
a suture behind the interparietal ; no enlarged scales on the outer 
border of the parietals ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; no 
auricular denticulation ; subocular not reaching the lip, resting on 
the fifth, sixth, and seventh upper labials ; the three anterior pairs 
of chin-shields in contact. Collar straight, the marginal scales 
feebly enlarged. Dorsal scales minutely granular, smooth, ecjual. 
Ventrals equilateral or longer than broad, in oblique longitudinal 
series ; 35 transverse series, the longest of which contain about 
20 plates. A very large pi'aeanal plate, about twice as broad 
as long. The adpressed hind limb reaches the posterior border 
of the orbit ; foot as long as the distance between the arm and 
the anterior loreal ; digits flattened, smooth or indistinctly keeled 
inferiorly, strongly fringed laterally ; the ungual lamcllfe much 
enlarged, forming a suboval disk; a series of large transverse 



IT). SCATTEIRA. 115 

subtibial sluelds. 15-17 femoral pores. Upper caudal scales feebly 
keeled. Saiid-coloarcd above, with blackish network ; head witli 
symmetrical black markings ; lower surfaces white. 

iiiillim. millim. 

From snout to vent. . 35 From end of snout 

IXt-ad 10 to foro limb .... 15 

"Width of head Q'o Fore limb 14 



Hind limb 25 



NortluTii lialucliistan. 



a. Yg. Bftween Nusbld and Ilelmand. Dr. Aitchison [C.]._ Afghan 

Boundary Commissiou. 



8. Scapteira ctenodactyla. 

Acanthodactylus capensis, Graj/, Cat. p. 37. 
Lacerta cteni)d&vt\his,'' Smith, Mag. X. J£. (2) ii. 1838, p. 93. 
Acanthodactvbis capen.-is, Smith, III. S. Afr., liept. pi. xxxix. ; A. 

Ihim. Cat.'Mcth. Jicpt. p. 127; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 18G9, p.61; 

Bouleny. Troc. Zuol. Soc. 1881, p. 744. 

Snout much flattened, cuneiform, with projecting angular labial 
margin. Nasals feebly swollen, lower largely in contact with the 
rostral ; frontonasal separated from the rostral, or touching it with 
its anterior angle ; frontal small and narrow, grooved anteriorly ; 
three large supraoculars, anterior in contact with the loreal and the 
supraciliary, the two others separated from the supraciliaries by a 
series of granules ; third sui)raocular bordered posteriorly by several 
rows of granules ; two or three small shields between the second 
supraocular and the frontal ; interparietal pentagonal, usually in 
contact with a small occipital ; a few small elongate shields on the 
outer border of the parietal s ; temporal scales granular, obtusely 
keeled ; car-opening small, partly concealed under an oblong fold of 
skin ; subocular resting on the fifth, sixth, and seventh, or sixth to 
eighth upper labials ; the seventh or eiglith upper labials mxich 
larger than the others ; the three anterior pairs of chin-shields in 
contact. Anterior gular scales rather large ; collar-edge nearly 
straight, distinctly serrated. Dorsal scales very small, granular, 
smooth or obtusely keeled ; a narrow band of larger, rhomboidal, 
keeled scales on each side of the posterior part of the back and of 
the sacrum. Ventral plates as long as broad, subequal, in oblique 
longitudinal series ; 36 or 37 transverse series, the longest of 
which contain 20 to 24 plates. Praeanals irregular, small or sub- 
equal, or postero-median enlarged. The adpressed hind limb 
reaches the ear or the eye ; foot a little longer than the distance 
between the arm and the anterior border of the orbit ; digits 
compressed, keeled inferiorly, strongly fringed on the outer edge ; 
three series of subtibial shields, outer largest. 28 to 30 femoral 
pores. Tail strongly depressed at the base, about once and three 
fourths as long as head and body ; upper and lower caudal scales 

i2 



116 LACERTIDiE, 

feebly keeled, laterals more strongh- ; the scales on the upper sur- 
face of the depressed portion ot the tail small. Brownish or 
orange above, sides with a broad dark brown or tile-red band edged 
with whitish ; sides and limbs with whitish spots ; lower surfaces 
yellow. 

c?. ?. 

millim. niillim. 

Total length 214 2<J7 

Head 21 25 

Width of head 15 20 

From end of snout to fore limb , 36 37 

From end of snout to vent 78 97 

Fore limb 29 34 

Hind limb 58 70 

Tail 136 170 

South Africa, 

n-b.(S2- Great Namaqualand. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Types of 

Aranfhodaofijhis capensis.) 
c. $ . Beaufort West. Eev. G. H. R. Fisk [P.]. 



9, Scapteira cuneirostris. 

Podarces (Scapteira) cuneirostris, Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. 

vi. 1867, p. 411. 
Saurites (Ereniias) cuneirostris, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1869, p. 60. 

Snout much flattened, cuneiform, with projecting angular labial 
njargiri. Nasals swollen, lower largely in cont9,ct with the rostral ; 
frontonasal forming a suture with the rostral ; frontal scarcely 
grooved ; three large supraoculars, anterior in contact with the 
loreal and the supraciliary, the two others separated from the 
supraciliaries by a series of granules ; third supraocular bordered 
posteriorly by several rows of granules ; a series of two to six 
small shields .or granules between the second supraocular and 
the frontal ; interparietal rhomboidal ; one or several granules 
represent the occipital ; a few feebly enlarged supratemporals bor- 
dering the parietals ; temporal scales obtusely keeled : ear-opening 
small, partly concealed under an oblique fold of skin ; subocular 
resting on the sixth and seventh, or the fifth, sixth, and seventh upper 
labials ; the two or three anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. 
Gular scales very small ; collar-edge nearly straight, feebly serrated, 
with very small plates. Dorsal scales minutely granular, smooth. 
Ventrals small, as long as broad, subequal, in oblique longitudinal 
series ; 42 to 48 transverse series, the longest of which contain 
26 to 30 plates. Pneanals small, irregular. The adpressed hind 
limb reaches the eye ; foot a little longer than the distance between 
the arm and the anterior border of the orbit ; digits compressed, 
feebly keeled interiorly, strongly fringed on the outer edge : several 
series of subtibial shields, outer largest. 19 to 22 femoral pores. 



15. SCAITEIRA. — 10. ArOROSACRA. 117 

Tail as in S. ctenodactyla. Greyish or sandy-coloured above, with 
darker network enclosing round lighter spots; tail with three longi- 
tudinal blackish lines ; lower surfaces whitish. 

luillim. milliiu. 

Total length 1 ">;i rrom end of snout 

Head 10 to vent 58 

\Vidth of head 13 Fore limb 24 

From end of snout to Hind limb 47 

fore limb 27 Tail 95 

South Africa. 

a-b. (S & hgi*. Damaraland. Mr. Anderson [C.]. 

c. (S . S. Africa. 



16. APOROSAURA. 

Pach^Thynchus {non Spix) , Socage, Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (3) xx. 1867, 
p. 'I-IiU at ranch, Mel. Bio I. Ac. Ht. Petersb. vi. 1867, p. 408 ; Lataste^ 
Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 126. 

Head wide and flattened ; snout much depressed, wide, spatulate, 
with trenchant margins greatly exceeding the outline of the mouth. 
Head-shields normal ; no occipital. Nostril pierced between three 
nasals. Lower eyelid scaly. No collar. Dorsal scales granular. 
Tentral plates smooth. Digits compressed, covered with smooth 
scales beneath, denticulated laterally. No femoral pores. Tail 
cylindrical. 

West Africa. 



1. Aporosaura anChietfe. 
Paehyrhynchus anchietfe, Socage, I. c. p. 227, fig. 

Eostral much depressed, forming with the first seven upper labials 
the piojeeling border of the snout ; subocular in contact with the 
fifth, sixth, and seventh upper labials ; frontal very narrow ; three 
large supraoculars ; parietals very short, much broader than long, 
separated by a rhomboidal interparietal ; three pairs of chin-shields 
in contact ; ear-opening narrow, without marginal denticulation. 
Dorsal scales very small, juxtaposed, smooth, slightly inflated. 
Tentral plates quadrilateral, subequal, arranged in 20 to 24 straight 
longitudinal rows, and bordered upon the flanks by several rows 
of similar, but smaller plates. Praanal scales numerous, small, 
subequal. Scales on the base of the ta;il similar to the dorsals ; 
those oil the rounded portion large, imbricate, and keeled. Golden- 
yellow above, with a wide-meshed black network on the back and 
lifiibs ; a black vertebral streak ; an elongate black spot covers the 
occiput : head and temples variegated with black ; a black line along 
the side of the tail ; lower surfaces uniform white. 



118 XACERTID^. 



millira. 

Total length 112 

Head 17 

Tail 57 



Mossamedes. 



17. HOLASPIS. 



Holaspis (SmM), Grat/. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 152 ; Lataste, Ann. 
Mus. Genov. (2) ii. 1885, p. 125. 

No frontoparietals ; a large interparietal in contact with the 
frontal ; occipital present. Nostril pierced between two nasals, 
above the first labial. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar distinct. Two 
series of large, smooth, transverse shields along the nape, back, and 
tail ; lateral scales small. Ventral plates smooth. Digits depressed 
and denticulated laterally in their basal half, compressed distally ; 
subdigital lamellEe smooth. Femoral pores. Tail much depressed, 
fringed laterally. 



"West Africa. 



1. Holaspis guentheri. 



Holaspis guentheri (Smith), Gray, I. c. p. 153, pi. xs. fig. 1 ; F. 
Midler, Verh. Naturf. Ges, Basel, \u.. 1885, p. 702. 

Head and body much depressed ; snout long and pointed. Fronto- 
nasal forming a suture with the rostral ; interparietal larger than 
the frontal, in contact with a trapezoid occipital ; four supraoculars ; 
subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth ui)per 
labials ; temporal scales granular, flat, smooth ; no auricular den- 
ticulation ; the three anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. 
Collar straight, with nine small plates. Dorso- lateral scales elon- 
gate, quadrangular, keeled : ventral plates in six longitudinal rows. 
A large prseanal plate. 13 femoral pores. Brown above, with three 
whitish longitudinal lines on each side. 

millim. ruillim. 

Total length 74 Fore limb 13 

Head 10 Hind limb 18 

Width of head .... 5 Tail (reproduced) .... 36 

Body 28 

Gold Coast (?), Sierra Leone, Gaboon, Congo. 
a. Ad. ? Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Type.) 



GEKUUOSAU Ul U.K. 1 1 



Fam. 17. GERRHOSAURID^. 

Scineiilii?, l>art., Aiigiii(l;v, part., (^rai/, Ann. I'liil. (2) x. 1825. 

Opliisaiiroiiloa, part., Fttzim/er, Neue ClasHif. licpt. 182(). 

AutarchoglossiC, part., JVdf/ler, Si/st. Amph. 1830. 

I'tvchiipleuri, ]iarl., Wief/uiann, Hcrp. Me.c. 1S;j4. 

Cbiiilcidieus Ptychoploures, part., Dumeril i^- Bihron, Erp. Gen. v. 

18;}9. 
Zouurida;, part., Oraij, Cat. Liz. 1845. 

Zomiridae, part., Cope, Froc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sc. xix. 1871. 
Gerrhosauridse, Boulenger, Ann. ^ Mag. N. II. (5) xiv. 1884. 

Tongue moderately elongate, bifid posteriorly, free aud very 
feebly nicked anteriorly, covei-ed with imbricate scale-like papillae 
or oblique plica:) ronvcrgiug anteriorly towards the median line. 

Dentition pleurodont ; teeth closely set, with long cylindrical 
shafts, hollow at the base, with conical or bicuspid crowns. Ptery- 
goid teeth often present. 

f>kull in every respect similar to that of the Lacertida., with 
dermal ossification roofing over the supratemporal fossa}. Limbs 
well developed or rudimentary. Clavicle dilated and loop-shaped 
proximally ; iuterclavicle cruciform. Tail long and fragile. 

Head with symmetrical shields. Body with squarish or rhom- 
boidal imbricate scales, which often form regular longitudinal and 
transverse series ; it is besides protected by osteodermal plates, un- 
derlying the scales, which show a system of longitudinal tubules 
intersecting a transverse one, as in the Scincidce ; this structure 
■usually more distinct on the ventral plates than on the thicker and 
rougher dorsal ones. A lateral fold, with granular scales, similar 
to that of GerrJionotiis, is present in all genera excejjt Traclie- 
loptychus, which in its scaling more resembles the Seines. 

Femoral pores constantly present. Eyelids well developed. Tym- 
panum distinct. 

This tamily is exactly intermediate between the Lacertidce (single 
praemaxillary, femoral pores) and the Smicidce (presence and struc- 
ture of the dermal bony plates). It is strictly African, its head- 
quarters being South Africa and Madagascar, and extending north- 
wards to the southern limit of the Sahara. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

I. Xostril pierced between two nasals and the first labial ; ventral 
plates forming straight transverse series. 

Tongue nearly entirely covered with imbricate scale-like papillae ; 
praefrontals aud frontoparietals present ; lower eyelid scaly. 

1. Gerrhosaurus, p. 120, 

Tongue nearly entirely covered with oblique plicae ; no praefrontals ; 
frontoparietals present ; lower eyelid scaly ; limbs short or 
rudimentary 2. Tetradactylus, p. 124. 



120 GERRHOSAURID^. 

Tongue nearly entirely covered with imbricate scale-like papillae ; 
no proefroiitals ; frontoparietals present or absent ; lower eyelid 
with a large transparent disk . . 3. Cordylosaurus, p. 1 2G. 

II. Xostril pierced between two nasals, the rostral, and the first 
labial ; ventrals not forming straight transverse series. 

A lateral fold along the body ; no frontoparietals. 

4. Zonosaurus, p. 127. 

No lateral fold on the body ; frontoparietals present. 

5. Tracheloptychus, p. 129. 



1. GERRHOSAURUS. 

Gerrhosaurus, Wic(/m. Isis, 1828, p. 378, and Heiy. Mex. p. 11; 

Wagl. Si/st. Amph. p. 158 ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 52, and Proc. Zool. 

Sue'. 186b, p. 042. 
Cicigna, part., 6'ro?/, Grif. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 63. 
P]eurotuchu.s, Snnih, May. Zool. Bot. i. 1837, p. 142. 
GenliosaLiru.s, part., Dum. l^- Bibr. v. p. 368. 

Nostril pierced between the first labial and two nasals ; prsefrontal 
and frontoparietal shields present. Lower eyelid scaly. A strong 
lateral fold. Dorsal and ventral scales forming straight longitudinal 
and transverse series. Subdigital scales smooth or tubercular. 
Tongue entirely covered with rhomboidal papilla. 

Tropical and South Africa. 

Synopsis of the S2)ecies. 

I. Ventral shields in 14 or 16 longitudinal 

series ; tympanic shield large, cres- 

centic ; dorsal shields pluricarinate . 1. validus, p. 121. 

II. Ventral shields in 8 longitudinal series ; tympanic shield narrow ; 

dorsal scales uuicarinate. 

Praefrontals in contact, forming a long su- 
ture ; dorsal shields in ly or 20 longi- 
tudinal scries ... 2. major., p. 121. 

Praefrontals in contact, forming a long 
suture ; dorsal shields in 24 to 28 
longitudinal series, all keeled 3. ui(jroliaeatus, p. 122. 

Praefrontals separated, the frontonasal 
touching the frontal ; dorsal shields 
in 20 to 24 longitudinal series, the 
laterals not distinctly keeled 4. Jlavujuluris, p. 122. 

III. Ventral shields in 10 longitudinal 
series ; tympanic shield large, cres- 

centic ; dorsal shields unicarinate . . 5. typicus, p. 123, 



1. GERRHOSAURUS. 121 



1. Gerrhosaurus validus. 

Gerrhosaurus vallidus (Stmd.), Synith, III. S. Afr., Rej)t., App. p. 9 ; 

Peters, (Efvers. Vet. Akad. Fork. 1809, p. 65*9. 
robustiis, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 618, and Reise n. 

Mossamb. iii. p. 58, pi. ix. 

Head and body much depressed. Head-shields striated ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, not touching the rostral ; praifrontals in 
contact, forming a long suture ; a large, crescentic tympanic scale, 
partly covering the ear-opening. Dorsal shields feebly serrated 
posteriorly, tri- or quinquecarinate, in 28 or 30 longitudinal and 52 
or 53 transverse series (from the parietal shields to the base of the 
tail) ; ventrals in 14 or 10 longitudinal series. Femoral pores 18 
to 21 on each side. Tail nearly twice the length of head and body. 
Blackish brown above, each dorsal scale with a small yellow spot 
or short streak ; in some specimens a yellow baud extends along 
each side of the back ; lower surfaces brown, throat and breast 
lighter. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 513 Fore limb 58 

Head 36 Hind limb 75 

Width of head 30 Tail 335 

Body 142 

South and South-east Africa. 

a. Ad. Near the sources of the Orange Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

River. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Tette, Mozambique. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 



2. Gerrhosaurus major. 

Gerrhosaurus major, A. Dam. Cat. Meth. Rept. p. 139; Peters, 
Reise n. Mossamb. iii. p. 58. 

Head and body feebly depressed. Head-shields rugose ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, its point in contact with the rostral ; proe- 
frontals in contact, forming a long suture ; a narrow, band-like 
shield on the anterior border of the ear-opening. Dorsal shields 
slightly rugose, strongly keeled, in 18 or 2() longitudinal and 32 
to 34 transverse series : ventrals in 10 longitudinal series. 11 to 
14 femoral pores on each side. Tail a little longer than head and 
body, slightly compressed in its posterior half. Fulvous-brown 
above, yellowish iufcriorly. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 406 Fore limb 55 

Head 38 Hind limb 76 

Width of head 32 Tail 210 

Body 158 



122 



GERKUOciAUIilUiE, 



East Africa (Zanzibar, Tclta). 

«. Ad. Zanzibar. Sir Lambert Playfair [P.]. 

h, c. Ad. Zanzibar. Sir J. Kirk [C.]. 



3. Gerrhosaurus nigrolineatus, 

GeiThosaurus nigrolineatus, Hallow. Proc. Ac. PJiilad. 1857, p. 49. 
multilinealus, Bocacje, Jam. Sc. Lisb. i. 18UU, p. 61. 

Head moderate ; body cyclotctragonal. Head-shields smooth ; 
frontonasal broader than long, not touching the rostral ; prsefrontals 
in contact, forming a long suture ; a narrow, band-like shield in 
front of the ear-opening. Dorsal shields all diagonally keeled, in 
24 to 28 longitudinal and 54 to GO transverse series; ventrals 
in 8 longitudinal scries. Femoral pores 14 to 18. Tail a little 
more than twice as long as head and body. Brown or olive above, 
with dark brown and yellowish squarish spots, and two or more 
yellowish dark-edged streaks along the back ; lower surfaces yel- 
lowish. 

millim. niillim. 

Total length 437 Fore limb 35 

Head 25 Hind limb 65 

Width of head 20 Tail 305 

Body 107 

West Africa. 

G. Ad. Benguela. J. J. Monteiro, Esq. [C.]- 

h. Hgr. Caraugigo. Dr. AVelwitsch [P.]. 

c. Hgr. Ambriz, Angola. 

d. Ad. W. Africa. 

e. Ad. ? Sir J. Richardson [P.]. 

f. Ad. ? Bristol Museum [P.]. 

4. Gerrhosaurus flavigularis. 

Gerrhosaurus flavigvdaris, Gray, Cat. p. 60. 

bibrouii, Gray, I. c. 

Gerrhosaurus flavigularis, Wiegm. Isis, 1828, p. 379; Wagl. Icon. 

Aiiijih. pi. xxxiv. lig. 1 ; Di(7n. (§• Bib): v. p. 878 ; Smith, III. S. 

Afr., Ii'cpt. pis. xxxvii. and xlii. tigs. 1-4 ; Peters, Iteise n. Mus- 

samb. iii. p. 57. 

• ocellatus, Cocteau, Mag. cle Zool. 1834, iii. pi. iv. 

Pleuroluchus chrysobronehus, Smith, May. Zool. Bot. i.l837, p. 143, 

■ dejardinii. Smith, I. c. 

Gerrhosaurus bibronii. Smith, III. S. Afr., Bcpt. pi. xxxviii. fig. 1, 

and pi. xHi. figs. 9-12 ; A. Hum. Cat. Meth. Sept. p. 141. 
flavigularis, var. quadrilineata, Bodtg. i^2. u. 23. Ber. Offenb. 

Ver.f. Katurk. 1883, p. 150. 

Head small; body cyclotetragonal. Head-shields smooth ; fronto- 
nasal as long as broad, not touching the rostral, forming a short 
suture with the frontal ; a narrow tympanic shield. Dorsal scales 
feebly striated, keeled, the laterals not or very indistinctly keeled, 



1. GERRnOSAURUS. 123 

in 20 to 24 longitudinal and 55 to G-t transverse scries ; ventrals 
in 8 loiij^itvidinal series. Femoral pores 10 to 13. Tail about 
twiee as long as head and body. Brown or olive above, usually 
with a light, black-edged streak on each side, extending from the 
supraoculars to the tail; a pair of narrow liglit streaks, sometimes 
broken up, may run along the middle of the back ; back frequently 
with 8(iuarish black spots with light central shafts ; young with 
vertical black bars on the flanks ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

milliin. millim. 

Total length 365 Fore limb 27 

Head 20 Hind limb 47 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 230 

Body 115 

South and East Africa (as far north as Seniiar). 

a-f. Ad., hgr., & yg. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

g-h. Yg. S. Africa. 

k, I. Ad. Port Natal. T. Ayres, Esq. [C.]. 

m-o. Ad. Caledon River. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Types 

of 6r. hibronii.^ 

p-q, r. Ad. ? 

8. Ad., skeleton. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

5. Gerrhosaurus typicus. 

Gerrhosaurus typicus, Gr«y, Cat. p. 50. 
Pleurotuchus typicus, S7irith, Mac/. Zool. Bot. i. 1837, p. 143. 
Gerrhosaurus typicus, Dum. S,- Bibr. v. p. 383 ; Smith, III. S. Afr., 
Bept. pi. xxxviii. fig. 2, and pi. xlii. figs. 5-8. 

Head small ; body cyclotetragonal. Head-shields smooth ; nasals 
slightly swollen ; frontonasal as long as broad, in contact with the 
rostral and the frontal ; a large crescentic tympanic shield, covering 
part of the ear-opening. Dorsal scales keeled, the laterals smooth, 
in 22 or 24 longitudinal and 56 transverse series ; ventrals in 10 
longitudinal series. Femoral pores 16 to 18. Tail nearly twice 
as long as head and body. Brown above, sides with squarish light 
spots ; a light, dark- edged streak on each side, from the supraoculars 
to the tail. 

millira. millim. 

Total length 290 Fore limb 32 

Head 19 Hind limb 50 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 190 

Body 81 

South Africa. 

Ad. South of the mouth of the Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

Orange River. (Types.) 



124 GEERnOSATJPJD^. 

2. TETRADACTYLUS. 

Chalcides, part., Daud. ]{vpt. iv. p. .'<-'J0. 

Tetradaetylus, Merrem, Tent. Si/st. Amjjh. p. 75. 

Tachydronuis, part., Merrem, I. c. p. (ly. 

Cici<ina, Gj-ai/, Ann. I'hil. (2) x. lH2o, p. 201. 

Saurophis, Fitziny. N. Classif. Bept. p. 20; Wagl. Syd. Amph, 

p. 158 ; Wicijm. llerp. Mex. p. 11 ; Diim. !<f Bihr. v. p. o87 ; Gray, 

Cat, Liz. p. 51. 
Gerrhosaurus, part., Dum. ^- Bihr. p. 368. 
Caitia, Gray, Ann. X. JI. i. 1838, p. 389, and Cat. p. 52. 
Pleurustriclius, part., Gray, Cat. p. 51. 

Nostril pierced between the first labial and two nasals ; no prae- 
frontal shields ; frontoparietals present. Lower eyelid scaly. A 
strong lateral fold. Dorsal and ventral scales forming straight lougi- 
tndinal and transverse series. Digits, if present, smooth inferiorly. 
Tongue entirely covered with oblique plica; converging anteriorly 
towards the median line. 

South Africa. 

SynojJsis of the Species. 

Limbs shortbut well developed, pentadaetyle. 1. seps, p. 124. 

Limbs very short, tetradactyle 2, tdradadylus, p. 125. 

Limbs minute, undivided 3. africanus, p. 125. 

1. Tetradactylus seps. 

Pleurostrichus sepiforuiis, Gray, Cat. p. 51. 
Lacerta seps, Li?m. S. K. i. p. 363. 
Sciiicus sepiformis, Schneid. Hist. Ampli. ii. p. 191. 
Tachydronius seps, Merr. Tent. p. 69. 
Cicigiia sepiformis. Gray, An7i. Phil. (2) x. 1825, p. 201. 
Gerrhosaurus sepiformis, Uum. ^' Bihr. v. p. 384; Smith, III. S. Afr,, 

Bejjt. pi. xli. tig. 1, and pi. xlii. figs. 13-16; Gravenh. Nov. Act. 

Ac. Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. p. 301, pi. xxvii. 

Body elongate ; limbs short but well developed and pentadaetyle ; 
the length of tie hind limb equals or exceeds the distance between 
the end of the snout and the fore limb. Dorsal shields strongly 
striated ; the posterior dorsal and the upper caudal shields with a 
stronger median keel ; dorsal shields ia V6 longitudinal and 57 to 
61 transverse series (counting from the parietal shield to the base 
of the tail) ; ventrals in 8 longitudinal series. Lemoral pores 9 to 
12 on each side. Olive or reddish brown above, the edges of the 
scales darker ; sides usually darker ; upper lij) with small light 
dark- edged spots ; lower surfaces olive or grey. 

milliin. millim.- 

Total length 191 Fore hmb 13 

Head 10 Hind limb 21 

Widtb of head .... 7 Tail . . 132 

Body 49 



2. TEfRADACTVLUS. 125 



South Africa. 



a-e. Ad. & hgr. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

f. Ad. S. Africa. C. Darwin, Es(i. [P.]. 

(J, h, i. Ad. S. Africa. 

2. Tetradactylus tetradactylus. 

Saiiropliis tetradactylus, Oraj/, Cat. p. 51. 
Lacerta tetradictyla, Lacep. Ann. Mm. ii. 1803, p. ooi,pl. lix. tig. 2. 
Chidcides tetradactylus, Dawi. liept. iv. p. 362. 
Tetradactylus chalcidicus, Mi'.rr. Tent. p. 7o. 
Saurophis" seps, Fitzhifj. X. Class. R^pt. p. oO. 

tetrad ictylus, Wagl. St/st. Amph. p. lo9. 

Clialcis tetradactyla, Giicr. Icon. R. A., Rept. pi. xvi. fiir. 2. 
Saurophis lacepedii, Diun. ^- Blbr. \. p. 380 ; Graoenh. Nov. Act. Ac. 
Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. p. 304, pi. xxviii. 

Serpentiform ; limbs very short, tetradactyle. Dorsal shields 
striated and strongly keeled, in 14 longitudinal and 61 or 62 
transverse series ; ventrals in 6 longitudinal series. Femoral pores 
4 or 5. Olive above, with dark brown longitudinal streaks ; temple 
and side of neck usually with dark brown vertical bars ; lower 
surfaces pale oUve. 

millim. millira. 

Total length '2^b Fore limb 7 

Head 10 Hind limb 10 

Width of head .... 6 TaU 220 



DO 



Body 

South Africa. 

a. Ad. Interior of South Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

b, c-e. Ad. S. Africa. 

3. Tetradactylus africanus. (Plate IV. fig. 3.) 

Caitia africana, Gray, Cat. p. 52. 
Caitia africana, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 1838, p. 389. 

Serpentiform ; limbs minute, undivided. Dorsal shields striated 
and strongly keeled, in 14 longitudinal and 60 to 62 transverse 
series ; ventrals in 6 longitudinal series. Femoral pores 2 or 3. 
Olive above, with dark brown longitudinal lines ; temple and side 
of neck with dark brown vertical bars ; lower surfaces pale olive. 

From snout to vent 12 millim. ; tail 25U millim. 

South Africa. 

a-c. Ad. & yg. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 



126 GEKRHOSAURIDJE. 



3. CORDYLOSAURUS. 

Pleurostrichus, part., Gray^ Cat. Liz. p. 51. 
Cordylosaurus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. I860, p. 641. 

Nostril pierced between the first labial and two nasals ; no 
prajfrontal shields ; frontoparietals present or absent. Lower eyelid 
with a transparent disk. A strong lateral fold. Dorsal and ventral 
scales forming straight longitudinal and transverse series. Sub- 
digital scales keeled. The greater part of the tongue covered with 
rhomboidal papillae. 

South-west Africa. 

1. Cordylosaurus trivittatus. 

Gerrhosaunis trivittatus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1862, p. 18, and 

LEfvers. Vet. Akad. Fork. 1869, p. 6o9. 
Cordylosaurus trivirgatus, Gray, I. c. pi. xxxviii. fig. 2. 
• "trivittatus, GuntJi. Zool. Rec. 1865, p. 148. 

Head and body depressed. Dorsal scales tri- or quinquecarinate, 
the central keel strongest, in 15 longitudinal and 52 to 55 transverse 
series ; vcntrals in 8 longitudinal series. Femoral pores 7 to 10 on 
each side. Pale olive, above with three broad dark brown longi- 
tudinal bands. 

millira. millim. 

Total length 121 Fore limb 11 

Head 8 Hind limb 17 

"Width of head .... 6 Tail 77 

Body 36 

South-west Africa. 

a. Ad. Great Namaqualand. 

b. Ad. Damaralaud. Mr. Anderson [C.1. (Type 

of C. trivirgatus.) 

c. Ilo-r. Benguela. J. J. Monteiro, Esq. [P.]. 

2. Cordylosaurus subtessellatus. 

Pleurostrichus subtessellatus, Gray, Cat. p. 51. 
Gerrhosaunis subtessellatus, Smith, III. 8. Afr., Bept. pi. xli. fig. 2, 

and pi. xlii. figs. 17-20. 
Cordylosaurus subtessellatus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 641. 

Very closely allied to the preceding, from which it differs in the 
dorsal scales not being distinctly keeled, and in coloration. Middle 
of the back yello\vifeh brown, the sides checkered white and blackish 
brown ; sides of body dark brown ; lower surfaces brownish. 

From snout to vent 50 millim. 

Great Namaqualand. 

o. Ad. Great Namaqualand. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Type.) 



4. ZONOSAURUS. 127 

4. ZONOSAURUS*. 

Cicij?na, part., Grny, Oriff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 03. 
Gcrrlionotus, part., Dum. 4" Bibr. v. p. 308. 
C'icigna {mm Graij, 182-")), Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 40. 
Pk'urostriehus {non Gray, l845j, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1805, 
p. 042. 

Nostril pierced between the rostral, the first Inbial, and two 
nasals; prtet'rontal shields present ; no frontoparietals. Lower eye- 
lid scaly. A strong lateral fold. Dorsal scales forming straight 
longitudinal and transverse series ; ventrals hexagonal, in longi- 
tudinal series. Subdigital scales smooth or tubercular. Tongue 
nearly entirely covered with rhomboidal papilla). 

Madagascar. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

Interparietal usually absent ; four 
upper labials anterior to the sub- 
ocuhir : 1 to 22 femoral pores on 
each side 1. madagascariensis, p. 127. 

A small interparietal ; four upper 
labials anterior to the subocular ; 
10 to 15 femoral pores 2. ornatus, p. 128. 

Three upper labials anterior to the sub- 
ocular ; 10 to 13 femoral pores .... 3. rujipes, p. 128. 

1. Zonosaurus madagascariensis. 

Cicigna madagascariensis, Gray, Cat. p. 49. 
Cicigna madagascariensis. Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 04. 
Gerrhosaurus bifasciatus, Dum. Sf L'ihr. p. 375, pi. xlvii. 

madagascariensis, Buetfy. Ahh. Senck. Ges. xi. 1877, p. 35. 

(Cicigna) madagascariensis, Boettg. Ahh. Senck. Ges. xi. 1879, 

p. 471, and xii. 1881, p. 449. 

Frontonasal forming a suture with the rostral and with the frontal ; 
four upper labials anterior to the subocular ; interparietal (usually) 
absent. Dorsal scales striated, with a strong median keel in the 
young, which becomes more feeble or disappears entirely in the 
adult ; they form 22 or 24 longitudinal and 50 to 54 transverse 
series, counting from the parietal shields to the base of the tail ; 
ventrals in 8 longitudinal series. 16 to 22 femoral pores on each. 



* The following species are referred to Zonomurus merely on account of 
their habitat, as unfortunately nothing in Grandidier's diagnoses affords a clue 
to their position in the system : — 

1. GerrhoMurus quadrilineatus, Grandid. Rey. et Mag. Zool. xis. 1867, 
p. 233. — Tullear, Madagascar. 

2. G. laticauduH, id. eod. loc. xxi. 1869, p. 341. — Fierin, Madagascar. 

3. G. karsteni, id. ibid. — Fierin. 

4. G. eencus, id. Ann. Sc. Nat. (.5) xv. 1872, art. 20, p. 8. — Madagascar. 



128 GEREIIOSAURIB^. 

side. Tail about once and two thirds the length of head and body. 
Olive-brown above, spotted with black, usually with a broad pale 
greenish, black-edged band on each side of the back, commencing 
from the last supraocular ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

millim. niillim. 

Total length 344 Fore limb 37 

Head 24 Hind limb 06 

Width of head .... 18 Tail 220 

Body 100 

Madagascar and neighbouring islands. 

a, h. Ad. & yg. iNfadagascar. Dr. J. R Gray [P.]. (Types.) 

c-e. Ad. & hgr. Madagascar. Mr. T. Waters [C.]. 

f-i. Ad. Madagascar. E. Newton, Esq. [P.]. 

k. Ad. Anzahamaru. 

I. Ad. Nossi Be. 

m-n. Ad. Glorioso Islands. Dr. Coppinger [C.]. H.M.S. 

' Alert.' 

2. Zonosaurus ornatus. 

Cicigna ornata, Gray, Cat. p. 50. 
Cicigna madagascariensis, var. ornata, Gray, Griff". A. K. ix. Syn. 

p. 64. 
Gerrbosaurus lineatus, Cocteau^ Mag. de Zool. 1834, cl. iii. pi. v. ; 

Bum. c^- Bihr. p. 878. 
ornatus, Boeftg. Abh. Senck. Ges. xi. 1877, p. 35. 

A small interparietal. The strong central keel of the dorsal 
scales persists in the adult ; the dorsal scales form 24 or 26 longi- 
tudinal series. Femoral pores 10 to 15. Otherwise as in Z. mada- 
gascariensis. Pale olive above, with six longitudinal black bands 
on the back ; sides and limbs spotted or marbled with black. 

millim. niillrm. 

Total length 222 Fore limb 2o 

Head 17 Hind limb 42 

Width of head .... 13 Tail 135 

Body 70 

A larger specimen, with imperfect tail, measures 115 millim, 
from snout to vent. 
Madagascar. 

a. Ad. Madagascar. Dr. J. E. Gray [P.";. (Type.) 

h-d. Ad. & yg. Madagascar. J. Caldwell Esq. [P.]. 

€. Ad., stuffed. Madagascar. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

3. Zonosaurus rufipes. 

Gerrhosaurus (Cicigna) rufipes, Boetty. Zool. Anz. 1881, p. 358, and 
Abh. Senck. Ge.s. xxii. 1881, p. 450," pi. i. fig. 3. 

A small interparietal is present or absent. Three upper labials 



4. ZONOSATTEtrS. 5. TRACnKLOPTYCntJS. 129 

anterior to the siibocular. Dorsal scales strongly striated, in 24 
or 20 longitudinal series ; the ventral shields of the outer series 
also striated. Femoral pores 10 to 13. Grey-brown above, with 
irregular longitudinal scries of small black spots ; sides with bluish- 
white spots; limbs rufous ; three or four black longitudinal streaks 
on each side of the throat. 

A var. suhunkolor is distinguished by the almost uniform dark 
brown colour of the upper surfaces, and the absence or indistinctness 
of the gular streaks ; the median keel of the dorsal scales is stronger 
than in the typical form. 

milliiu. millini. 

Total length 162 Fore limb 20 

Head 13 Hind limb 38 

Width of head 10 Tail 107 

Body 42 

Nossi Be. 

a-b. Ad. & hgr, Nossi Be. Senckenberg Museum [E.]. 



5. TRACHELOPTYCHUS. 

Tracheloptychus, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 617, and Reise n. 
Mossamb. iii. p. 62. 

Nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and two 
nasals ; pntfrontal and frontoparietal shields present. Lower eye- 
lid scaly. No lateral fold on the body. Dorsal and ventral scales 
arranged quincuucially ; laterals forming straight longitudinal and 
transverse series. Subdigital scales keeled. Tongue entirely covered 
with rhomboidal papillae. 

Madagascar. 

1. Tracheloptychus madagascariensis. 

Tracheloptychus madagascariensis, Peters, II. cc, pi. viii. fig. 3. 

Habit lacertoid ; body slightly depressed. The hind limb reaches 
the tympanum. A fold along each side of the neck. Nuchal scales 
pluricarinate, dorsals unicarinate. 20 to 22 femoral pores on each. 
Tail about once and three fourths the length of head and body. 
Olive-brown above, spotted with blackish brown ; three longitu- 
dinal white lines on the back, the median bifurcating anteriorly ; 
hinder side of thighs with two black and two white longitudinal 
lines ; lower surfaces dirty white. 





millira. 




millim 


From snout to vent 


.. 52 


Fore limb .... 


19 


Head 


. . 13 


Hind limb .... 


39 


Width of head 


.. 8 







St. Augustin's Bay, W. Madagascar. 

TOL. III. 



130 scTyciDM. 

2. Tracheloptychus petersii. 

Tracheloptychus petersi, Grandid. llev. et Mac/, Zool. xxi. 1869, 
p. 339. 

" Dorsal scales finely striated. A light brown band on the middle 
of the back, between two dark brown streaks. A greyish streak 
and an irregular reddish band with a few small white spots on 
each side. Flanks greyish, barred with white and red. Hind 
limbs grey ; inner face of thigh whitish, with a longitudinal black 
shaft. Belly white. Head with scattered black spots." 

Total length 20 centim. 

Mourounbc. 



Fam. lb. SCINCID^. 

Scincoidieus, part., Cuiier, Rccine Anim. ii. 1817. 

Scincid^e, part., Anguidse, part., Gray, Ann. Fhil. (2) x. 1825. 

Cordyloidea, part., Scincoidea, part., GymuophtLalmoidea, part., 

Fihincjer, Nnie Classif. R&pt. 1826. 
Lacerta? autarch oalossae, part., Augues, part., Wayler, Syst. Amph. 

1830. 
Scinci, part., Gymnopbthalmi, part., IVieymann, Herp. Mex. 1831. 
ScJncidse, part., Gymnophthalmidse, part., Rhodonidse, Acontiadse, 

Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838-39. 
rhalcidieus, part., Scincoidiens Saiu'ophthalrues et Ophiophthalmes, 

part., DumerilSf Bibron, Erp. Gen. v. 1839. 
Gymnophtlialmidse, part., Scincidse, part., Ophiomoridae, Sepsidae, 

Acontiadse, Gray, Cat. Liz. 1845. 
Scincidae, Sepsidte, Acoutiidas, Co2)e, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1864. 
Scincidse, Bouknger, Ann. &)■ May. N. H. (5) xiv. 1884. 

Tongue moderately long, free and feebly nicked in front, covered 
with imbricate scale-like papillae. Dentition pleurodont ; teeth 
conical, bicuspid, or w ith spha}roidal or compressed crowns ; the 
new teeth hollow out the base of the old ones. Pterygoid teeth may 
be present. 

Pra^maxillary bones two, sometimes incompletely sej^aratcd ; nasal 
double ; frontal single or double ; parietal single ; postorbital and 
postfroutotemporal arches complete, osseous ; interorbital septum 
and columella cranii well developed ; infraorbital fossa present, 
bounded by the maxillary, the transverse bone, the palatine, and 
often also by the pterygoid. Skull with bony dermal plates over- 
roofi.ng the supratemporai fossa. 

Limbs present or absent ; pectoral and pelvic arches constantly 
present. Clavi'^-le dilated and usually perforated proximally ; inter- 
clavicle cruciform. Ossified abdominal ribs ai'e absent. 

Body i)rotectcd by bony plates underlying the scales, which are 
cycloid-hexagonal, rarely rhomboidal, imbricate, arranged quincuu- 
cially. These plates provided with symmetrical tubtiles, which 



SCINCID^, 131 

usually consist of a transverse one anastomosing with several longi- 
tudinal ones *. Head covered with syminelrical shields ; an azygus 
occipital is rarely present. Pupil round, Eyclidsj well dcvclupcd. 
No femoral pores. 

8cincoids are cosmopolitan, the bulk occurring in Australia, the 
i.slands of the Pacific, the East Indies, and Africa ; they are com- 
paratively very poorly represented in iSouth America. As far as we 
know at present, all sjtecies are ovoviviparous. Adaptations to 
every mode of life, save aquatic and aerial, occur. 

I have met with great difficulty in arranging the genera of this 
family. The majority of the characters hitherto employed for 
the distinction of genera, such as the degree of development of the 
limbs, the presence or absence of a transparent disk in the lower 
eyelid, the presence or absence of keels on scales, &c., are in many 
cases not even of spccihc value ; I have therefore used certain 
characters which hitherto have been neglected, but which, I am 
convinced, afford a firmer basis for a natural arrangement. The 
artificial nature of an arrangement based on the degree of develop- 
ment of the limbs has been pointed out by others f. In a family 
like the Scincoids, in which the limbs are undergoing a process 
of abortion, this character must be abandoned as one expressing 
relationship by itself; and I trust that the arrangement of the 
species in one or more series within a genus t, passing from forms 
with weU-developed pentadactyle limbs and lacertiform physiognomy 
to such as have rudimentary limbs, or even none at all, marks 
a great improvement upon the artificial classifications in use down 
to the present day. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

I. Nostril pierced in the nasal, or between nasal and supra- or post- 
nasal or first upper labial, not touching the rostral. 

A. Palatine bones separated on the median line of the palate 
(fig. o, p. 132) ; no suprauasal shields. 

No azygos occipital shield 1. Egernia, p. 134. 

An azygos occipital shield, in contact with the interparietal ; tail 
prehensile 2. Corucia, p. 141. 



* The principal modifications of this structure have been exquisitely figured 
by Bocourt (Miss. So. Mex., Rept. pis. xsii. i. & xxii./). Owing to the great 
amount of variation I have found within one and the same species, or difference 
between otherwise closely allied siDecies, I have had to abandon the hope I 
at first entertained of employing this character for the arrangement of the 
genera in this family. 

t Cf. Giiuther, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 243. 

X As examples of genera with several diverging degradational series, the 
genera LytjObomu, and Vkalcides are recommended for study. 

k2 



132 SCINCTD^. 

B. Palatine bones in contact on the median line of the palate (fig. b). 

1. Tympanum, if distinct, more or less deeply sunk. 

a. Pterygoid bones separated on the median line of the 

palate, the palatal notch extending anteriorly to an 
imaginary line connecting the centre of the eyes (fig. 6). 

a. No supranasals. 

Lateral teeth with obtuse or sphaeroidal crowns ; an azygos occipital 
in contact with the interparietal ; subdigital lamellae divided. 

3. Trachysaurus, p. 142. 

Lateral teeth with obtuse or sphferoidal crowns ; subdigital lamellae 
undivided 4. Tiliqua, p. 143. 

An enormous crushing-tooth on each side of each jaw. 

5. HemisphsBriodon, p. 148. 
jj. Supranasals present. 

Lateral teeth with compressed, denticulated crowns ; a series of 
suborbital shields 6. Macroscincus, p. 149. 

Lateral teeth conical 7. Mabuia, p. 150. 

b. Pterygoids in contact (at least quite anteriorly) mesially, 

the palatal notch not extending anteriorly to between the 
centre of the eyes (fig, c). 

Eyelids movable ; digits, if present, with non-retractile claws. 

8. Lygosoma, p. 209. 

Eyelid immovable, transparent, covering the eye. 

9. Ablepharus, p. 344. 

Eyelids movable ; claws retractile into a sheath. 

10. RisteUa, p. 356. 

2. Tympanum exposed and superficial. 

Head normal 11. Tropidophonis, p. 359. 

Head a bony casque, well separated from the neck. 

12. Tribolonotiis, p. 364. 




ale 

a. Palate of Fgernw vkifii. b. Of Mabuia oar>mata. 
c. Of Lygosoma olivaceum. 

The dotted line indicates the position of the centre of the eye. 



SCINCID^. 133 

C. Palatine bones separated on the median line ; supranasal 
shields present. 

Nostril pierced in the nasal ; pterygoid bones toothed ; limbs penta- 
dactyle, the digits not denticulated laterally. 

13. Eumeces, p. 3G5. 

Nostril pierced in a very small nasal, between the rostral, the first 
labial, the supranasal, and sometimes a postnasal ; palate toothless ; 
limbs short or rudimentary .... 1-4. Brachymeles, p. 386. 

Nostril pierced bet-ween an upper and a lower nasal ; limbs penta- 
dactyle, the digits denticulated laterally. 

15. Scincus, p. 389. 

Nostril pierced between the nasal and the supranasal ; limbs rudi- 
mentary or absent 10. OpMomorus, p. 393. 

II. Nostril pierced in the posterior border of the rostral, or between 

a nasal or a labial and the rostral. 

A. Palatine bones in contact on the median line. 

Nostril pierced between the rostral and a very small nasal, which 
may be reduced to a narrow ring. 18. Scelotes, p. 408. 

B. Palatine bones separated on the median line. 

1. Supranasals present ; first upper labial not touching the 

nostril. 

Nostril pierced between the rostral and a very small nasal, in an 
emargiuation of the former shield. 17. Chalcides, p. 398. 

Nostril pierced between the rostral and a very small nasal, which is 
situated between the former shield and the first labial. 

19. Herpetoseps, p. 416. 

2. Supranasals present; first upper labial entering the nostril. 

Nostril pierced between the rostral, the supranasal, the postnasal, 
and the first labial ; no frontoparietals. 

20. Sepsina, p. 41'/ 

Nostril pierced between the rostral and the first labial. 

21. Melanoseps, p. 422. 

Nostril pierced between the rostral, the supranasal, and the first 
labial ; frontoparietals present . . 22. Sepophis, p. 423. 

3. No supranasals ; nostril entirely in the rostral. 

23. Chalcidoseps, p. 423. 

III. Nostril pierced in the very large rostral, with the posterior 
border of which it is connected by a horizontal suture. 

Lower eyelid present 24. Acontias, p. 424. 

No eyelids 25. TypMacontias, p. 429. 



134 



1. EGERNIA. 

Egernia, Gray, Ann. N. 11. ii. 1838, p. 288, and Cat. Liz. p. 105. 

Tropidolopisma, Dum. Sf Bibr. v. p. 744 ; Gray, Cat. p. 106. 

Himilia, part., Gray, Cat. p. 74. 

Sihibosaurus, Gray, I. c. p. 104. 

Lis.«oIepis, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1872, p. 776. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the middle line of the palate. 
Pterygoid teeth few or absent. Lateral teeth with compressed, 
obtusely tricuspid crowns. Eyelids well developed, scaly. Tym- 
panum distinct, deeply sunk. Nostril pierced in the nasal, which 
may be divided b}'' a vertical groove ; no supranasals ; prasfrontals 
well developed ; frontoparietals and interparietals distinct. Limbs 
well developed, pentadactyle ; digits cylindrical or compressed, 
with transverse lamellae inferiorly. 

Australia. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Tail subcylindrical, longer than the body. 

A. Dorsal and caudal scales smooth. 

24 scales round the middle of the body . ... 1. luctuosa, p. 135. 
32 to 40 scales round the body 2. ivhitii, p. 135. 

B. Dorsal and caudal scales pluricarinate, not spinose. 

26 to 28 scales round the middle of the 
body ; frontal twice as long as broad, 
much narrower than the second supra- 
ocular ; 6 supraciliaries 3. dorsalis, p. 136. 

28 to 32 scales round the body ; frontal not 
twice as long as broad, as broad as the 
second supraocular; 10 to 12 supra- 
ciliaries 4. major, p. 137. 

28 to 32 scales round the body ; frontal 
not twice as long as broad ; 7 supra- 
ciliaries ; fifth or sixth upper labial enter- 
ing the orbit 5. striolata, p. 138. 

36 to 40 scales round the body G. Jcingii, p. 138. 

C. Dorsal and caudal scales unicarinate, 

spinose 7. cunninghami, p. 139. 

II. Tail much depressed, shorter tlian the body, spinose. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral ; 

upper caudal scales unicuspid 8. stolcesU, p. 140. 

Nasals in contact behind the rostral ; upper 

caudal scales tricuspid 9. dr^rcssa, p. 141. 



1. EGERNIA. 



135 



1. Egernia luctuosa. 

Cyclodus (Omolepida) luctuosuri, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 18GG, p. 90 
Lissolepis luctuosa, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1872, p. 776. 

Head moderate. No curved groove behind the nostril, but a short 
suture below the latter ; nasals usually in contact behind the rostral ; 
prajfrontals forming a median suture ; frontal nearly twice as long as 
broad, a little longer than tlie interparietal ; four or live supraoculars, 
second largest ; seven to nine supraciliaries ; fifth and sixth, or sixth 
and seventh upper labials below the eye, from which they are sepa- 
rated by a series of small scales ; three large temporals ; three or 
four pairs of nuchals. Ear-opening as large as or a little smaller 
than the eye-opening, with two small pointed lobules anteriorly. 
Scales sube(|ual, smooth, dorsals feebly striated, 24 round the middle 
of the body. The adpressed limbs meet or slightly overlap. Digits 
moderately elongate. Tail cylindrical, once and a half to once and 
three fourths the length of head and body ; caudal scales smooth. 
Yellowish olive above, largely spotted with black, or black varie- 
gated with yellow : tail with longitudinal black bands ; lower sur- 
faces yellowish, uniform or spotted with black. 

millim. millira. 

Total length 342 Eore limb 32 

Head 28 Hind limb 45 

Width of head .... 19 Tail 220 

Body 94 

Australia. 

a. Ad. W. Australia. Hr. Damel [C.]. 

b-c. Ad. S. Australia. Dr. Fletcher [P.]. 

d. Ad. Sydney. G. Ki-efft, Esq. [P.J. 

e. Ad. Australia. Sii- J. Richai'dson [P.]. 

2. Egernia whitii. 

Hinulia whitei, Gray, Cat, p. 79. 
Scincus whitii, Lacep. Ann. Mas. iv. p. 192; Quoy i^- Gaim. Voy, 

Uranie, Zool. pi. xlii. tigs. 2 & 3. 
Tiliqua leucopsis, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 291. 
Lygosoma molinigera, Dmn. ^'- Bilr. v. p. 736. 

whitei, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 18(33, p. 230. 

Euprepes whitei, Steindachn. Novara, Rept. p. 49. 

Head moderate. Curved groove behind the nostril absent oi 
feebly marked ; a vertical suture below the nostril ; frontonasal in 
contact with the rostral and frequently also with the frontal ; proe- 
frontals sometimes forming a median suture ; frontal not twice as 
long as broad, as long as or a little longer than the frontoparietal ; 
four or five supraoculars, second largest ; eight to ten supraciliaries ; 
fifth and sixth, or sixth and seventh upper labials below the eye ; 



Type examined, 



136 



SCINCIDiE. 



three large temporals ; one or two pairs of nuchals. Ear-opening 
nearly as large as the eye-opening, with three or four obtuse lobules 
anteriorly. Scales smooth, laterals a little smaller than dorsals and 
vcntrals, 32 to 40 round the middle of the body. The adpressed 
limbs overlap. Digits moderately elongate. Tail more or less dis- 
tinctly compressed, once and two fifths to once and two thirds the 
lengtli of head and body ; caudal scales smooth. Upper surfaces 
usually brown or olive-brown, with two dorsal black bands, each 
bearing a scries of small yellowish-white or pale-brown spots ; sides 
with similar black-edged spots or ocelli ; lower surfaces pale olive, 
throat sometimes with black markings. The elegant markings of 
the upper surfaces may be almost or quite absent. Edge of the 
eyelids and ear-lobules constantly white. 



millim. 

Total length 2do 



Head 

Width of head 
Body 

Australia : Tasmania. 



25 

18 
85 



millim. 

Fore limb 33 

Hind limb 48 

Tail 185 



a-d. Ad. & hgr. 
e. Ad. 

f-ff, h. Ad. & hgr. 
2, h-m. Ad. & hgr. 
n. Hgr. 
0. Hgr. 
p-q. Ad. 
r. Several spec. 

hgr., & yg. 
s-t. Yg. 
11. Several spec. 

hgr., & y^. 
V. Ad., stuffed. 
w. Several spec 

hgr., & yg. 
x-a. Ad. & yg. 
/3-S. Ad. 



Queensland. 
Gayndah. 
Svduev. 
N. S. Wales. 
Kangaroo Island. 
Swan River. 
Houtniau"s Abrolhos. 
ad., Australia. 

Australia, 
ad., Australia. 

Australia, 
ad., Tasmania. 

Tasmania. 
Tasmania. 



Museum GodefFroy. 
G. Krefft, Esq. [P.]. 
G. Kreft't, Esq. [P.]. 
Paris Museum. 

J. Gould, Esq. [C.]. 
Antarctic Expedition. 

Lieut. A. Smith [P.]. 
Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

W. Shuckard, Esq. [P.]. 
Dr. Robertson [P.]. 

Dr. MiUigan [P.]. 



3. Egernia dorsalis. 

Tropidolepisma dorsale, Peters, Mon. £erl. Ac. 1873, p. 743. 

Head short. A curved groove behind the nostril ; frontonasal in 
contact with the rostral ; praefrontals forming a median suture ; 
frontal narrow, twice as long as broad, not longer than the fronto- 
parietal ; five supraoculars, second largest ; six supraciliaries ; a 
complete series of infraoculars, the median wedged in between the 
fifth and sixth upper labials. Ear-opening larger than the eye- 
opening, partly concealed under three very large triangular lobules. 
26 (to 28) scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals and laterals 
quinque- or quadricarinate, the scales of the two median nuchal and 
dorsal series much broader than the others ; laterals and vcntrals 



1. EGKRXIA. l;57 

subequal. The ndprcsscd limbs fail to meet. Digits short. Tail 
cylindrical, as loug as head and body : upper caudal scales keeled, 
like the dorsals. A dark brown vei-tcbral baud, occupying the 
median pair of scales, separated from the ])aler brown of the sides 
by a ydlowish-brown dorso-lateral baud ; lower surfaces yellowish, 
throat with a few blackish spots. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 413 Fore limb 55 

Head 43 Hind limb 67 

Width of head .... 38 Tail 200 

Body 170 

Queensland. 

a. Ad. Rockhampton. 

4. Egernia major. 

Tropidolopisnia major, Grai/, Cat. p. 107. 
Tropidolepisma major, Gray, Zool. Ereb. ^ Terr., Rept. pi. xiv. ; 

A. Dum. Cut. M'eth. Hept. p. 17G. 
ricliardi, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 18G9, p. 787. 

Head short. A curved groove behind the nostril ; frontonasal in 
contact with the rostral ; prcefrontals forming a median suture ; 
frontal not twice as long as broad, larger than the interparietal ; 
five supraoculars, second largest ; ten to twelve supraciliaries ; fifth 
and sixth upper labials below the eye, from which they are sepa- 
rated by a series of small infraoculars ; three large temporals ; three 
pairs of nuchals. Ear-opening as large as the eye-opening, with 
three large projecting lobules. 2S to 32 scales round the middle of 
the body : dorsals largest, and with three or four more or less strong 
keels. The adpressed limbs slightly overlap. Digits rather short. 
Tail cylindrical, about once and a half the length of head and body ; 
upper caudal scales keeled like the dorsals. Olive-brown above, with 
a more or less distinct lighter dorso-lateral band ; frequently a black 
lateral band ; back with more or less distinct longitudinal blackish 
streaks or series of small spots ; sides sometimes dotted with yel- 
lowish ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 470 Fore limb 55 

Head 40 Hind limb 71 

Width of head 32 Tail 270 

Body 160 

North-eastern Australia. 

a. Ad., stuffed. Australia. (Type.) 

h. Ad., stuffed. Australia. 

c. Hgr. Australia. G. Ki-efft, Esq. [P.]. 

cU,f. Ad. Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane [CI 

9- Ad. Islands of Torres Straits. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.J. 



138 SCINCID^. 

5. Egernia striolata. 
Tropidolepisma striolatiim, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1870, p. 642. 

Head moderate. A curved groove behind the nostril ; fronto- 
nasal in contact with the rostral ; proefrontals forming a median 
suture ; frontal not twice as long as broad, as large as or smaller 
than the interparietal ; four supraoculars, second largest ; seven 
supraciliaries ; fifth or sixth upper labial entering the orbit ; two 
or three pairs of nuchals. Ear-opening as large as the eye-opening, 
with three pointed lobules anteriorly. 28 to 32 scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsals largest, quadri- or quin(jueearinate, 
laterals smallest, tricarinate. The adpressed limbs overlap. Digits 
moderate. Tail cylindrical, a little longer than head and body ; a 
series of large, transversely dilated scales on the upper as well as on 
the lower surface of the tail, the former pluricarinate. Brown 
above, with lighter dots and a lighter dorso-lateral band ; longitu- 
dinal, more or less confluent blackish streaks on the vertebral 
region ; a blackish lateral band ; upper head-shields black-edged ; 
labials yellowish, black-edged ; lower surfaces yellowish or greyish, 
throat spotted or reticulated with blackish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 190 Fore limb £7 

Head 21 Hind limb 36 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 100 

Body 69 

Queensland. 

a. Yg. Gayndah. Museum Godefiroy. 

h. Yg. Northern Queensland. G. Krefft, Esq. [P.]. 

e. Ad. Australia. G. Krefft, Esq. [P.J. 

6. Egernia kingii. 

Tropidolepisma kingii, Gray, Cat. p. 106. 

nitida, Oray, I. c. 

Tiliqua king-ii. Gray, Ann. N. JL ii. 1838, p. 290. 

napoleouis, Gray, I. c. 

Tropidolopisma dumcrilii, Dtim. S,- Bibr. v. p. 745, pi. 1. 
Tropidolepisma nitida, Gray, Zool. Ereb. Sf Terr., Itept. pi. xii. 
kingii, Gray, I. c. pi. xiii. 

Head moderate. A curved groove behind the nostril ; fronto- 
nasal in contact with the rostral ; proefrontals usually forming a 
median suture ; frontal not twice as long as broad, not or but 
slightly longer than the interparietal ; four or five supraoculars, 
second largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; sixth or seventh labial 
entering the orbit ; two to four pairs of nuchals. Ear-opening about 
as large as the eye-opening, with three or four pointed lobules 
anteriorly. 36 to 40 scales round the middle of the body, laterals 
smallest, dorsals more or less strongly bi- or tricarinate. The 



1. EGEENIA. 



139 



adpressed limbs overlap. Digits moderate. I'ail cylindrical, a little 
longer than head and body ; upper caudal scales keeled like the 
dorsals. Blackish olive with yelloAvish spots, or olive with light 
and black spots above ; lower surfaces yellowish, uniform or spotted 
with black. 



inillim. 

Total length 475 

Head 42 

Width of head .... 32 
Body 168 

Western and Southern Australia. 



millim. 

Fore limb 55 

Hind limb 76 

Tail 265 



«. Ad. 

i. Ad., stuffed. 

cAd. 

d, e. Yg. 

f-h. Hgr. 

i, k. Ad., stuffed. 

I. Hgr., stuffed. 

m, n. Ad. & hgi., 

stuffed. 
o. Ad. 
/J. Hgr. 
q. Ad. 
r-i\ Hgr, & yg. 



A ustralia. 
Australia. 

Australia. 
Australia. 
Aastralia. 
W. Australia. 
Dirk Hartog Island. 
Iloutman's Abrolhos. 

Houtman's Abrolhos. 
Swan River. 
Swan River. 
S. Australia. 



Capt. P. P. King [P.]. (Type.) 
(Type of Tropidolepisma niti- 
(him.) 

Dr. Fleming [P.]. 
G. Krefft, Esq. [P.]. 

H.M.S. 'Herald.' 

Mr. Gilbert [C.]. 

Mr. Gilbert [C.]. 
J. Gould, Esq. [C.]. 

Dr. Fletcher [P.]. 



7. Egernia cimninghami. 

Egernia cunninghami, Gray, Cat. p. 105. 
TUiqua cunninghami, Gray, Troc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 40. 
Egernia cunninghami, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 288, and in 

Stokes, Discov. in AuMral. i. p. 499, pi. ii. 
Tropidolepisma cunninghami, A. Dum. Cat. Meth. Kept. p. 177. 
Egernia krefftii, Feters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 30. 

Head moderate. A curved groove behind the nostril ; fronto- 
nasal in contact with the rostral ; prsefrontals usually forming a 
median suture ; frontal not twice as long as broad, as large as or a 
little larger than the interparietal ; four or five supraoculars, second 
largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; sixth and seventh, or seventh 
and eighth upper labials entering the orbit ; two to four pairs of 
nuchals. Ear-opening as large as, or a little larger than, the eye- 
opening, with four or five pointed lobules anteriorly. Xuchal scales 
pluricarinate, dorsals and laterals sharply uuicarinate, euding in a 
point, the keel and the point becoming stronger towards the tail ; 
dorsal scales largest, laterals smallest ; 36 to 42 scales round the 
middle of the body. The adpressed limbs largely overlap. Digits 
moderate. Tail cylindrical, a little longer than head and body ; 
upper caudal scales strongly uuicarinate, ending in a spine. Dark 
olive above, with black marblings or irregular cross bands, with or 
without light dots ; head-shields usually edged with black ; lower 



140 



SCINCID^. 



surfapcs whitish or pale olive ; throat hliiish grey, or spotted and 
marbled with black ; belly immaculate, or scantily spotted with 
black. 

millim. 

Total length 330 

Head 35 

Width of head 25 

Eody 115 

Australia. 
a. Ad., stufied. W. Australia, lat. 20° 



millim. 

Fore limb 46 

Hind limb G2 

Tail 180 



b- Yg. 

c. Yg. 

<?. Ad. 

e,f. Ad. &yg. 

g, h. Ad. & yg. 

i. Ad., stufied. 



Long Bay, near Sydney. 

Sydney. 

Queensland. 

Australia. 

Australia. 

Australia. 



A. Cunningham, Esq. [P.]. 

(Type.) 
J. Brazier, Esq. [P.]. 
G. Krefi't, Esq. [P.]. 
Prof. A. M. Thomson [P.]. 
G. Ki-elft, Esq. [P.]. 



8. Egernia stokesii. (Plate V. fig. 2.) 

Siluhosaurus stokesii, Gray, Cat. p. 104. 
Siluhosaurus stokesii, A. Dvm. Cat. Meth. liept. p. 180 \ Gray, in 

Stakes, Discov. in Austral, i. p. 499, pi. i. 
? Siluhosaurus zellingi, De Vis, Froc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. i. 1884, 

p. 53. 

Head rather small. A curved groove behind the nostril, often 
completely dividing the nasal ; frontonasal in contact with the 
rostral ; prsefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal not twice 
as long as broad, a little larger than the interparietal ; four or five 
supraoculars, second largest ; six or seven supraciliaries ; fifth or 
sixth upper labial entering the orbit ; one to foui" pairs of nuchals. 
Ear-opening a little larger than the eye-opening, with two or three 
large triangular lobules. Anterior dorsal scales sharply hi- or tri- 
carinate, posterior uni- or bicarinate, spinose, the spines becoming 
stronger tow^ards the tail ; the scales of the two median dorsal 
series broader than the others ; 32 or 34 scales round the middle 
of the body. The adpressed limbs fail to meet, or just meet, in the 
adult, sliglatly overlap in the young. Digits short. Tail much shorter 
than the body, much depressed, the scales, especially the laterals, 
ending in a strong spine obliquely directed upwards ; these spines 
form eight longitudinal series. Brown above, with irregular pale olive 
and blackish spots ; head-shields edged with blackish ; lower surfaces 
pale olive, or brown with pale olive enots. One of the specimens 
is uniform blackish brown. 



millim. 

Total length 275 

Head 31 

Width of head 29 

Body 181 

Western Australia. 



millim. 

lore limb 50 

Hind limb 55 

Tail 63 



1. EOERNIA. — 2. CORUCIA. 141 

a-f. Ad. & vg. W. Australia. Mr. Drinfr [C.]. ) ^ 

g-h. Hgr., stulFed. W. Au-stralia. Mr. Leadbeater [C.]. V '^ 

t-/. Ad*! & yg. Iloutman's Abrolhos. Mr. Gilbert [C.]. ) g 

7n, n. Ad., stuffed. Houtman's Abrolhos. <-^ 

o. Ad., stuffed. Dirk Ilartog Island. H.M.S. / Herald.' 

«, Ad. Australia. Lord Lilford [P.]. 

9. Egernia depressa. (Plate V. fig. 1.) 
Silubosaurus depressus, Giinth. Zool. Ereh. 8f Terr., Rept. p. 15. 

Head small. A postnasal groove, entirely dividing the nasal ; 
nasals forming a suture behind the rostral ; pnefrontals forming a 
median suture ; frontal not twice as long as broad, a little longer 
than the interparietal ; four supraoculars, second largest ; five or 
six supraciliaries ; fourth upper labial entering the orbit ; anterior 
nuchals passing gradually into the posterior. Ear-opening about as 
large as the eye-opening, with two or three small triangular lobules. 
Dorsal and caudal scales tricarinate, trispinose, the median .spine 
very strong ; dorsal scales largest, ventrals smallest ; 32 scales 
round the middle of the body. The adpressed limbs overlap. 
Digits short. Tail much shorter than the body, very strongly 
depressed : the spines form eight longitudinal series, those of the 
two outer series on each side much stronger than the others. 
Olive above, with irregular dark brown cross bands ; lower surfaces 
pale olive, with a few scattered dark dots. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 131 Fore limb 32 

Head 20 Hind limb 34 

Width of head 18 Tail 33 

Body 78 

South-western Australia. 

a-b. Ad. & hgr. Swan River. (Types.) 

2. COEUCIA. 

Corucia, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 217 ; Bouleng. Trans. Zool. 
Soc. xii. 1886, p. 4-3. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the middle line of the palate. A 
few teeth on the pterygoids. Lateral teeth with compressed, sharp- 
edged angular crowns, wearing out obliquely. Eyelids well developed, 
scaly. Tympanum distinct, deeply sunk. aSTostril pierced in a 
single nasal ; no supranasals ; a complete series of shields between 
the orbit and the upper labials ; proefrontals well developed ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, the latter shield in contact 
with an azygos occipital. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; 
digits slightly compressed, with undivided transverse lameU® infe- 
riorly. Tail prehensile. 

Solomon Islands. 



142 BCINCID^. 



1, Corucia zebrata. 

Corucia zebrata, Gray, L c. p. 218, pi. viii. ; Buidemj. I. c pi. vii. 
fig. 3. 

Head large, distinct from neck ; snout short, rounded. Fronto- 
nasal the largest head-shield ; pra)frontals forming a median suture ; 
frontal small, broader than long ; five band-like supraoculars, second 
largest, third and fourth bordering the eye ; interparietal larger than 
the frontal, nearly as large as the parietals ; two very large tem- 
porals, upper largest. Ear-opening nearly as large as the eye- 
opening, without distinct lobules. Scales large, largest and slightly 
striated on the back, 36 to 38 round the middle of the body. The 
adpressed limbs largely overlap. Digits short and strong, with 
powerful claws. Tail a little longer than head and body, cylindrical, 
ending obtusely. Greenish white above, with irregular dark brown 
cross bands, or olive -brown with lighter variegations, with or 
without irregular blackish spots ; head sometimes reddish brown 
above ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

milliin. millim. 

Total length 645 Fore limb 105 

Head 61 Hind limb 124 

Width of head .... 54 Tail 350 

Body 234 

Solomon Islands. 

Or-b. Ad. San Christoval. J. Macgillivray, Esq. [P.]. (Types.) 

c. Yg. San Christoval. J. Macgillivray, Esq. [P.J. 

d. Ad. Solomon Islands. 



3. TRACHYSAURUS. 

Trachysaurus, Gray, in Kinys Voy. Atistral. ii. p. 430 ; Wagler, 
Syst. Amph. p. 163; Wieym. Herp. Mex. p. 11 ; Dtim, S)- Bibr. v. 
p. 754. 

Brachydactylus, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. ii. 1835, p. 144. 

Trachydosaurus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 102. 

Palatine bones in contact on the middle line of the palate. 
Pterygoids toothless. Lateral teeth with subconical crowns. Eye- 
lids well developed, scaly. Tympanum distinct, deeply sunk. 
Nostril pierced in a .single nasal, with a curved groove behind ; no 
supranasals ; a complete series of shields between the orbit and the 
upper labials ; pra3frontals well developed ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct, the latter shield in contact with an azygos occipital. 
Dorsal scales rhomboidal, rugose. Limbs short, peutadactyle ; digits 
cylindrical ; subdigital lamella; mostly divided. Tail short, stump- 
like. 

Australia. 



3. TRACHTBAURUK. — 4. TILIQTJA. 



143 



1. Trachysaurus rugosus. 

Tracliyd(-)sauriis rugosus, Orai/, Cat. \>. 102. 

aspor, Gray, I. c. p. lO-"!. 

Trachysaurus rugosus, Gray, in Kiiiy^s Voi/. Austral, ii. p. 4."J0 ; 
Dam. ^- Dibr. v. p. 754 ; McCoy, Prodr, Zool. Vict., dec. xi. 
pi. 102 ; Ilaake, Zool. Anz. 1885, p. 435. 

peronii, Jj^at/l. Icon. Amph. {nee fig.). 

Brachydactvlus typicus, Smith, 8. Afr. Quart. Jonru. ii. l8-')5,p. 144, 

Trachysaurus typicus, Gray, tn Grey's Jojirn. Austral, ii. p. 42-'). 
asper, A. Bum. Cat. Meth. liepf. p. 17i>. 

Head large, very distinct from neck ; snout short, obtuse. Head- 
shields convex, more or less rugose. Frontonasal the largest head- 
shield ; pncfrontals forming a median suture ; two or three supra- 
oculars and five to seven supraciliarics ; frontal and interparietal 
varj-ing much in length ; ear-opening about as large as the eye- 
opening, without lobules. Dorsal scales very large, rough, strongly 
imbricate, suggestive of the fruit of a pine ; ventrals much smaller, 
smooth ; 20 to 80 scales round the middle of the body. Limbs 
widely separated when adpressed ; digits very short. Tail about 
as long as the head, stump-like, scaled like the body. Brown 
above, with yellowish spots or irregular cross bands ; lower surfaces 
yellowish, spotted or marbled with brown, or with longitudinal and 
transverse brown streaks. 



millim. 

Total length 353 

Head 60 

Width of head 58 

Body 230 

Australia. 



millim. 

Fore limb 56 

Hind limb 57 

Tail 63 



a. Ad., bad state. 

b. Hot. 

c. Ad., stuffed. 

d. Hgr., stuffed. 
e,/,.9, h,i. Ad. 

&hgr., stuffed. 
A-, l,7u. Ad., stuffed. 

n, 0. Ad. & hgi". 
p. Ad. 
q. Ad. 

r, s. Ad., stuffed. 
t, u. Skeletons. 



King George's Sound. 
Houtmau's Abrolhos. 
Dirk Hartog Island. 
Shark's Bay. 
W. Australia. 

Adelaide. 

New South Wales. 

Gayndah. 

Australia. 

Australia. 

W. Australia. 



Capt. P. P. King [P.]. (Type.) 
Mr. Gilbert [C.]. 
H.M.S. ' Herald.' 
H.M.S. ' Herald.' 



C. D. E. Fortiuim, Esq. [P.]. 

(Types of T. asper.) 
G. Krefft, Esq. [P.]. 
Museum Godeffrov. 
Lord Derby [P.].' 



4. TILiaUA. 

Tiliqua, Gray, Ann. Phil. (2) x. 1825, p. 201. 

Tiliqua, part., Fitzing. N. Class. Rept. p. 23; Gray, Grif. A. K. ix. 

8yn. p. 07, and Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 288. 
Cyclodus. Wagler, Syst. Amjjh. p. 162; Wiegm. Hern. Mex. p. 11 ; 

Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 103. 
Cyclodus, part., Dum. df Bibr. v. p. 747. 



144 sciiTCiD^. 

Palatine bones in contact on the middle line of the palate. 
Pterygoids toothless. Lateral teeth with spheroidal crowns*. Ej-e- 
lids well developed, scaly. Tympanum distinct, deeply sunk. 
Nostril pierced in a single nasal, with a curved groove behind ; no 
supranasals ; a complete series of shields between the orbit and the 
upper labials ; pnefrontals well developed ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct. Limbs short, pentadactyle ; digit'^ subcylindrical 
or slightly compressed, with undivided transverse lamellae interiorly, 

Australia ; Austro-Malayan and Indo-Malayan Islands. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I, Anterior temporals much larger than the others, about as long 

as the interparietal ; four supraoculars and six or seven 
supraciliaries. 

28 to 32 scales round the middle of the 

body ; fore limb a little longer than the 

head 1. gi[/as, p. 144. 

34 to 40 scales round the middle of the 

body : fore limb not longer than the 

head 2. scincoides, p. 145. 

II. Temporal scales subequal ; four or five supraciliaries. 

28 to 30 scales round the middle of the 

body ; four supraoculars 3. nirjrolutca, p. 146. 

40 to 42 scales round the body ; two 

or three supraoculars ; frontonasal in 

contact with the rostral and with the 

frontal ; three auricular lobules 4. occiintalis, p. 147. 

38 to 40 scales round the body ; three 

supraoculars ; nasals in contact behind 

the rostral ; a single auricular lobule . . 5. adelaidensis, p. 148. 

1. Tiliqua gigas. 

Scincus gigas, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 202 ; Daiid. Rept. iv. 

p. 244. 
Tiliqua gigas, Fitzing. N. Class. Rept. p. 52. 
Cyclodus flavigularis, Wagl. Icon. Amph. pi. vi. 

boddaertii, part., Dum. Sf Bibr. v. p. 752. 

carinatus, Gibif.h. Proc. Zool. Sac. 1803, p. 59 ; Strmtch, Bidl. 

Ac. St. Petersb. x. 18G6, p. 454. 

petersii, Strauch, I. c. 

gigas, Boria, A)m. Mus. Genora, iv. 1874, p. 341 ; Peters and 

Boria, Ann. 3Ius. Genova, xiii. 1878, p. 365. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral ; prsefrontals forming a 
median suture ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six or seven 

* Except in T. adelaidensis, which has the teeth more couical. 



4. TILIQUA. '145 

supraciliaries ; interparietal as broad as or narrower than the 
parictals ; scales on the occiput broader than long ; anterior tem- 
porals much larger than the others, at least as long as the inter- 
parietal ; car-opeuing about as large as the ej'o-opening, with two 
or three large, obtuse projecting lobules on the anterior border. 
Scales subeciual, 2^ to 32 round the middle of the body, dorsals 
usually obtusely keeled. Fore limb a little longer than the head, 
its length contained twice and one third to twice and a half in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Tail about as long as the l)ody, 
slightly compressed ; upper caudal scales obtusely keeled. Yellowish 
brown above, with nine or ten dark brown bands across the body ; 
sides and limbs dark brown, yellow-spotted ; belly variegated brown 
and yellow, the brown usually predominating. 

niillini. millim. 

Total length 530 Fore limb 66 

Head 60 Hind limb 63 

AVidtli of head 48 Tail 240 

Body 230 

New Guinea, ^Moluccas, Java*. 

Dr. A. B. Meyer [CI. 

(Types of Cijclvdus carina/jis.') 

H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 

2. Tiliqua scincoides. 

Cyclodus gigas, Gray, Cat. p. 103. 
Larerta scincoides, White, Juwn. Vvy. N. S. Wales, p. 242, pi. — ; 

Shall), Nat. Miscell. v. pi. clxxix. 
Scincus crotaphomelas. Lace}). Ann. Mus. iv. 1804, pp. 102, 209. 

tubevculatus, Merr. Tent. p. 73. 

Tiliqua tubei'culata, Gray, Ann. Phil. (2) x. 1825, p. 201, and in 

Kinff's Vuy. Aiistr. ii. p. 42i). 

scincoides, Fitziny. X. Class. Ropt. p. 52. 

wliitii, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 67. 

crotaphomelas. Gray, I. c. p. <6^. 

Cyclodus boddaertii, part.. Dam. 4" Bihr. v. p. 752. 

gigas, Girard, U. S.E.tp!or. Exped., Ilerp.^. 233; St ranch, Bull. 

Ac. St. Petersh. x. 1S66, p. 454 ; McCoy, Prodr. Zool. Vict. dec. viii, 

pi. Ixxi. 
boddaertii, Peters i^- Doria, Ann. Mus. Genov. xiii. 1878, p. 366. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral ; prefrontals forming a 
median suture ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six or seven 
supraciliaries ; interparietal narrower than the parietals ; scales on 
the occiput not or but slightly broader than long ; anterior temporals 
much larger than the others, about as long as the interparietal ; 
ear-opening about as large as the eye-opening, with two or three 

* I have examined a specinien from Bantam in the Berlin Museum (10490, 
Stortenbecker). 

VOL. III. i 



a. Ad. 


Ternate. 


b. Ad. 


Mysol. 


c-d. Ad. 


N. Ceram. 


e. Ad. 


Ambuvna. 


/. Ad. 


Ke Uoiau, Kei Islands 



146 



large, obtuse lobules. Scales smooth, laterals a little smaller than 
dorsals and vcntrals, 34 to 40 round the middle of the body. Fore 
limb as long as or a little shorter than the head ; its length, in the 
adult, contained from three to four times in the distance between 
axilla and groin. Tail cylindrical, shorter than the body. YeDowish 
or pale brown above, with more or less distinct dark brown cross 
bands ; frequently a dark brown band along the side of the neck, 
sometimes extending to the temple ; lower surfaces yellowish, 
uniform or spotted with brown. 



luillim. 

Total length 585 

Head 70 

Width of head ... 58 

Body 265 

Australia ; Tasmania. 



a. Ad. 

b. AA. 
c-d. Yg. 

Ad., stutJed. 
/, m. Ad. & hgr. 
n. Ad. 
o. Ad. 
P- Hgr. 
q. Ad., stuffed. 
r. Hgr. 
s. Ad. 
t-u. Yg. 
I'l 10, X. Ad. & 

hgi\, stuffed. 
y. Ad. 
s. Skeleton. 



Australia. 
Australia. 
Australia. 
Australia. 



inillim. 

Eore limb 68 

Hind limb 67 

Tuil 250 



Capt. White [P.]. (Type.) 
Zoological Society. 
Sir J. Richardson [P.]. 



N. Australian Expedition. 

Islands of Torres Straits. 

Cape York. 

Port Essiugtou. 

Port Essing'ton. 

N. S. Wales. 

Sydney. 

Tasmania. 

Tasmania. 



J. E. Elsey, Esq. [P.]. 
Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

Lord Derhv [P.]. 
Mr. Gilbert [C.]. 
G. Krefft, Esq. 
Dr. G. Bennett [P.]. 
Sir J. Richardson [P.]. 



Sir A. Smith [P.]. 



3. Tiliqua nigrolutea. 

Cyclodus nigroluteus, Gray, Cat. p. 104. 
iitioy 4' Gaim, Voy. Uranie, llept. pi. xli. 
Tiliqua nigroluteus, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. 8yn. p. C8. 
Cvclodus nigroluteus, Dmn. ^- Bihv. v. p. 750 ; Strauch, Bull. Ac. 
St Petersh. x. ISOC), p. 457. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral, and sometimes also with 
the frontal ; four supraoculars ; four or five supraciliaries ; inter- 
parietal narrower than the parietals; scales on the occiput not 
broader than long ; anterior temporals not larger than the others ; 
ear-opening smaller than the eye-opening, with two obtuse lobules. 
28 to 30 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest, rather 
rugose. Fore limb as long as or slightly longer than the head, its 
length contained thrice to thrice and a half in the distance between 
axilla and groin. Tail not quite half the length of head and body, 
cylindrical. Brownish or olive above, with large dark brown spots 



4. TFLIQUA. 



147 



or irregular longitudinal and transverse bands; bell\- brownish or 
pale olive, variegated Avith l)ro\vn. 



niillini. 

Total length ;57o 

Head 45 

Width of head 37 

Body 210 

South Australia : Tasmania. 



a, b. Ad. 

c. Ad. 

d. Ad. 

e,f\ (). Ad., stuff 'd. 

A. Ad., sluded. 

t. Ad. 

h. Ad. 

/. Ad. 

m. Skeleton. 



Australia. 

Australia. 

Australia. 

Australia. 

Tasmania. 

Tasmania. 

Tasmania. 

Hobart. 

Australia. 



millira. 

Pore limb 50 

Hind liml) 50 

Tail 120 



Antarctic Expedition. 
Lords of the Admiralty [P.]. 



C. Darwin, Esq. [P.J. 
(t. Krelft, Esq. 
.T. B. .Takes, Esq. [P.]. 
Zoological Society. 



4. Tiliqua occipitalis. 

Cyclodus occipitaUs, Peters, Mon. Be) I. Ac, 1863, p. 231 ; Straucli, 

Bull. Ac. St. Pefersb. x. 18G6, p. 456, 
fasciatus, Liitken, Vidensk. Meddel. 1802 (1863), p. 292, pi. i, 

fig. 1 ; Straicch, I. c. 

Frontonasal in contact with the rostral and with the frontal ; 
three (or two) supraoculars, first largest ; five supraciliaries ; inter- 
parietal narrower than the parietals ; scales on the occiput longer 
than broad ; anterior temporals not larger than the others ; ear- 
opening a little larger than the eye-opening, with three obtuse 
lobules. Scales smooth, 40 to 42 round the middle of the body, 
laterals a little smaller than dorsals and ventrals. Fore limb 
slightly longer than the head, its length contained twice and a half 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Tail not quite half the 
length of head and body, very slightly compressed. Yellowish ; a 
broad dark brown baud from the eye to above the ear ; five broad 
dark brown bands across the body, and four others encircling the 
taU ; fore limb uniform yellowish, hind limb dark brown on the 
upper surface ; lower surfaces immaculate. 



millim. 

Total length 264 

Head 41 

Width of head .... 31 
Body 139 



millim. 

Fore limb 43 

Hind limb 43 

Tail 84 



Southern Australia. 



a. Ad. 



Swan River. 



l2 



148 SCIXCIDJE. 

5. Tiliqiia adelaidensis. 

Cyclodus adelaidensis, Peters, Mun. Berl. Ac. 18G3, p. 232 ; Strauch, 
Bull. Ac. St. Petersh. x. 1800, p. 458. 

Snout rather pointed ; nasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontal twice as long as frontoparietals ; three supraocnlars, second 
largest ; five supraciliaries ; interparietal as broad as parietals ; 
scales on the occiput not differentiated from the nuchals ; tempo- 
rals subcqual ; ear-opening not quite as large as the eye-opening, 
with a single lobule. Scales smooth, 38 to 40 round the middle of 
the body, ventrals largest. Fore limb slightly shorter than the 
head, its length contained twice and three fourths in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Tail a little shorter than the body, 
feebly compressed. Pale greyish brown above, with irregular 
darker spots ; limbs and tail reddish ; belly whitish, with greyish 
longitudinal lines between the series of scales. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 117 Fore limb 16 

Head 18 Hind limb 16 

Width of head .... 12 ■ Tail 44 

Body 55 

South Australia (Adelaide). 
a. Hgr. ? S. Australia. G. Krefft, Esq. 



5. hemisph.s;riodon. 

Hinulia, part., Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 74. 
Hemispbferiodon, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 24. 

Palatine bones in contact on the middle line of the palate. 
Pterygoids toothless. Lateral teeth with rounded crowns, one on 
each side of each jaw enormous, the others small. Eyelids well 
developed, scaly. Tympanum distinct, deeply sunk. iS'ostril 
pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasals ; an incomplete series of 
suborbitals ; prefrontals well developed ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct. Limbs rather short, pentadactyle ; digits feebly 
compressed, with undivided transverse lamellae iufeiiorly. 

Queensland. 

1. Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii. 

Hinulia gerrardii, Grai/, Cat. p. 75. 
Hinulia geiTardii, Gray, Zool. JSreb. c^ Terr., Rept. pi. ix. 
Hemisphgeriodon gerrardii, Peters, Mmi. Berl. Ac. Is67, p. 24. 
Hinulia picta, Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, x. 1885; p. 65. 

Head large, distinct from neck ; snout obtuse. Frontonasal 
broader than long, in contact with the rostral ; praefrontals forming a 
median suture ; three supraoculars, first smallest ; six supraciliaries ; 



5. HEMISPH^RIODON. — 6. MACR0SCINCT7S. 149 

one or two pairs of nuchals : sixth upper labial entering the or])it, 
seventh largest. Ear-opening smaller than tho eye-opening, with 
a very indistinct lobule on its anterior border. Scales smooth, 
laterals smallest, 28 round the middle of the body. Adpresscd 
limbs meeting in the young, not in tho adult. Tail cylindrical, a 
little longer than tho body in the adult, a little shorter in the young. 
Yellowish or pale brown above, with- eight dark brown cross bands 
on the body, the largest of which is on the nape ; those bands 
broader than the interspaces between them ; head-shields bordered 
with brown ; lower surfaces yellowish, mottled with brown ; a 
^-shaped brown mark on the chin, the median branch extending 
to the mental, the horizontal ones extending to below the eyes ; 
another, X-shaped, brown patch on the throat. 

niilliai. millimi 

Total length 369 Fore limb 43 

Head 42 Hind limb 49 

Width of head 29 Tail 195 

Body 132 

Queensland. 

a, b. Ad., stuffed. Australia. (T^^es.) 

c, d. Ad. Rockharapton. G. Krefft, Esq. [P.]. 

e-g. Yg. Rockhampton. 

6. MACROSCINCUS. 

Euprepes, part., Bnm. ^- Bihr. v. p. 6G3 ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 110. 
Macroscincu.s, Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lish. iv. 1873, p. 302. 
Charactodon, Trosvhel, Sitzb. Naturh. Ver. Freuss. Bheinl. xxxi. 1874, 
p. 225. 

Palatine bones in contact mesially ; pterygoids widely separated, 
toothless. Lateral teeth with compressed denticulated crowns, 
similar to those of the genus Iguana, Eyelids well developed, 
lower with an undivided transparent disk. Ear-opening distinct, 
tympanum deeply sunk. N^ostril pierced in a single nasal ; supra- 
nasals present ; a complete series of shields between the orbit and 
the upper labials ; prajfrontals present ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct. Limbs well developed, peutadactyle. Digits com- 
pressed, with undivided lamellae interiorly. 

Cape Yerde Islands. 

1. Macroscincus coctaei. 

Euprepis coctei, Gray, Cat. p. 110. 
Euprepes coctei, Dum. Sf Bihr. p. 666. 
Macroscincus coctei, Bocaye, I. c. p. 295, 

Habit stout, body depressed. Snout moderate, obtuse. Nostril 
pierced in the posterior part of the nasal, which is followed by a 
postnasal ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; prsefrontals 



1 50 scincid.t:. 

large, forming a median suture ; frontal a little shorter than fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the three an- 
terior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six supra- 
ciliaries ; interparietal much narrower than the frontoparietals, 
entirely separating the parietals ; a pair of large nuchals ; fifth 
upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening a little 
larger than the eye-opening, with three projecting lobules ante- 
riorly. Scales very small, dorsals and laterals bicarinate, ventrals a 
little larger and smooth ; 106 (to 113) scales round the middle of 
the body. Prseanal scales a little enlarged. The adpressed limbs 
slightly overlap. Tail cylindrical (as long as head and body) ; 
upper caudal scales feebly tricarinate. Greyish olive above, with 
darker and lighter dots ; lower surfaces yellowish, with small 
greyish spots. 

miUim. millim. 

From snout to vent . 275 Fore limb 80 

Head 58 Hind limb 100 

Width of head 50 

Ilheo Branco, Cape Verde Islands. 
a. Ad. Dr. W. K. Parker [P.]. 

7. MABUIA*. 

Mabuya, part., Fitziny. N. Classif. Bqyt. p. 23 ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 93 ; 

Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Re2)t. p. 393. 
Spondylurus, Fitzing. I.e. ; Wiegm. Herp. 3Iex. p. 11. 
Euprepis, part., W'af/I. Si/st. Amph. p. 161 ; Wiegm. I. c, and Arch. 

f. Nat. 1837, p. 131 ; i)um. Sf Bihr. v. p. 663 ; Gray, I. c. p. 110 ; 

'Gilnth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 78 ; Bocoitrt, I. c. p. 409. 
Tiliqua, part., Gray, (rriff'. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 07, and Ann. N. H. ii. 

18.38, p. 288, flwi (WAX/;:, p. 108. 
Eumeces, part., Dum. Sf Bihr. p. 029 ; Giinth. I. c. p. 84. 
Trachylepis, Tschudi, Faun. Per., Rept. p. 44^ 
Xystrolepis, Tschudi, I. c. 
Copeoglossum, Tschudi, I. c. p. 45. 

Palatine bones in contact mesially ; palatal notch separating 
entirely the pterygoids, extending forwards to between the centre 
of the eyes ; pterygoid teeth minute or absent. Maxillary teeth 
conical or bicuspid. Eyelids movable. Ear distinct, tympanum 
more or less deeply sunk. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; supra- 

* 1. Scincus ccesius, Kuhl, Beitr. z. Zool. u. Vergl. Anat. p. 130. — Hab. ? 

2. Trachylepis punctata, Tschudi, Faun. Per., Eept. p. 44, pi. iii. fig. 1. — 

Peru. 

3. Euprcpe.s hilineafus, Grandidier, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1869, p. 340, — 

Madagascar. 

4. Euprcpes lonyicaudatus (non Hallow.), Anderson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 

xl. 1871, p. 13.— Cacbar. 

5. Euprcpes sakaJava, Grandidier, Ann. So. Nat. (.5) xy. 1872, art. 20. — 

Madagascar. 

6. Euprepes aureoyularis, F. Mtiller, Yerh. Nat. Ges. Basel, vii. 1885, 

p. 707. — Gold Coast. 



7. MAnUIA. l')l 

nasals present ; prtefrontals present ; frontoparietal present ; single 
or double interparietal usually distinct, sometimes coalesced with 
the parietals. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle. Digits sub- 
cylindrical or compressed, with transverse lamellae inferiorly. 

Africa and Madagascar; Southern Asia; Central and South America 
and West Indies. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Lower eyelid with an undivided, more or less transparent disk ; 
scales on the soles not spinose. 

A. The subocular is distinguished from the (other) labials only by 
size and position, and is not or scarcely narrowed inferiorly ; 
nostril pierced just above or behind the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial. 

L Frontoparietals, parietals, and interparietal distinct ; a post- 
nasal. 

«. Two labials may be termed suboculars. 

60 to 64 scales round the body, dorsals 

bicarinate 1. fogoensis, p. 157. 

42 to 46 scales round the body, dorsals 

tricarinate 2. stanrjeri, p. 157. 

30 scales round the body, dorsals quinque- 

or septemcarinate 13. dejpressa, p. 166. 

b. A single subocular. 

a. All the dorsal scales with four or more keels. 
* 34 or more scales round the middle of the body. 

36 to 38 scales round the body ; fronto- 
nasal slightly longer than broad, in 
contact with the rostral and the frontal 6. sechellensis, p. 161. 

40 scales round the body ; frontonasal a 
little broader than long, not forming 
a suture with the rostral 7, vriglitii, p. 162. 

34 to 38 scales round the body ; ear- 
opening not larger than the transpa- 
rent palpebral disk ; frontonasal in 
contact with the rostral S, aureopunctata, p. 162. 

34 to 36 scales round the body : fronto- 
nasal broader than long : ear-opening 
much larger than the palpeljral disk. . 9. comorerisis, p. 163. 

34 scales round the body, dorsals with 
seven to nine keels, two of which are 
stronger than the others ; ear- opening 
with two or three long pointed lobules 
anteriorly 24. dorice, p. 174. 



152 SCIXCIDiE, 

** 32 or less scales round the body. 

30 to 32 scales round the body ; four 
supraoculars ; anterior border of ear 
simple or with very indistinct project- 
ing granules 10. niaculilahris,!^. 164. 

32 scales round the body ; three supra- 
oculars 22. loettgeri, p. 173. 

28 to 30 scales round the body ; two long 

pointed oar-lobules 23. hibronii, p. 173. 

/3. Most of the dorsal scales tricarinate. 

* 34 or less scales round the middle of the body, 
t Siibdigital lamellce smooth. 
X Ear-lobules, if present, short. 

28 to 32 scales round the body ; six or 
seven supraciliarics ; head short ; post- 
nasal not touching the second labial ; 
nuchal scales distinctly keeled ; usually 
a white streak from upper lip to groin 11. raddonii, p. 165. 

28 scales round the body ; five supra- 
ciliarics ; nuchal scales distinctly 
keeled 12. a^nis, p. 166. 

28 or 29 scales round the body ; six 
supraciliarics ; head elongate ; the fore 
limb, stretched forwards, does not ex- 
tend beyond the eye 14. planifrons, p. 167. 

32 to 34 scales round the body ; six or 

seven supraciliarics ; postnasal usually 

in contact with the second labial ; 

prsefroutals forming a median suture. . 16. perrotetii,-^. 168. 
30 to 32 scales round the body ; five or 

six supraciliarics ; postnasal usually 

in contact with the second labial ; 

first supraocular in contact with the 

frontal 17. hrev'icoUis, p. 169. 

32 scales round the body ; three supra- 
ciliarics ; three supraoculars 21. hensonii,y), 172. 

30 to 32 scales round the body ; five 

or six supraciliarics ; nuchal scales 

smooth, dorsals very feebly keeled. . . . 42. (airata,i). 189. 

XX Ear-opening partly concealed under the rounded 
scales of its anterior border. 

29 scales round the body 20. taitana, p. 171. 



7. MABxriA. ]5;} 

+++ Ear-lobules long. 

31 to 34 scales round the body ; four 

supraciliaries; interparietal larger than 

the frontoparietals 15. socotrana, p. 1G8. 

28 to 32 scales round the body ; five 

supraciliaries ; interparietal not larger 

than the frontoparietals 18. Jiomalocephala, p. 170. 

ft Subdigital lamellte keeled ; 30 to 32 scales round 
the body. 

Nasals separated ; dorsal scales strongly 

keeled ; scales on the anterior border 

of the ear not differentiated 49. trivittata, p. 195. 

Nasals separated ; dorsal scales feebly 

keeled : two or three large projecting 

r; auricular lobules 50. occidentaUs, p. 196. 

Nasals in contact behind the rostral. . . . 51. ivensii, p. 197. 

** 34 or more scales round the middle of the body. 

34 to 38 scales round the body ; the 

adpressed hind limb reaches nearly 

the axil ; ear-opening at least twice 

as large as the transparent palpebral 

disk 5. punctata, p. 160. 

36 scales round the body ; the hind limb 

does not reach the elbow of the ad- 
pressed fore limb ; snout short 19. gruetzneii, p. 171. 

36 to 44 scales round the body ; the 

adpressed hind limb reaches the elbow 

or beyond ; ear-opening a little smaller 

than the transparent palpebral disk. . 52. quinquetceniata,^.l^?>. 

y. Dorsal scales bicarinate ; 30 to 32 scales round the 
body. 
First supraocular in contact with the 

frontal 17. hrevicolUs, p. 169. 

First supraocular not touching the 

frontal 41. loiujicaudata, p. 189. 

h. Dorsal scales perfectly smooth. 

* Ear-opening entirely exposed ; 28 to 34 scales round 
the body. 

One pair of nuchal shields ; snout short, 

obtuse ; tail not twice as long as head 

and body ; prgeanals not or scarcely 

enlarged, six or seven bordering the 

anal cleft 43. ariilis, p. 190. 

One pair of nuchals ; tail twice as long 

as head and body ; three supraoculars ; 

a black vertebral line 44. dorsivittafa, p. 192. 



154 SCINCID^. 

One pair of nuchals; snout long and 

acute ; procanal scales three, large and 

subequal 45. alliacea, p. 193. 

Two pairs of nuchals ; snout long and 

narrowed 46. shanii, p. 193. 

** Ear-opening covered an- 
teriorly by one or more 
scales ; 24 to 26 scales 
round the body 48. megaho-a, p. 195. 

2. Frontoparietals, parietals, and interparietal distinct ; no 

postnasal ; 32 to 38 scales round the body. 

Nuchal scales tricarinate, dorsals strongly 

bicarinate 25. dissimilis, p. 175. 

Nuchal and dorsal scales strongly tri- 
carinate ; parietals usually meeting be- 
hind the interparietal ; limbs, when 
adpressed, not or but slightly over- 
lapping 26. vittata, p. 176. 

Nuchal scales smooth or feebly keeled ; 
dorsals tricarinate ; parietals entirely 
separated: adpressed limbs overlapping 27. septemtaniata, p. 177. 

Dorsal scales quinquecariuate 28. innotata, p. 178. 

3. Frontoparietals coalesced into a single shield. 

a. Parietals and interparietal coalesced ; more than 40 scales 
round the body, dorsals pluricarinate. 

Ear- opening about as large as the eye- 
opening ; no light vertebral band .... 3. delalancUi, p. 158. 

Ear-opening considerably larger than the 

eye-opening; a light vertebral band . . 4. vaillantii,]). 159. 

h. Parietals and interparietal dis- 
tinct ; 30 or 32 scales round 
the body, all smooth 47. fvenata, p. 194. 

B. Subocular much narrowed inferiorly, sometimes not reaching 
the lip. 

1. Frontoparietals two. 

38 to 40 scales round the body 53, lacertiformis, p. 199. 

30 scales round the body 54. eler/ans, p. 199.^ 

2. Frontoparietal single ; 30 to 36 scales round the body. 

Ear-lobules short 55. (/ncvenJiorstii, p. 200. 

Ear-lobules very long, covering a con- 
siderable part of the ear- opening .... 56. hayonii, p. 201. 



7. MABUIA. loo 

II. Lo^er eyelid with a large undivided transparent disk ; scales on 

the soles sharply keeled, spinose. 

A. The adpressed hind limb does not reach the axilla. 

1. Frontoparietal single ; 30 scales 

round the body, dorsals trica- 

rinate 57. isselii, p. 201. 

2. Frontoparietals two. 

30 to 34 scales round the body, dorsals 
tricarinate ; subocular largely border- 
ing the lip 58. varia, p. 202. 

36 to 38 scales round the body, dorsals 

quinquecarinate ; ear-lobules very long 59. hocagii, p. 203. 

36 to 38 scales round the bod}', dorsals 

quinquecarinate ; ear-lobules short . . 60. cliirahana, p. 204. 

30 to 32 scales round the bod)-, dorsals 

quinquecarinate 61. pimcfulata, p. 204. 

32 to 36 scales round the body, dorsals 
mostly tricarinate ; subocular, if reach- 
ing the lip, much narrowed inferiorly . 62. striata, p. 204. 

40 scales round the body, dorsals tricari- 
nate 03. loahlbergii, p. 205. 

B. The adpressed hind limb reaches the axilla or beyond. 

34 to 38 scales round the body, dorsals 

quinquecarinate 64. sulcata, p. 206. 

30 to 34 scales round the body, dorsals 

tricarinate ; subocular bordering the 

lip ; anterior loreal largely in contact 

with the first labial Qo. Tiildebrancltii, p. 207. 

28 to 32 scales round the body, dorsals 

tricarinate ; subocular not reaching the 

lip 66. acutilabris, p. 208. 

III. Lower eyelid scaly, or the transparent disk divided into two or 
more parts. 

A. Dorsal scales with nine keels, 

32 scales round the body 29. novemcarinata, p. 179. 

B. Dorsal scales with three to seven keels. 
1. Xo postnasal. 

a. Subdigital lamellae unicarinate. 

30 to 32 scales round the body, dorsals 

tri- or quinquecarinate . 30. beddomii, p. 179. 



156 SCIXCID.5:. 

h. Subdigital lamellse smooth. 

a. Anterior loreal usually deeper tlian the second. 

34 to 36 scales round the body, dorsals 
tri- or quiiiquecarinate ; supranasals in 
contact behind the rostral ; three light, 
black-edged dorsal bands 31. vertehralis, p. ISO. 

30 to 34 scales round the body, dorsals 
tri- or quinquecarinate ; supranasals 
rarely in contact ; six supraciliaries ; a 
light dorso-lateral band 32. carinata, p. 181. 

26 to 30 scales round the body, dorsals 
quinque- or septemcarinate ; five supra- 
ciliaries ; the adpressed limbs meet or 
slightly overlap 33. macularia, p. 182. 

2Q to 28 scales round the body, dorsals 
tri- or quinquecarinate ; five supracili- 
aries ; the hind limb reaches at least 
as far as the elbow 34. hrevis. p. 183. 

/3. Anterior loreal not deeper than the second ; dorsal and 
lateral scales very strongly keeled. 

26 scales round the body, dorsals quin- 
quecarinate ; frontonasal broader than 
long 35. rugifera, p. 184. 

28 to 30 scales round the body, dorsals 
quinque- or septemcarinate ; fronto- 
nasal as long as broad 36, midticarinata, p. 185. 

2. A postnasal, separated from the nasal by a suture just behind 
the nostril. 

30 to 34 scales round the body, dorsals 

tri- (rarely quinque-) carinate ; the ad- 
pressed hind limb docs not reach the 

axilla 37. mtdtifasciata, p. 186. 

26 scales round the body, dorsals feebly 

trioarinate 38. tytleri, p. 187. 

30 to 32 scales round the body, dorsals 

and laterals very strongly tricarinate; 

the hind limb reaches the axilla, or 

beyond 39. rudis, p. 188. 

C. Dorsal scales smooth or bicarinate. 
26 or 28 scales round the body 40. siamensis, p. 188. 



7. MA BUI A. I'iJ 

1. Mabuia fogoensis. (Plate VI. fig. 1.) 

Euprepes fogoensis, O" Shaughn. Ann. ^- Mag. N. 11. (4) xiii. 1874, 
p. 300. 

Snout rather elongate, obtuse ; the shape of the head somewhat 
like that of the typical form of Lacerla muralis. Lower eyelid with an 
undivided transparent disk. Xostril just above or behind the vertical 
of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; 
anterior loreal slightly or not in contact with the first labial ; supra- 
nasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long ; 
priEfrontals forming a median suture ; frontal as long as or a little 
shorter than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the second and third, or first, second, and third supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, second largest and usually touching the proe- 
frontal ; five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, larger 
than the interparietal : parietals forming a suture behind the latter 
shield ; a pair of nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials (or sub- 
oculars) below the eye, the former not or but slightly larger than 
the latter. Ear-opening oval, about as large as the eye-opening, the 
anterior border simple or with a few slightly pi'ojecting granules. 
Dorsal scales mostly feebly bicarinate, some, here and there, tri- 
carinate ; nuchal and lateral scales very feebly tricarinate ; 60 to 
64 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The hind limb 
reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Sub- 
digital lamellae smooth. Tail once and one fourth to once and two 
thirds as long as head and body. Olive-brown above, variegated 
with darker and lighter ; three unspotted bands along the back ; 
lower surfaces yellowish, throat and chest marbled with grey- 
brown. 

niillim. niillim. 

Total length 173 Fore limb 24 

Head 17 Hind limb 32 

Width of head 13 Tail 95 

Body 61 

Cape Yerde Islands. 

a. Several spec. : Fogo. Rev. K. T. Lowe [P.]. 

ad. & hgr. \ (Tvpes.) 

h. Yg. St. Vincent. Rev. R. T. Lowe [P.]. 



2. Mabuia stangeri. (Plate VI. fig. 2.) 

Euprepis stangeri. Gray, Cat. p. 112. 
Euprepis polylepis, Peters, CEfvers. Vef.-Ak. Fork. 1869, p. 660 *. 
Euprepes hopfFeri, Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. v. 1875, p. 110. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. N^ostril just above or behind the vertical of the suture 

* Types (6154) exauiined. 



158 SCINCIDiE. 

between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior 
lorcal usually slightly in contact with the first labial ; supranasals 
in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long ; praj- 
frontals forming a median suture ; frontal as long as or a little 
shorter than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the second and third, or first, second, and third supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, second largest and usually touching 
the pra^frontal ; five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, 
larger than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
latter shield ; a pair of uuchals ; fifth and sixth (or sixth and 
.seventh) upper labials below the eye, the former not or but slightly 
larger than the latter. Ear-opening oval, about as large as the eye- 
opening, the anterior border simple or with a few slightly projecting 
granules. Nuchal and dorsal scales distinctly tricarinate ; 42 to 
46 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The limbs over- 
lap when adpressed. Subdigital lamella? smooth. Tail about once 
and one third the length of the head and body. Olive-brown above, 
■with small darker and lighter spots ; a more or less distinct lighter 
dorso-lateral band ; a black, white-edged spot in the axilla ; lower 
surfaces yellowish white, throat sometimes brown-spotted. 

inillim. millim. 

Total length 181 Pore limb 23 

Head 16 Hind limb 31 

Width of head ... 11 Tail 104 

Body 61 

West Africa to Damaraland. 

a-d. Ad. & hgr. Niger Expedition. Dr. Stanger [P.]. (Types.) 

e. Ad. Ilheo Easo, Cape Verde Prof. B. du Bocage [P.J. 

Islands. (One of the types of Eujn-epes hvj>ffen.) 

f-ij. Ad. St. Vincent, Cape Verde J. Macgillivray, Esq. |_C.]. 

Islands. 

h. Yg. St. Vincent, Cape Verde Rev. R. T. Lowe [P.]. 

Islands. 

i. Hgr. St. Vincent, Cape Verde Dr. Cunningham [C.]. 

Islands. 



3. Mabuia delalandii. 

Euprepis delalandii, Gray, Cat. p. 110. 

belclieri, Gray, I. c. 

Euprepes delalandii, Dum. S) Bihr. v. p. 090; Bocaqe, Jorn. Sc. 
Lisb. i. 1807, p. 223 ; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1809, p. 434 ; Bocage, 
Jam. Sc. Lish. v. 187o, p. 111. 
Euprepis veuustus, Girard, Proc. Ac. PMlad. 1857, p. 195, and U.S. 
Explor. Kcped., Herp. p. 229, pi. xxvi. figs. 1-8. 

Snout rather elongate, obtusely acuminate ; the shape of the 
head similar to that of the typical Lacerta muralis. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril l)chind the vertical of 
the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; 



7. mahxtua. 159 

auterior lorcal usually in contact with the first labial ; supranasals 
in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long ; proe- 
frontals forming a median suture ; frontal pentagonal, in contact 
with the second, and usually also the first and third supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, second largest ; five or six supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals coalesced to a single shield ; parietals and interparietal 
coalesced to a single subcrescentic shield, followed by a pair of 
nuchals ; fifth u})per labial (or subocular) below the eye, not twice 
as large as the proximal labials, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear- 
opening oval, about as large as the eye-opening, with three to five 
short pointed lobules anteriorly. Nuchal and dorsal scales mostly 
tricarinate, some bicarinate, the keels very distinct ; 40 to 50 scales 
round the middle of the body, subcqual. The hind limb reaches 
the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital 
lamellae smooth. Tail once and one third to once and two thirds 
as long as head and body. Brown or bronzy olive above ; a pale 
band on each side of the back, l)eginning from the supraciliary 
border, and edged with a series of small, more or less confluent dark 
brown spots ; another, narrower, pale band on each side from axilla 
to groin ; the interspace between the two light bands on each side 
dark brown ; flanks dotted with dark brown, sometimes even over 
the lower light band ; a large deep black, white-edged ocellus in the 
axilla ; lower surfaces yellowish white, throat usually dotted with 
brown. 

millim. inillim. 

Total length 190 Fore limb 23 

Head 17 Hind limb 33 

Width of head .... 12 Tail 110 

Body 63 

Cape Verde Islands. 

a. Several spec: Porto Praya, St. Jago. H.M.S. 'Challenger.' 

ad., hgr., & yg. 

b-e. Ad. St. Jago. Rev. E. T. Lowe [P.]. 

/. Several spec. : Brava. Rev. R. T. Lowe [P.]. 

ad. & hgr. 

(/-i. Hgr. Cape Verde Islands. Rev. R. T. Lowe [P.]. 

k. Ad. Cape Verde Islands. 

^-»i. Ad. & hgr. ? SirE. Belcher [P.]. (Types 

of Eiqrrepis belcheri.) 



4. Mabuia vaillantii. (Plate VII.) 

Head short and feebly depressed, similar to that of Lacerta agilis. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril just 
above or behind the vertical of the suture between the rostral and 
the first labial : a postnasal ; anterior loreal in contact with the first 
labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal 
broader than long ; prsefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal 
])entagonal, in contact with the second and third supraoculars ; four 



160 scrNTiD^. 

(or three) supraoculars, the first very small and sometimes absent ; 
six or seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals coalesced to a single 
shield ; parietals and interparietal coalesced to a single subcrescentic 
shield, followed by a pair of nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials 
below the eye, the former not much larger than the latter. Ear- 
opening oval, considerably larger than the eye-opening, with a few 
minute projecting lobules or granules anteriorly. ^Xuchal and 
dorsal scales strongly tricarinate ; 54 scales round the middle of the 
body, subequal. The limbs overlap when adpressed. Subdigital 
lamella; smooth. Tail a little longer than head and body. Olive- 
brown above, with small darker and lighter spots, and three lighter 
longitudinal dorsal bands, the vertebral of which is a little narrower 
than the others and does not extend beyond the base of the tail ; a 
small blackish spot in the axilla. Lower surfaces greenish grej', 
■with more or less distinct darker variegations ; chin, and sometimes 
a median ventral zone, yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 257 Fore limb 33 

Head 22 Hind limb 46 

AVidth of head 18 Tail 135 

Body 100 

St. Jago, Cape Terde Islands. 
a-e. Ad. St. Jago. Eev. E. T. Lowe [P.]. 

]S^amed in honour of Professor L. Taillant. 

5. Mabuia punctata. (Plate IX. fig. 1.) 

Euprepis maciilatns, Gray, Cat. p. 111. 

punctatus, Gray, I. c. 

Tiliqua punctata. Gray, Ann. X. H. ii. 1838, p. 289. 

macvilata, Gray, I. c. 

Euprepes maculatus, A. Bum. Cat. Mefh. Bept. p. 159; Bocourt, 

Miss. Sc. Mex., liept. p. 410, pi. xxii. c. tig. 3. 
Mabouva punctatissima, O' Shauyhn. Ann. 4". May. X. H. (4) xiii. 
1874, p. 300. 

Snout elongate, obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid w^th a trans- 
parent disk. A postnasal : anterior loreal not, or but slightly, in 
contact with the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal broader than long ; pra>frontals forming a short 
median suture, or narrowly separated ; frontal about as long as the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, usually in contact with 
the first, second, and third supraoculars : four supraoculars, second 
largest ; five supraciliaries ; frontoparietals two, about as large as 
the interparietal ; parietals in contact behind the interparietal ; one 
pair of nuchals ; four or five labials anterior to the subocular, 
•which is large and not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening nearly as 
large as the eye-opening, vertically oval, with a series of minute 
projecting lobules or granules on its front border. Dorsal scales 
more or less distinctly tri- or quinquecarinate ; 34 to 38 scales 



7. MABTJTA. IGl 

round tlie middle of the body, laterals smallest. Limbs long ; tho 
hind limb reaches the axilla or not quite so far. 8ubdigital 
lamellaj smooth. Tail not quite twice as long as head and body, 
cylindrical, slightly compressed posteriorly. Olive, lighter interiorly, 
above variegated with darker and lighter. 

uiilliin. inillim. 

Total length 237 Fore limb 29 

Head 19 Hind limb 43 

Width of head 13 Tail loU 

Body 68 

Demerara ; Fernando de Xoronha. 

a-b. Ad. & hgr. Fernando de Noronha. Lordsof the Admiralty [P.]. 

H.M.S. ' Chanticleer.' (Types.) 
c-d. Ad. ; very Demerara. Capt. Sabiue [P.]. (Types 

bad state. of T. macithita.) 

e. Ad. ? (Type oi M. 2ntnctatissima.') 



6. Mahuia sechellensis. 

Euprepis cyanogaster (non Less.), Gray, Cut. p. 114. 
Euprepes sechellensi.-i, Dum. 8f Bihr. v. p. ^^2. 

Snout rather elongate, narrow, obtusely pointed. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided semitransparent disk. Nostril behind the vertical 
of the suture between the rostral and the first labial; a postnasal; 
anterior loreal sliglitly or not in contact with the first labial ; 
frontonasal slightly longer than broad, forming a short suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter about as long as the fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the three 
anterior, or rarely only the two anterior, supraoculars ; four supra- 
oculars, second largest ; six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, 
shorter than the interparietals ; parietals forming a suture behind 
the latter shield ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular between the fifth 
and sixth upper labials, and at least twice as long, not narrowed 
interiorly. Ear-opening suboval, smaller than the eye-opening, 
with two to four minute lobules or projecting granules anteriorlv. 
Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales with five to nine strong keels ; 
36 to 38 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The 
hind limb reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital 
lamellaj smooth. Tail once and a half to once and three fourths the 
length of head and body. Olive-brown above, with small darker 
and lighter spots ; a whitish lateral streak from the upper lip to the 
groin; a broad dark brown band above the light streak; a small 
black spot in the axilla ; a black streak along the hinder side of the 
thigh ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 242 Fore limb 27 

Head 21 Hind limb 35 

Width of head .... 14 Tail ] 50 

Body 71 

VOL. III. M 



162 


SCIJSOID^, 


Seychelles. 




a~e. Ad. 
d~f. Ad. 


Seychelles. 
Seychelles. 



Dr. E. P. Wri-ht [P.]. 
A. Newton, Esq. [P.]. 



7. Mabuia wrightii. (Plate YIII.) 

Snout rather elongate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
semitransparent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal 
slightly or not in contact with the first labial ; suprauasals in 
contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal a little broader than long, 
forming a short suture with the frontal ; latter shield as long as or 
longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the three anterior, or rarely only the two anterior, supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; sixsuprariliarics; fronto- 
parietals distinct, as long as or a little shorter than the interparietal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the latter shield ; a pair of nuchals ; 
subocular bet\reen the fifth and sixth, or fourth and fifth, upper 
labials, twice as long as the labials, not narrowed interiorly. Ear- 
opening suboval, smaller than the eye-opening, with three or four 
minute lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales multi- 
carinate ; 40 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest, 
laterals smallest. The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of 
the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamella) smooth. Olive or 
brown above, with irregular darker and lighter spots ; flanks 
greenish ; a rather indistinct dark lateral baud ; a small black spot 
in the axilla; a black streak along the hinder side of the thigh ; 
lower surfaces yellowish or greenish; throat sometimes dotted with 
brown. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 307 Fore limb 37 

Head 28 Hind limb 49 

Width of head 19 Tail 185 

Body 94 

Seychelles. 

a-c. Ad. & hgr. Seychelles. Dr. E. P. Wright [P.]. 

d-e. Ad. & hgr. Seychelles. S. Ward, Esq. [P.J. 



8. Mabuia aureopimctata. 

Euprepes aureo-puuctatiu, Grandid, Rev. et Mag. de Zool, 1867, 
p. 234. 

Snout model ate, obtusely pointed. Lower eyelid with an undindcd 
transparent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal slightly 
in contact with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than long, in con- 
tact with the rostral and with the fi'outal ; latter about as long as the 



7. MABTJIA. 163 

frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact -with the 
second and third supraocuhirs ; four supraoculars, Hccond largest ; 
five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, a little shorter 
than the interparietal; p.irietals forming- a suture behind the 
latter shield ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and 
fifth upper labials, about twice as long as these shields, not narrowed 
inferiorly. Ear-opening suboval, about as large as the transparent 
palpebral disk, with three or four short obtuse lobules anteriorly. 
Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales strongly (luincpiecarinate ; o4 to 
38 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The hind 
limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Sub- 
digital lainelhe smooth or very feebly bicariuate. Tail nearly once 
and a half the length of head and body. Head, anterior part of 
body, and fore limbs black, with oval yellow spots forming longitu- 
dinal series ; hinder part of back and hind limbs olive-brown ; 
tail rufous ; lower surfaces greyish white; throat bluish grey, lon- 
gituchnally streaked with black. 

millim. milliiu. 

Total length 142 Fore limb 18 

Head . . T 14 Hind limb 25 

Width of head 9 Tail 85 

Body 43 

Madagascar. 

a-c. Ad. & hgr. E. Betsileo. Rev. W. Deans Cowan [CI. 

d-e. Ad. S.E. Betsileo. Mr. T. Waters [C.]. 

9. Mabuia comorensis. 

Euprepes comorensis. Peters, 3fon. Bcrl. Ac. 1854, p. 619, and Reise 
n. Mossamh. iii. p. 72, pL x. fig. 3 *. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided semi- 
transparent disk. Xostril behind the vertical of the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial : a postnasal ; anterior loreal usually 
slightly in contact with the first labial ; suprauasals in contact 
behind the rostral, or narrowly separated ; frontonasal broader than 
long, usually in contact with the frontal ; latter as long as, or 
slightly longer than, the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the second and third, or first, second, and third supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, second largest and usually touching the 
praefrontal ; five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, 
usually about as large as the interparietal; parietals forming a 
suture behind the latter shield ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular 
between the fourth and fifth upper labials, usually twice as long 
as these shields, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening suboval, a 
little smaller than the eye-opening, the anterior border simple or 
with very indistinct projecting granules. Dorsal, nuchal, and 

* Types exaroined. 

n2 



164 SCINCIDiE. 

lateral scales with four to seven strong keels ; 34 to 36 scales round 
the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The hind limb reaches the 
■wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamellae 
smooth. Tail once and a half to once and two thirds the length of 
bead and body. Olive-brown above, with smaU darker and lighter 
spots ; an irregular broad, dark brown lateral band, light-edged on 
the head and neck ; upper labials frequently olive-brown, each with 
a greenish-white spot or streak ; lower surfaces yellowish or 
greenish white. 



millim. 

Total length 220 

Head 20 

Width of head 14 

Body 65 


millim. 

Fore limb 28 

Hind limb 36 

Tail 135 


Comoro Islands ; Mozambique ? 




a. Many spec. : ad. & hgr. Johanna. C. E. Bewsher, Esq. [< 

b. Ad. Mozambique. 



10. Mabuia maculilabris. (Plate IX. fig. 2.) 

Euprepis maculilabris, Gra;/, Cat. p. 114. 
Euprepes anchietse, Bocage, Jurn. Sc. Lisb. i. 18GG, p. 62. 

notabilis, Peters, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, 1879, p. 36*. 

maculilabris, F. Midler, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel, vii. 1882, 

p. 159. 
angasijanus, Peters, Reise v. Mossamh, iii. p. 73*. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided semi- 
transparent disk. Nostril just above or behind the vertical of the 
suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior 
loreal not, or but slightly, in contact with the first labial ; supra- 
nasals in contact behind the rostral, or narrowly separated ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, sometimes in contact with the frontal ; 
latter as long as, or slightly longer than, the frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the second and third supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, second largest; five supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals distinct, a little smaller than the interparietal ; 
parietals sometimes forming a suture behind the interparietal, 
sometimes entirely separated ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular be- 
tween the fourth and fifth upper labials, about twice as long as 
these shields, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening suboval, 
smaller than the eye-opening, the anterior border simple or with 
very indistinct projecting granules. Dorsal and lateral scales 
strongly quinquecarinate, nuchals mostly septemcariuate ; 30 to 32 
scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamella; 
smooth. Tail about twice as long as head and body. Olive above, 



Types esamiued. 



7. MAIiUIA. 1G5 

•svith small darker and liji;hter spots ; a more or less distinct dark 
brown lateral band ; a more or less marked li2,'ht streak from below 
the eye to the shonlder ; anterior ui)per bibials usually olive, each 
with a light spot or streak ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total len-th 227 Fore limb 24 

Head..^ 17 Hind limb 'S6 

Width of head .... 11 Tail 152 

Body 58 

West Africa ; Comoro Islands. 

a. Ad. W. Africa. Mr. Iladdon [C.]. (Type.) 

b-e. Ad. & hgv. Ambriz, Angola. Mr. Rich [C.J. 

I am unable to find characters by which E. anr/asijamis, Ptrs. 
(Angasija, Great Comoro Islands), could be separated from E. maculi- 
labris. 

11. Mabuia raddonii. (Plate X. fig. 1.) 

Euprepis raddoni, Gray, Cat. p. 112. 
Euprepes blandingii, Hallow. Pruc. Ac. P/iilad. 184o, p. 58, and 1857, 

p. 50, and Tr. Amer. P/iilus. Soc. (2) xi. 1857, p. 70 ; Bocarje, 

Jorn. Sc. Lisb. iv. 1872, p. 80. 
? Euprepes frenatus, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 50. 
? Euprepes albilabris, Hallow. I. c. p. 51. 
Euprepes (Euprepis) seneofuscus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 18G4, p. 52, 

and 18G7, p. 21. 

gracilis, Bocage, I. c. p. 77. 

(Euprepes) pantseuii, Fischer, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamb. ii. 

1885, p. 88, pi. iii. fig. 3. 
cupreus, Fischer, t. c. p. — , pi. — . fig. 2. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided semi- 
transparent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal not 
or but slightly in contact Avith the first labial ; supranasals in con- 
tact behind the rostral, or narrowly separated ; frontonasal broader 
than long, usually in contact with the frontal ; latter as long as, or 
slightly longer than, the frontoparietals and interparietal together, 
in contact with the second and third supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest and usually touching the prjefrontal ; six or seven 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, about as large as the inter- 
parietal ; parietals sometimes forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal, sometimes entirely separated ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular 
between the fourth and fifth upper labials, about twice as long as 
these shields, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-oijening suboval, 
smaller than the eye-opening, without or with a very slight den- 
ticulation anteriorly. Dorsal and lateral scales strongly tricarinate, 
anterior nuchals usually" cjuinquecarinate ; 28 to 32 scales round 
the middle of the body, laterals a little smaller than the others. 
The hind limb reaches about the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. 



16G 



RcrNTiD.i;:. 



Subdigital lamollrp smooth. Tail about twice as long as hoad and 
body. Olive-brown above, usually with a more or less distinct 
broad dark brown lateral band, beginning from the snout and 
passing through the eye, bordered inferiorly by a whitish streak ; 
these bands may be quite indistinct : back uniform, or with small 
irregular dark spots, or with longitudinal dark brown streaks ; 
lower surfaces whitish. 



millim. 

Total length 215 

Head 17 

Width of head 11 

Body 58 



West Africa 






a. Ad. 

b, c-e,f-ff 
hgr., & 

A-. Ad. 


, 7i, i. 


Ad., 


W. Africa. 
W. Africa. 

Sierra Leone. 


I Ad. 
m. Ad. 

n. Ad. 






Guinea. 

Niger. 

Gaboon. 



millim. 

Fore limb 2-1 

Hind limb 33 

Tail 140 



Mr. Raddon [C.]. (Type.) 



Dr. J. G. Fischer. (T^-pe of 
Eiqyrepes panttenii.) 



12. Idahuia afiinis. (Plate X. fig. 2.) 

Tiliqua rufescens, part., <??•«?/, Cat. p. 109. 
Tiliqua affiuis, Gray, Ann. N. II. ii..l8o8, p. 289. 

Yery near M. raddonii, from which it differs in the rather more 
elongate head, longer limbs, and the presence of five supraciliaries 
instead of six or seven. The hind limb reaches halfway between 
the elbow and the axilla. 28 scales round the body. 

The unique specimen, which measures GO millim from snout to 
vent, is in bad state ; it is discoloured and has lost the tail. 

a. Ad. ? (Type.) 

13. Mabiiia depressa*. 

Euprepes depressus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 618, and Heise n. 
Mossamh. iii. p. 71, pi. x. fig. 4. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a transparent disk. 
Nostril just above the suture between the rostral and the first 
labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal slightly in contact with the tirst 
labial : frontonasal broader than long, touching the rostral : prae- 
frontals formirg a median suture ; frontal as long as the fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the second and 
third supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest and touching 
the prasfrontal ; five supraciHaries ; frontoparietals distinct, as 



Types examined. 



7. MAnUIA. 167 

large as or somewhat larger lliaii llio interparietal ; parictals 
entirely separated ; a pair of nuoluiLs ; lillli and sixtli upper labials 
largest and entering the orbit. Ear-opening suboval, smaller than 
the e)'e-oprning, with three long pointed lobules on its anterior 
border. Dorsal scales quinque- or septemcarinate ; 30 scales round 
the middle of the body. The hind limb reaches the elbow of the 
adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamclkc smooth. Tail once and 
two thirds the length of head and body. Olive above ; a light 
lateral streak extending from the upper lip to the groin, edged 
above by a lilack band, interiorly by a black line ; lower surfaces 
greenish yellow. 

millini. niillim. 

Total length '187 Fore limb 20 

Head 15 Hind limb 30 

Width of head 9 Tail 117 

Body 55 

Tette, Mozambique. 

14. Mahuia planifrons *. 

Enprepes (Euprepis) planifrons, Peters, Mon. Berl Ac. 1878, p. 203, 
pi. ii. fig. 2. 

Head elongate. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between the rostral 
and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior lorcal touching the first 
labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal 
broader than long, in contact with the truncate anterior angle of 
the frontal ; latter shield in contact with the second and third 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; five suin-aciliaries, second largest; 
frontoparietals shorter than the interparietal, which entirely sepa- 
rates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular between the 
fourth and fifth upper labials. Ear-opening oval-subtriangular, 
scarcely larger than the transparent palpebral disk, with two or 
three projecting lobules antei'iorly. Dorsal scales with three to five 
keels; 28 or 29 scales round the body, equal. The hind limb does 
not reach the elbow. Subdigital lamellaj obtusely unicarinate. 
Olive-brown above, with light ocelli as in ChaJcides ocellatm ; on 
each side of the back a broad lighter longitudinal band ; two rows 
of irregular black spots along the back; a black lateral band, 
beginning from the eye. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 309 Eore limb 31 

Head 23 Hind limb 41 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 195 

Body 91 

Taita, East Africa. 

* Described from the type specimens in the Berlin Museum. 



168 sciNCii)^. 

15. Maljuia socotrana *. 

Euprepos pen-otteti, var., Blanf. Proc. Zuol. Sue. 1881, p. 4G9. 

(Eupiepis) socotranus, Peters, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, 

1882, p. 45. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a transparent disk. 
Nostril just above or behind the suture between the rostral and the 
first hiljial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal usually in contact with the 
first labial ; supranasals in contact behind tlie rostral ; frontonasal 
broader than long, sometimes in contact witli the frontal ; latter 
as long as the fi'ontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
■with the second, or second and third supraoculars ; four supra- 
oculars, second largest and usually touching the pra^frontal : four 
supraciliaries, second longest ; frontoparietals distinct, smaller than 
the interparietal ; parietals entirely separated ; a pair of nuchals ; 
snbocular between the fourth and fifth upper labials, nearly twice 
as long as these shields, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening 
oval-subtri angular, not quite as large as the eye-opening, with three 
or four long pointed lobules anteriorly. Dorsal scales mostly tri- 
carinate ; some, however, may be quinque- or septcracarinate (all 
so in the specimen described by Peters) ; nuchal and lateral scales 
feebly keeled; 31 to 34 scales round the middle of the bod3^ The 
hind limb reaches the wrist of the adpressed fore limb, or a little 
beyond. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail about once and a half 
as long as head and body. Uniform olive above, head rufous- 
brown ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

inillim. milHm. 

Total length 218 Fore limb 27 

Head 19 Hind limb 35 

Width of head 13 Tail 125 

Body 74 

Socotra. 

a-d. Ad. Socotra. Prof. I. B. Balfour [C.]. 

10. Mabuia perrotetii. 

Euprepis perrotetii, Gray, Cat. p. Ill, 

inornata. Gray, I. c. p. 11.3. 

Euprepes perrotetii, Dum. S,- Bibr. v. p. 6G9 ; Stdndaclm. Sitzb. Ak. 
Wien, Ixii. i. 1870, p. 8.31 ; Bocaye, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. iv. 1872, p. 78; 
Boettyer, Abh. Senck. Ges. xii. 1881, p. 103. 
(Euprepis) pleurostictus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac, 1864, p. 52 *, 

Snout moderate, obtusely pointed. Lower eyelid with a trans- 
parent disk. Nostril just above or behind the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal, usually resting 
on the first and second upper labials ; anterior loreal not touching 

* Types examined. 



7. MAIU'IA. 



109 



the firsi labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long ; prtcfrontals forming a median suture ; 
frontal about as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal 
to"-ether, in contact with the second and third, or rarely also the 
first, supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest and usually 
touching the pra-t'rontal ; six or seven supraciliaries ; fronto])arietals 
distinct, smaller than the interparietal, -which entirely separates the 
parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and 
fifth upper labials, about twice as long as these shields, not nar- 
rowed inferiorly. Ear-opening oval-subtriangular, smaller than 
the eye-opening, anteriorly with a feeble denticulation formed by 
three or four sliort pointed lobules. Dorsal scales strongly tri- 
carinate ; laterals feebly keeled or nearly smooth ; 32 to 34 scales 
round the middle of tlie body. The adpressed limbs meet, or the 
extremity of the fourth too reaches the wrist. Subdigital lamellos 
smooth. Tail about once and a half as long as head and body. 
Olive or brownish above, uniform or with small dark l)rown or 
whitish (red) spots ; frequently a rather indistinct light dorso- 
lateral band ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 



iiiillim. 

Total length 418 

Head 33 

Width of head 27 

I3ody 130 



niillim. 

Fore limb 43 

Hind limb 55 

Tail 255 



A larger specimen, with reproduced tail, measures 180 millim. 
jErom snout to vent. 
West Africa. 



a. Ad. 

b-c. Ad. & hgr. 

d-e. Ad. 

/. Ad. 

ff, h, I, k. Many spec. : 

ad.,hgi-., &yg. 
I. Ad. 

in. Ad. 



Dakar, Senegambia. 
Cape Verde. 
Sierra Leone. 
Sierra Leone. 
W. Africa. 



Baron v. Maltzan [C.]. 
Sir A. Kennedy [P.]. 



A. MacLeay, Esq. [P.]. 
(Type of Miprepis inornatus.) 



17. Mabuia hrevicoUis. 

Euprepes brevicollis, Wiegm. Arch. f. Nat. 18.37, p. 1.33*; Peters, 
Mon. Berl. Ac. 1864, p. 50. 

pyrrhocephalus, Wiegm. I. c* ; Peters, I. c. 

Tiliqua burtoni, BIyth., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiv. 185G, p. .306. 
Euprepis perrotetii {non D, Sf B.), Blanf. Zool. Abyss, p. 456. 

Snout moderate, obtusely pointed. Lower eyelid with a trans- 
parent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between the 
rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal, usually resting on the 



* Types examined. 



170 SCINCIT)-E. 

first and second upper labials ; snpranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal broader than long- ; pra:^f'^ontals forming a 
short median suture, or narrowly separated ; frontal as long as tlie 
frontoparietals and interi)arietal together, in contact Avith the first, 
second, and third supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; 
five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, shorter than the 
interparietal, wliich entirely separates the parietals ; a ])air of 
nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and fifth, or fifth and sixth 
upper labials, not narrowed interiorly. Ear-opening oval, sub- 
triangular, smaller than the eye-opening, with two or three short 
obtuse lobules anteriorly. Dorsal scales usually hi-, sometimes 
tricarinate ; 30 to 32 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. 
The adpressed limbs slightly overlap. Subdigital lamellae smooth. 
Olive-brown above, with longitudinal darker streaks occupying the 
sides of each dorsal scale ; an ill-defined dark lateral band, edged 
above by a lighter band ; small white spots scattered on the back 
and sides ; lower surfaces yellowish, throat brown-spotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 285 Fore limb 38 

Head 28 Hind limb 48 

Width of head 22 Tail (reproduced) . . 150 

Body 107 

Abyssinia; Aschik, island in the Eed Sea. 

a. Ad. Wonber Harattib, Lebka valley, W. Jesse, Esq. [C.]. 

Abyssinia. 

18. Mabuia homalocepliala. 

Euprepis smithii, Grai/, Cat. p. 112. 

vittatus, Gra;/, I. c. p. 113. 

Euprepes honialocephahis, Wiegm. Isis, 1828, p. 374*; Pcto's, Mon. 

Bed. Ac. 1864, p. 51. 
? Tiliqua subrufa, Grai/, Ann. N. IT. ii. 1838, p. 289. 
Euprepes smithii, Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept. pi. xxxi. fig. 2. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril just above or behind tlie vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal 
in contact with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than long, in 
contact with the frontal, and usually also with the rostral ; frontal as 
long as, or a little shorter than, the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the second and third supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars, second largest and touching the prae frontal ; five 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, as large as or a little smaller 
than the inter])arietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the latter 
shield ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and fifth 
upper labials, usually not twice as large as these shields, not nar- 
rowed interiorly. Ear-opening oval, oblique, about as large as the 

* Type examined. 



/. MABUIA. 



171 



transparent palpebral disk, with two or three long pointed lobules 
anteriorly. Nuchal and dorsal scales rather strongly trioarinate ; 
28 to 32 scales round tlie middle of the body, equal. The adprcssed 
limbs meet or slightly overlap, or fail to moot. Subdigital lamella) 
smooth. Tail about once and a half as long as head and body. 
Olive above, Avith dark brown longitudinal streaks or scries of sj)ots ; 
a dark brown lateral band, passing through the eye and above the 
ear, edged interiorly with a whitish streak, beginning on the upper 
lip and passing through the ear ; lower surfaces Avhitish. 



inilhni. 

Total length 21 (J 

Head ..." 16 

Width of head 11 

Body 75 



South Africa. 

a-c. Ad. & hgr. 

d-e. Ad. 

/. Ad. 

ff. Ad. stuffed. 



S. Africa. 
S. Africa. 
S. Africa. 
y. Africa. 



iiiillim. 

Fore limb 21 

Hind limb 38 

Tail 125 



Sir A. Smith [P.]. 
Dr. Shaw. 
Dr. J. Lee [P.]. 

South- African Museum. (Type 
of Eiiprepis smitJiii.^ 



19. Mahuia gruetzneri *. 

Euprepes (Euprepis) griitzneri, Peters, Mou. Berl Ac. 1869, p. 488. 

In habit and scutellation very similar to M. JiomalocepJiaJa. An- 
terior border of ear with three short rounded lobules. 36 scales 
round the body. Olive above, with tive black dorsal lines, with 
series of yellow dots between them ; a yellow band on each side, 
commencing on the supraciliary edge, edged below by a broad black 
band ; upper labials olive-green, each with a yellow spot, Lower 
surfaces metallic greenish yellow, with more or less distinct darker 
longitudinal lines running between the series of scales. 

Gerlachshoop, S.E, Africa. 

20. Mabuia taitana *. 

Euprepes (Euprepis) taitanus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1878, p. 203, 
pi. ii. fig. o. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril just above the suture between the rostral and the 
first labial ; a postnasal ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral; 
frontonasal broader than long, in contact with the frontal ; latter 
nearly as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the second and third supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; frontoparietals distinct, not larger than the inter- 
parietal ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular large, slightly narrowed 
inferiorly, between the fourth and fifth upper labials. Ear-opening 



* Types examined. 



172 BCINCID^. 

partly concealed under the rounded scales of its anterior border. 
Dorsal scales tricarinate ; 29 scales round the body. The hind 
limb does not reach the elbow. Tail twice as long as head and 
body. Olive-brown above, with two yellow lines on each side, the 
upper beginning on the supraciliary edge, the lower on the upper 
lip and passing through the ear ; back with cross rows of irregular 
black spots ; lower surfaces greenish yellow. 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 127 Hind limb 2(J 

Head 10 Tail 85 

Fore limb 15 

Taita, East Africa. 

21. Mabuia bensonii *. 

Euprepes (Euprepis) bensonii, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1807, p. 20. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between the' 
rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal not or but 
slightly in contact with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than 
long, in contact with the rostral and the frontal ; latter as long as 
the frontoparietals and intei'parietal together, in contact with the 
first and second supraoculars ; three supraoculars, first as large as 
the two others together ; three supraciliarics, first longer than the 
two others together ; frontoparietals distinct, a little smaller than 
the interparietal; parietals forming a suture behind the latter 
shield ; a pair of nuchals ; subocular between the fifth and sixth 
upper labials, about twice as long as these shields, not narrowed 
inferiorly. Ear-opening oval-subtriangular, a little smaller than 
the eye-opening, with three small triangular lobules anteriorly. 
Nuchal and dorsal scales strongly tricarinate ; 32 scales round the 
middle of the body, equal. The hind limb reaches nearly the elbow 
of the adiDresscd fore limb. 8ubdigital lamellce smooth. Tail 
nearly twice as long as head and body. Olive-brown above, with 
two dark brown streaks and two fine light lines on each side of the 
middle of the back ; three white, black-edged streaks along each 
side, the upper beginning on the supraciliary edge ; lower sui'faces 
white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 160 Fore limb 17 

Head 13 Hind limb 24 

Width of head .... 8 Tail 103 

Body 44 

Liberia, Sierra Leone. 

a. Ad. Sierra Leone H. C. Hart, Esq. [P.]. 

* Type examined. 



7. MAIiUIA. 173 

22. Mabuia boettgeri. (rLATE X. fig. 3.) 

Snout very short, broadly rounded. Lower cyolid with an un- 
divided transparent disk. Upper hearl-shields rugose ; nostril behind 
the vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; 
a postnasal, resting on the first and second labials ; frontonasal 
twice as broad as long, forming a short suture with the rostral and 
a long one with the frontal, the prtcfrontals being small and widely 
separated ; frontal a little shorter than the frontoi)arietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
three supraoculars, first largest ; three supraciliaries, first larger than 
the two others together; frontoparietals distinct, a little larger than 
the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the latter shield ; 
a pair of nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and fifth upper 
labials, twice as long as these shields, not narrowed interiorly. 
Ear-opening oval, oblique, scarcely as large as the transparent pal- 
pebral disk, with three short pointed lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, 
nuchal, and lateral scales strongly quinquecarinate ; 32 scales round 
the middle of the body, equal. The hind limb reaches the wrist of 
the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamella; smooth. Olive above ; 
four black lines along the back ; a broad blackish band, edged above 
and below by a light streak, extends from the eye to the tail ; 
lower surfaces bluish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail re- Body 36 

produced) 67 Fore limb 13 

Head 9 Hind limb 19 

"W^idth of head .... 6*5 

Madagascar. 

a. Ad. ? Betsileo. Rev. G. A. Shaw [C.]. 

23. Mabuia bibronii. 

Euprepis bibrouii, Gray, Cat. p. 114. 
Tiliqua bibronii, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 290. 
Euprepes bibronii, Ihnn. 8f Bibr. v. p. 675. 
Euprepis trilineatus, Gray, Ann. 8,- Mag. N. H. xviii. 1846, p. 430 ; 

Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Bene/, xxii. 1853, p. 479; Gunth. Reiit. 

Brit. Inch p. 81 ; Theob. Cat. Rept. Brit. Lid. p. 52. 

Snout short, obtusely pointed. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal not or 
but slightly in contact with the first labial; frontonasal a little 
broader than long, usually in contact with the rostral and the 
frontal ; latter longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the second supraocular only ; four supra- 
oculars, second very large ; normallj' five supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, usually longer than the interparietal ; parietals 



174 SCINCIDJE. 

ver^' short, entirely separated, transversely bisected ; two pairs of 
nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and fifth upper labials, twice 
as long as these shields, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening 
small, oval, with two long pointed lobules, upper largest. Dorsal, 
nuchal, and lateral scales sharply quinquc- to septemcarinate ; 28 
to 30 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The 
hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. 
Subdigital lamelhe smooth. Tail once and one fourth or once and 
one third the length of head and body. Olive above ; a yellowish 
vertebral band, broadly ed|j;ed with black, beginning on the vertex, 
sometimes indistinct on the hinder part of the body, which may be 
spotted with yellowish ; a black dorso-lateral band, beginning from 
the eye, edged below by a whitish narrower band, which is again 
edged with black ; sometimes a second light band, extending from 
axilla to groin. Lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 1U2 Fore limb 14 

Head 11 Hind limb 22 

"Width of head .... 7*5 Tail 57 

Body 34 

Carnatic. 

a-e. Ad. & yg. Madras. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.J. 

("Types of Euprcpis triUiwaius.) 
f-i. Ad. Carnatic. ' T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 

'k. Ad. ? 



24. Mahuia dorise. (Plate X. fig. 4.) 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. Xostril behind the vertical of the suture between the 
rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal just touch- 
ing the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal broader than long, in contact with the frontal ; latter 
longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the second supraocular only : four supraoculars, second largest ; 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, about as large as the 
interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; a pair of 
nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and fifth upper labials, not 
twice as long as these shields, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening 
a little smaller than the eye-opening, with two or three long 
pointed lobules, upper largest. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales 
with seven or nine sharp keels, two of which are stronger than the 
others ; 34 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. 
The hind limb reaches the wrist of the adpressed fore limb. Sub- 
digital lamellae smooth. Pale olive above, with four longitudinal 
series of small blackish spots on the body ; a broad blackish-brown 
lateral band beginning from the nostril and passing through the 
eye ; lower surfaces whitish. 



7. MABUIA. 175 

niilliin. niillim. 

Total Icngtli W'i Ft>ro limb L'(j 

li;.;id i-i Hind limb 20 

^\■idth of hoa(> U Tail (ix'i)roduct'd) . . 78 

Body 51 

Uurma. 

a. Ad. Minhla. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 

25. Ma'buia dissiinilis. 

Tiliqua trivittata, Grai/, Ind. Zool., ami Zool. Jown. iii. 1828, p. 227. 
Eupi't'pis dissiiuilis, Jlallvw. Trans. Ainer, I'hilos. Sue. (2) xi. 1857, 

p. 78. 
Euprepes monticola, Gilnth. Kept. Bnt. Ltd. p. 80, pi. x. fig-, c ; 

StoUczka, Jouni. As. Soc. Bent/. x\i. 1872, p. 120 ; Thcoh. Cat. 

liept. Brit. Ind. p. 52. 

petersii, Steindachn. Novara, Rept. p. 43 ; Theob. I. c. p. 53. 

gueiitheri, Blanf. Journ.As. tSoc. Ben;/, xhiii. 1879, p. 123. 

(Euprepes) wartliii, Fischer, Ja/trb. JFiss. Anst. Hamb. ii. 1885, 

p. UO. 

Suout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided semi- 
transparent disk. Xostril behind the vertical of the suture between. 
the rostral and the first labial ; no postnasal ; anterior lorcal in 
contact with the first labial; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal broader than long ; prsefroutals forming a 
median suture ; frontal in contact with the second supraocular only 
(exceptionally with the first as well) ; four supraoculars, second 
largest ; six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, usually nearly 
as long as the frontal, and larger than the interparietal, which en- 
tirely separates the parictals ; usually no distinct nuchals ; four, 
seldom five, labials anterior to the subocular, which is about twice 
as long as the neighbouring shields and not narrowed inferiorly. 
Ear-opening oval, larger than a lateral scale, smaller than the eye- 
opening, with three or four short pointed lobules anteriorly. Dorsal 
scales strongly bicarinate, nuchals and laterals tricarinate ; 3-1 to 
36 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The adpressed 
limbs overlap. Toes short ; subdigital lamella) smooth. Tail about 
once and two thirds the length of head and body. Olive or 
brownish above, black-spotted, and with three more or less distinct 
light longitudinal streaks, the vertebral sometimes absent ; flanks 
white-spotted ; a short horizontal white streak below tho eye ; lower 
surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 228 Fore limb 2b 

Head 18 Hind limb 31 

Width of head .... 13 Tail 140 

Body 70 

Korthern India. 



176 SCINCIDJE. 

a. Ad. [Sikkim.] Messrs. v. Sclilaj^intweit "l (Types of 

[C]. > Eaprcpes 

h. Ad. [Himalayas.] Sir J. Hooker [P.]. J inonticola.) 

c. Ad, A i mere. 

d. Hfxr. Ajmere. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P. 
e~f. Hgr. Ivarliarbari, W. W. T. Blauford, Esq. [P. 

Ben<ral. 



26. Matuia vittata. 

Scincus vittatus, Olivier, Vox). Emp. Ottom. ii. p. 58, pi. xxix. fig. 1 j 
Aiidoui)!, Dcscr. Eyypte, licpt., Sup])!, p. 178, pi. ii. lig. 5. 

jomardii, Audouin, I. c. lig. G. 

Euprepes olivieri, Eurn. c^- Bibr. v. p. 674 ; Gravenh. N. Acta Ac. 
Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. p. 327, pi. xxxii. 

vittatus, Strauch, Erp. Alg. p. 43 ; Boettg. Ber. Senckenb. Ges. 

1879-80, p. 187. 

(Euprepis) libanoticus, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1864, p. 51 *. 

fellowsii {non Gray), G'dnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 489. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. Xostril behind the vertical of the suture between the 
rostral and the first labial ; this suture very oblique ; normally no 
postnasal ; anterior loreal in contact with the first labial ; supra- 
nasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, 
usually in contact with the truncate anterior angle of the frontal ; 
latter as long as, or a little longer than, the frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the second and third supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, second largest, and usually touching the 
prsefrontal ; four or five (rarely six) supraciliaries ; frontoparietals 
two, smaller than the interparietal; parietals usually meeting behind 
the interparietal ; one pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to 
the subocular ; latter not narrowed interiorly, about twice as large 
as the neighbouring labials. Ear-opening oval, about as large as 
a lateral scale, with two or three pointed lobules anteriorly, 
one of which usually is long. Nuchal and dorsal scales strongly 
tricarinate ; 32 or 34 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals 
a little larger than laterals and ventrals. The adpressed limbs 
meet or slightly overlap, or fail to meet, Subdigital lamcllo3 
smooth. Tail about once and a half as long as head and body. 
Olive or brown above, with a more or less distinct lighter vertebral 
band, and two narrow whitish lines on each side, the lower com- 
mencing below the eye and passing through the ear; these light 
streaks may be edged with black lines or bands ; the upper surfaces 
sometimes largely spotted with black, the sutures of the upper 
head -shields usually black; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish 
white. 



* Type examined. 



7. MABTTIA. 177 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 180 Fore limb 18 

Head 15 lliiul limb 29 

Width of head .... 11 Tail 105 

Body 00 

JVorth Africa, Syria. 

a-g. Ad. & hgr. Cabes, Tunis. ]\[. F. Lataste [0.1. 
A. Ad. Between Khan Tiibb Tusef and Dr. Andorson [P.J. 

Ain Mellalia, ICgypt. 

t. Ad. Between Kefr Ilawar and Dr. Anderson [P.]. 

Artuz, X.E. slope of Mt. 

Ilermon. 

h. Ad. ]\It. Ilermon. Canon Tristram [C. 

l-n. Ad. Galilee. Canon Tristram [0. 

o. Ad. Jerusalem. Canon Tristram ! C. 

•p. Ad. Merom. Canon Tristram [C. 

q. Ad. Beersheba. Canon Tristram fC. 

r. Ad. Palestine. Canon Tristram [C. 



27. Idabuia septemtseniata. 

Euprepis fellowsii, Grarj^ Cat. p. 113. 

septemtajniatus, Gray, I. c. 

Euprepis septemtseniatus, Meuss, Mus. Senckenb. i. p. 47, pi. iii. 
tig. 1 ; Dum. S)- Bihr. v. p. 6S0 ; Blanf. Zool. K Persia, p. 388 
Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 352. 
affinis, De Filijjpi, Viag. in Persia, p. 351. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Xostril entirely or greater part behind the vertical of the 
BUture between the rostral and the first labial ; normally no post- 
nasal ; anterior loreal in contact with the first labial ; supranasals 
in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, in con- 
tact with the truncate anterior angle of the frontal; latter shield as 
long as, or a little longer than, the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the second, or first and second, or second 
and third supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest and but 
rarely touching the prsefrontal ; five (rarely four or six) supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals two, smaller than the interparietal, which entirely 
separates the parietals ; one (or two) pair of nuchals ; four labials 
anterior to the subocular ; latter not narrowed interiorly, about 
twice as large as the neighbouring labials. Ear-opening oval-sub- 
trianguiar, about as large as a lateral scale, with two or three minute 
projecting lobules anteriorly. Dorsal scales more or less distinctly 
tricariuate, sometimes almost smooth ; the scales on the neck and 
flanks smooth or ver}- feebly keeled ; 34 to 38 scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsals a little larger than laterals and ventrals. 
The adpressed limbs overlap. Subdigital lamellae smooth or obtusely 
unicarinate. Tail about once and a half as long as head and body. 
The coloration varies extremely, with complete gradation between the 
typical form from Abyssinia, with four longitudinal black bands along 

vox. m. N 



178 SCINCIDiE. 

the back, to the TaT.fclhivsii with regular black cross bars on the bodj-. 
All specimens agree in the following points : — Two bands, lighter 
than the ground-colour, which is brownish or greyish, extend along 
each side, the upper from the supraciliary border, the lower from 
below the eye ; the interspace between these bands dark brown 
with small whitish spots, or irregularly spotted with darker brown ; 
a narrow vertebral zone constantly remains unspotted ; lower 
surfaces uniform whitish. In the Arabian specimen and in one of 
the Persian, the four blackish longitudinal bands are distinct on the 
nape. In the specimens from Asia Minor (y ar. fcUoicsii) longitu- 
dinal dark bands are absent, and the interspace between the three 
unspotted dorsal streaks is occupied by more or less regular dark 
brown cross bands. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 218 Fore limb 25 

Head 17 Hind limb 35 

Width of head .... 13 Tail 130 

Body 71 

Abyssinia, Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, Persia, Sind. 

a. Ad. Muscat, Arabia. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

b-d. Ad, Teheran. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 

e. Hgr. Between Isfahan and W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 

Teheran. 

/-?«. Ad.,hgr., &yg. Xanthus. Sir C. Fellows [P.]. 

(Types of Etfprepis felloivsii.) 

n-p. Ad. Xanthus. Hashir Collection. 

q. Ad. Smyrna. R. MacAndrew, Esq. [P.]. 



28. Mabuia innotata. 

Euprepes innotatus, Blanford, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, 
p. 354, pi. xvi. tig. 9. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced behind the vertical of the suture between the 
rostral and the first labial ; no postnasal ; anterior loreal in contact 
with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than long, in contact with 
the rostral and (not constantly) with the frontal ; latter a little 
shorter than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in con- 
tact with the second supraocular Only ; four supraoculars, second 
very large ; six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, slightly 
shorter than the interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; 
a pair of uuchals ; four labials anterior to the subocular, which is at 
least twice as long as the neighbouring labials, and not narrowed 
inferiorly. Ear-opening triangular, a little larger than a lateral 
scale, with three or four short lobules anteriorly. Nuchal and 
lateral scales mostly feebly tricarinate ; dorsals quinquecarinate ; 
34 (or 32) scales round the middle of the body. The hind limb 
reaches the wrist of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamella' 
smooth. Tail about once and three fourths the length of head 



7. MABOA, 179 

and body. Bronzy olive above, sides dark brown ; a light, black- 
edged streak on each side, from the prajfrontal and along the supra- 
ciliarics to the anterior tliird of the back, where it gradually dis- 
appears ; a light streak from below the eye to the shoulder ; lower 
surfaces whitish. 

iiiillim. millim. 

Total length loU Fore limb 16 

Head 12 Hind limb 22 

Width of head .... 8 Tail 95 

Body 43 

Central India. 

a. Ad. Godavery valley. W. T. Blanfurd, Esq. [P.]. 

29. Mahuia novemcarinata. 

Euprepes novemcarinatus, Anders. Joiirn. As. Soc. Beng. xl. 1871, 
p. li^ 

" Supranasals forming a suture behind the rostral. Eyelid scaly. 
Praefroutals and vertical (frontal) meet in a point. Seven upper 
labials, the tifrh the longest. Ear obliquely oval, with two or three 
strong prominent denticulations ; 32 longitudinal lines of scales 
round the body and 42 transverse lines between the axils. Scales 
with nine keels, the three central ones strongly marked. The fore 
limb reaches to the anterior angle of the eye ; hind limb as long as 
two thirds of the distance between the axils. Above olive-brown, 
with four or five narrow longitudinal black lines along the back. 
A deep brown band from the nostril through the eye and above the 
ear, along the side and on to the base of the tail, with a moderately [?] 
white band above far over the supercilium along the side of the 
back ; another through the upper labials and ear to the shoulder, 
M here it changes into the pale greenish yellow of the side. A very 
faint broken blackish line from the angle of the mouth to the 
shoulder, and three or four from behind the fore limb along the 
side of the belly. Limbs with five longitudinal black lines with 
scattered white spots." 

From snout to vent 9S millim., tail 110. 

Mandalay, Burma. 

30. Mabuia beddomii. 

Euprepes beddomii, Jerdon, Proc. As. Soc. Benr/. 1870, p. 73 ; Giinth. 

Pruc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 225 ; Theob. Cat. Rept. Brit. hid. p. 52. 
(Tiliqua) septemlineatus, Blunford, Juurn. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 

1870, p. 360, pi. xvi. figs. 7, 8 ; Theob. I. c. p. 50. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. IS^ostril behind the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; no 
postnasal ; anterior loreal deeper and shorter than the second, in 
contact with the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the 

w2 



180 SCTNCID^. 

rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, sometimes in contact with 
the frontal ; latter usually as long as, or a little shorter than, the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, sometimes not longer than 
the frontoparietals, in contact with the second, or rarely first and 
second, supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six supra- 
ciliaries, first longest ; frontoparietals distinct, as long as, or longer 
than, the interparietal, which usually entirely separates the parietals ; 
a pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the subooiilar, which is 
large and not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening oval, as large as 
or a little smaller than a lateral scale, with three short pointed 
lobules anteriorly. Dorsal and nuchal scales tri- or quinquecari- 
nate, sometimes very feebly ; 30 or 32 scales round the middle of 
the body, subequal. The adpressed limbs meet or slightly overlap. 
Subdigital lamellae unicarinate. Scales on upper surface of tibia 
mostly tricarinate. Tail once and two thirds to twice and one fifth 
the length of bead and body. The coloration varies considerably, 
but a lateral black band, edged above and below with a whitish 
streak, is constant. Some (young) specimens black above, with 
seven light longitudinal lines ; others olive-brown with four black 
dorsal streaks, which may not extend further back than the nape ; 
or a light black-edged vertebral band may be present ; head-shields 
spotted or variegated with black ; limbs and tail rufous ; lower 
surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 178 Fore limb 17 

Head 13 Hind limb 23 

Width of head .... 9 Tail 122 

Body 43 

Central and Southern India. 

a. Ad. Mvsore. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. (Type.) 

h. Yg. Salem. Col. Beddome [CI. 



c-d, e-f. Ad. & yg. Tinnevelly. Col. Beddome 

g. Ad. Sevagherry HiUs. Col. Beddome 

h-l. Ad. Anamallaj^s. Col. Beddome 

m-7\ Ad., hgr., & yg. Malabar. Col. Beddome 



31. Mabuia vertebralis. 



m. 



Tiliqna trivittata {noyi Gray), Jerdon, Jo7(rn. As. Soc. Beng. xxiL 
18o3, p. 478 ; Theobald, Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mm. p. 24. 

Euprepes trivittatus, Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, 
p. ;3o7 ; Theobald, Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 50. 

Eumeces trivittatus, Anders. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 158. 

Euprepes (Tiliqua) trivittatus, Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 
1872, p. 119. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; no 
postnasal ; anterior loreal in contact with the first labial, much 
deeper and shorter than the second ; supranasals in contact 



7. MABUIA. 181 

behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long ; pra^frontals 
forminfjj a short median suture ; frontal as long as the frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contaet with the first and second 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six supraciliaries, 
first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, longer than the inter- 
parietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; 
four labials anterior to the subocular, which is twice as large 
as the neighbouring labials, and not narrowed inferiorly. Ear- 
opening oval, nearly horizontal, with two or three scarcely pro- 
jecting lobules. IVuchal and dorsal scales tri- or quinquccarinate ; 
34 (or 36) scales round the body, subequal. The adprcssed 
hind limb reaches the wrist of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital 
lamella) smooth. Scales on upper surface of tiljia mostly bicarinate. 
Tail once and one fourth the length of head and body. Olive-brown 
above, with three pale, black-edged longitudinal bands ; a light 
lateral streak from the ear to the tail ; lower surfaces whitish. 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 155 Fore limb 19 

Head 15 Hind limb 25 

Width of head .... 10 Tail 90 

Body 50 

Deccan. 

a. Hgr., not good state. Belgaum. Dr. Leith [P.]. 

32. Mabuia carinata. 

Tiliqua rufescens, part., Grat/, Cat. p. 109. 
Scincus carinatus, part., Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 183. 
Tiliqua carinata, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii. 1828, p. 227, 
Euprepes seba;, part.. Bum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 092. 
Euprepis carinatus, Peters, Mvn. Bcrl. Ac. 1804, p. 50. 
Euprepes rufescens, part., Giinth. liept. Brit. Ind. p. 79, pi. x. fig. b. 

(Tiliqua) carinatus, Blcmf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, 

p. 365; titoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 119. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; no 
postnasal ; anterior loreal usually shorter and deeper than the 
second, in contact with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than 
long, usually in contact with the rostral, and frequently also with 
the frontal ;' latter as long as or shorter than the frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contact with the second supraocular 
(rarely also with the first) ; four supraoculars, second largest ; 
usually six supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, 
larger than the interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; 
a pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the subocular, which is 
large and not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening roundish, sub- 
triangular, as large as or smaller than a lateral scale, without or 
with a few very indistinct lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, nuchal, and 
lateral scales more or less strongly tri- or quinquccarinate ; 30 



182 



SClNCID.Ti;. 



to 34 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The hind 
limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adprcssed fore limb. 
Subdigital lamellae smooth. Scales on upper surface of tibia mostly 
bicariiiate. Tail once and one third to once and four fifths the 
length of head and body. Brown or olive-brown above, uniform or 
with small black spots or longitudinal lines; sides darker, with or 
without lighter spots ; a light dorso-lateral band begins on the 
supraciliaries ; lower surfaces yellowish (in spirit). 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 3G8 Fore limb 38 

Head 29 Hind limb 54 

Width of head 23 Tail 240 

Body 99 



India, Ceylon, Burma. 



a. Ad. 

b. Ad. 
c~d. Ad. 

e. Yg. 

f. Yg. 

g. Several spec. : ad., 
hgr., & yg. 

h-m. Ad., hgT., & yg. 

n. Hgr. 

o-p. Ad. & hgr. 

q-r. Hgr. 

s~t. Ad. & hgr. 

u. Ad. 

V. Hgr. 

w. Ad. 

X, tj Ad. 

z-a. Ad. & hgr. 



Nepal. 
Deccan. 
Bombay. 
Godavery valley. 

Badrachalam, Goda- 
very valley. 

IS ear Dumaserdiam, 
Godavery valley. 

Madras. 

Madras. 

Madras. 

Madras. 

Auamallays. 

Ceylon. 

Ceylon. 

Ceylon. 

Ceylon. 

Tavoy, Tenasserim. 



B. Hodgson, Esq. [P.]. 

Col. Svkes [P.]. 

Dr. Leith [P.]. 

W. T. Blanford, Esq. 



[C.]. 
W. T. 

[P.J. 
W. T. 

[P.]. 



Blanford, Esq. 
Blanford, Esq. 



J. E. Boileau, Esq. [P.]. 
Rev. G. Smith [P.]. 
Capt. Beavan [P.I. 
Col. Beddome [C.J. 
A. Paul, Esq. [P.]. 
R. Templeton, Esq. [C.]. 
Messrs. v. Schlagintweit 
[C.]. 



W. T. 

[P.]- 



Blanford, Esq. 



33. Mabuia macularia. 

Euprepes seba;, part., Dum. Sf Bibr. v. p. C92. 

Tiliqua rubriventris {non Gray, Inch Zool.),Grai/,Ann. ^- Mag. K. 11, 

xviii. 184G, p. 430. 
Euprepes macularius, Blyth, Jimrn. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1853, p. 052; 

Anders. Proc. Zool. *SV. 1871, p. 157 ; Theobald, Cat. Bept. Brit. 

Ind. p. 49. 
Tiliqua multicarinata {non Gray), Jerdon, Jmirn. As. Soc. Bpng, xxii. 

lf>53, p. 479; Theobald, Cat. Bept. As. Soc. Mus. p. 24. 
Euprepes rufescens, part., Giinth. Bept. Brit. Ind. p. 79. 
(Tiliqua) macularius, Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 

1870, p. 358; Stoliczha, Joiirn. As. Soc. Beng.xM. 1872, p. 117; 

Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xlviii. 1879, p. 112. 
subunicolor, Blanf. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xliii. p. 112. 

Snout short, obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril 
behind the vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first 



7. JiAituiA. 183 

labial ; no postnasal ; anterior loroal deeper and shorter than tho 
second ; frontonasal as long as broad or a little broader tlian long, 
in contact with the rostral and usually also with the frontal ; latter 
as long as or a little longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the second, or first and second, supraoculars; 
four supraoculars, second largest ; five supraciliaries, third longest ; 
frontoparietals distinct, larger than the interparietal, Avhich entirely 
separates tho parietals; a pair of nuchals ; four, exce])tionally three, 
labials anterior to the subocular, which is large and not narrowed in- 
feriorlv. Ear-opening oval, as large as or a little smaller than a lateral 
scale, without or with a few very indistinct lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, 
nuchal, and lateral scales sharply quinque- or septemcarinate ; 2(i to 
'SO scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The adpressed limbs 
meet or overlap, but the hind limb never reaches quite so far as the 
elbow. Digits short ; subdigital lamelhe smooth. Scales on upper 
surface of tibia mostly bicarinate. Tail once and one fourth to once 
and three fourths the length of head and body. Brown or olive- 
brown above, sides darker and usually with black- edged spots ; back 
uniform, or black- spotted, or with one or two black longitudinal 
lines ; sometimes two light lateral lines on each side, well marked 
only on the neck ; lower surfaces yellowish (in spirit). 

millim. millim. 

Total length 147 Fore limb 16 

Head 14 Hind limb 22 

Width of head .... 11 Tail 84 

Body 49 

Central and Xorth-eastern India, Burma, Indo-China. 

a. Ad. Madras. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [C.]. 

b. Ad. Madras. Capt. Beavan [ P.]. 
c-d. Ad. Balarangams. Col. Beddonie [C.]. 

e-f. Ad. Godavery valley. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.l. 

g. Several spec. Near Dumaserdiam, W. T. Blauford, Esq. [P.]. 

Godaverv vallev. 

h-tn. Ad. & hgr. Bhundara District, Cen- W. T. Blauford, Esq. [P.]. 

tral Provinces. 

71-0. Ad. Near Ellore. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

p. Ad. Sadva. W. T. Blauford, Esq. [P.]. 

q. Ad. Khasia. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.], 

r. Ad. Gamboja. M. Mouhot [C.]. 

s-t. Ad. ? W. Theobald, Esq. [C.]. 

u. Ad. ? [Afghanistan]. Dr. Griffith. 

34. Mabuia brevis. (Plate XI. fig. 1.) 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) brevis, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 225. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; no 
postnasal ; anterior loreal deeper and shorter than the second ; 
frontonasal broadly in contact with the rostral, less extensively with 
the frontal; latter as long as or shorter than the frontoparietals and 



184 



SCINCID^. 



the interparietal together, in contact with the second supraocular ; 
four supraoculars, second largest ; five supraciliaries, third longest ; 
frontoparietals distinct, larger than the interparietal, which entirely 
separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to 
the subocular, which is large and not narrowed interiorly. Ear-opening 
roundish, smaller than a lateral scale, without projecting lobules. 
Body remarkably short. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales very 
strongly tri- or quinquecarinate ; 26 to 28 scales round the middle 
of the body, 8 or 10 of which (ventrals) are smooth. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow or between the latter point and the axilla. Sub- 
digital lamella) smooth. Scales on upper surface of tibia bicarinate. 
Tail about once and a half the length of head and body. Olive- 
brown or metallic green above ; sides blackish brown, edged above 
by a pale line ; sometimes a pale line from below the eye to the 
shoulder ; lower surfaces grey. 



millira. 

Total length 110 

Head 11 

Width of head .... 8*5 
Body 31 

Southern India, Ceylon. 



inillim. 

Fore limb 15 

Hind limb 21 



Tail 



a-h. Hgi". 
c. Hgr. 

cl-e. Hgr. & yg. 
/. Hgr. 



9- 



Yff. 



h. Hffr. 



Travancore. 
Anamallays. 
Anauiallays. 
Top of Sevagherry 

Ghat. 
Travancore or Wy- 

nad. 
Ceylon. 



Col. Beddome [C 
Col. Beddome [C. 
Col. Beddome [C. 
Col. Beddome [C. 

Col. Beddome [C.]. 



65 



(Types.) 



35. Mahi^ia rugifera. 

Tiliqua rugifera, Stolkzka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, p. 170, 

pi. X. fig: .S. 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) percarinatus, Peters, Mon. Berl Ac. 1871, p. 571*, 

and Ann. Mvs. Genova, iii. 1872, p. 30. 
percarinatus, var. bonieensis, I'eters, II. cc. pp. 572, 31 : Gunth. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 588. 
Tiliqua percarinata, var. borueensis, Fischer, Abh. Kat. Ver. Hamh. 

ix. 1885, p. — . 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; no 
postnasal; anterior loreal not deeper but much smaller than the 
second ; frontonasal broader than long, largelv in contact with the 
rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield longer than the fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the first and 
second supraoculars ; four su{)raoculars, second largest ; six supra- 
ciharies, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, larger than the inter- 
parietal ; a pair of nuchals ; five (or four) labials anterior to the 



* Types examiued. 



7. MABUIA. 185 

subocular, which is large and not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening 
very small, oval, horizontal, with projecting granules round its 
border. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales very strongly quiucjue- 
carinate ; 26 scales round the body, of which eight (or ten) are 
smooth. The hind limb reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore 
limb. Subdigital lamella smooth. Scales on upper surface of tibia 
bicarinate. Tail once and two thirds the length of head and body. 
Dark olive-brown above, greeni.sh white inferiorly. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 176 Fore limb 20 

Head 14 Hind limb 27 

\yidth of head .... 10 Tail 112 

Body 50 

Nicobars, IS'ias, Java, Borneo. 

a. Ad. Matang. 

36. Mabuia mnlticarinata. (Plate XI. fig. 2.) 
Tiliqua multicarinata, Gray, Cat. p. 109. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind tho 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; no 
postnasal ; anterior loreal not deeper than the second ; frontonasal 
as long as broad, in contact with the rostral and with the frontal ; 
latter as long as or longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the second supraocular ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; five or six supraciliarics ; frontoparietals distinct, 
larger than the interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals : 
a pair of niichals ; four labials anterior to the subocular, which is 
large and not narrowed inferiorlj". Ear-opening roundish, smaller 
than a lateral scale, without projecting lobules. Dorsal, nuchal, and 
lateral scales strongly quinque- or septemcarinate ; 28 to 30 scales 
round the middle of the body, of which 10 or 12 (ventrals) are 
smooth. The hind limb reaches about the elbow of the adpressed 
fore limb. Subdigital lamellce smooth. Tail once and three fifths 
to twice the length of head and body. Olive-brown above, with a 
more or less distinct broad, dark-brown, light- edged lateral band, 
beginning from the eye ; back with small dark brown spots or lon- 
gitudinal lines ; lower surfaces greenish white, throat sometimes 
brown-spotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 228 Fore limb 26 

Head 18 Hind limb 39 

Width of head .... 12 Tail 143 

Body 67 

Philippine Islands. 

a-c. Ad. & yg. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.J. (Types.) 

d. Ad. Diuagat Island. A. Everett, Esq. [C.]. 



186 BCIXCIDiE. 

37. Mabuia multifasciata. 

Tiliqua rufescens, part., Gray, Cat. p. 109. 
Scincus carinatus, part., Schncid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 18.3. 
Lacerta ruf'e.sccns, part., Slimv, Zool. iii. p. 28-5. 
Scincus multilasciatus, Ku/il, Beitr. Zoul. u. Vercjl. Afiat. p. 126. 
INIabuya uiultii'asciata, FitziiH/. K. Class. Itept. p. 52. 
Tiliqua rubriventri.s, Gray, Ind. Zool. 
Euprepes sebiE, part., Dum. i^ Bibr. v. p. 092. 
Euprepis rufescens, Cantor, Cat. Mai. liept. p. 46. 
Euprepes sebse, Gravenh. N. Acta Ac. Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. 

p. 332, pi. xxxiii. 
cariuatus, Gravenh. I. c. p. 3.38; Bocowt, 3Iiss. Sc. Mex,, Rept, 

pi. xxii. c. tig. 5. 
Plestiodou sikkiniensis, Gray, Ann. Sf May. N. H. (2) xii. 185.3, p. 388. 
Tiliqua rufescens, Girard, tl.S. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 227. 
Euprepes rufescens, part., Giinth. liept. Brit. Ind. p. 79. 
Tiliqua carinata, part., Stuliczka, Journ. As. Sue. Beny. xxxix. 1870, 

p. 109. 
Euprepes carinatus, part., Theoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 49. 
ocellatus, Bocourt, Ami. Sc. Nat. (6) vii. 1878, art. 10, and 

I. c. p. 414, pi. xxii. c. tig-. 8. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind tbe 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a 
postnasal ; anterior loreal not deeper than the second, in contact 
with the first labial ; supranasals fre(]uently in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal broader than long ; prsefrontals constantly 
forming a median suture ; frontal as long as or shorter than the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the second 
(rarely also with the first) supraocular ; four supraoculars, second 
largest : six supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, 
larger than the interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; 
a pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the subocular, which 
is large and not narrowed interiorly. Ear-opening roundish or 
oval, as large as or a little smaller than a lateral scale, without or 
with a few very small lobules anteriorly. Dorsal scales more or 
less distinctly tri-(rarely quinque-)carinate, nuchals and laterals 
usually very feebly so, sometimes smooth ; 30 to 34 scales round the 
middle of the body, subequal or dorsals largest. The hind limb 
reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Sub- 
digital lamella3 smooth. Scales on upper surface of tibia mostly 
tricarinatc. Tail once and one third to once and two thirds the 
length of head and body. BroAvn or olive above ; some specimens 
uniform, or with a large whitish (red) patch on each side ; back 
frequently with small black spots, sometimes confluent into longi- 
tudinal lines ; sides frequently dark brown with whitish, black- 
edged ocelli ; a well-defined light dorso-lateral band seldom present; 
lower surfaces yellowish or greenish white. 

milliiii. niillim. 

Total length 303 Fore limb 39 

Head 2Q Hind limb 57 

"Width of liead .... 18 Tail (reproduced) . . 175 

Body 102 



7. MABUIA. 



187 



Eastern Himalajcas (?), Burma, Siam, Malay peninsula, Indian 
archipelago. 



a. Yo-. 



SUdrim. 



&. Ad. Burma. 

c. Ad. Pt'gii. 

d. Ad. Kino; Id., Morg-ui. 

e. Ad. Bangkok, Siaui. 
/. Ad. Siam. 

<7- Ad. Siam. 

Ii-k, l~m, n-o. Ad. Pinang. 

p-q. Ad. & Lgr. Nias. 

r, s-ti. Ad., bgr., & yg. Java. 

i). Yg. Java. 

w-x. Ad. & yg. Willis Mountains, 
Kediri, Java, 
6000 feet. 

y-z. Ad. & hgr. Borneo. 



a. Ad. 

^. Ad. 

y-j). Ad.& hgi-. 

^-ic. Ad. 

X-f Ad. 

o-p. Ad. 

0-. Ad. 

T-v, <p. Ad. & hgr. 

X-hh. Ad. 

cc. Hgr. 

dd. Hgr. 

ce. Ad. 

J-^f- Ad. 

hh-ii. Ad. & hgT. 



Borneo. 
Matang. 
Philippines. 
Zamboanga 
Talibon. 
N. Mindanao. 
S. Negros. 
NeoTos. 
N.'Celehes. 
Manado. 
Tt'rnate. 
Gilolo. 
N. Ceram. 
Moluccas. 
Timor Laut. 



(Type of Plestiodon sik- 

kimensis.) 
F. Day, Esq. [P.]. 

E. Hamilton, Esq. [P.] 
Dr. J. Anderson [P 

F. E. Lott, Esq. [P 



l.sq. 



M. Mouhot [C 

Dr. Cantor. 
Hr. Sandemann [C.]. 
G. Lvon, Esq. [P.J. 
C. Bowring, Esq. [P.]. 
Baron v. Huegel [C.]. 



Lords of the Admiralty 

[P.]. 



and A. Everett, Esq. [C.]. 

A. Everett, Esq. [C". 
A. Everett, Esq. [r.1. 
Dr. A. B. Mever [C . 
Dr. A. B. MeVer [CI. 
Dr. A. B. MeVer [C.]. 
H.M.S. ' Challenger,' 
Dr. Platen [C.]. 



Levden Museum. 
H.'O. Forbes, Esq. [C.]. 



38. Mahnia tytleri. 

Tiliqua mfescens, part., T/ieolald, Cat. liept. As. Soc. Mus. p. 23. 

cariuata, part., Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. Ib70, 

p. 1G9. 

From "svhat can be gathered from the short remarks of the above- 
cited authors, the Andamans il/«5i</rt is surely distinct from the other 
species of the genus. It is said to have only 2Q scales round the 
body, the dorsals feebly tricarinate, the middle keel being "weaker 
than the lateral ones. The supranasals are in contact behind the 
rostral. Above uniform, somewhat pale brown, paler on the sides 
towards the belly, and with a few indistinct darker spots ; limbs 
spotted with white and dark brown ; below yellowish white ; tail 
leaden gre^'. 

From snout to vent about 200 millim., tail about 300. 

Andaman Islands. 



188 BCiNcrD^. 

39. MaMia rudis. (Plate XI. fig. 3.) 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. IN'ostril behind 
the vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a 
postnasal ; anterior loreal not deeper than the second, in contact 
with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than long, in contact with 
the rostral and rarely also with the frontal ; latter as long as or 
longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the second, rarely with the first and second supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars, second largest ; six supraciliaries, first and third 
largest ; frontoparietals distinct, larger than the interparietal, which 
entirely separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; four labials 
anterior to the subocular, which is large and not narrowed inferiorly. 
Ear-opening roundish, smaller than a lateral scale, without or with 
a few projecting granules anteriorly. Nuchal, dorsal, and lateral 
scales very strongly tricarinate, the keels projecting slightly beyond 
the posterior margin of the scale ; 30 or 32 scales round the middle 
of the body, of which 10 or 12 (ventrals) are smooth ; dorsal scales 
largest. The hind limb reaches the axilla or the shoulder. Digits 
long, strongly compressed ; subdigital lamellas obtusely keeled. 
Olive-brown, sides dark brown or with a dark brown light-edged 
lateral band ; lower surfaces greenish or brownish white ; throat 
sometimes black-spotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 274 Fore limb 38 

Head 24 Hind limb 57 

Width of head 10 Tail (injured) 170 

Body 80 

Borneo, Sumatra. 

a-e. Ad. & yg. Matang. 

/. Ad. ' Sumatra. Hr. Karl Bock [C.]. 

40. Mahuia siamensis. 

Eumeces siamensis, Gimth. Rqyt. Brit. Ind. p. 91. 

Euprepes (Tiliqua) bicarinatus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 22 *. 

( ) ruhstrati, Fischer, Abh. JVaturiv. Ver. Havih. ix. 1886, 

p. — , pi. i. fig. 2. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a 
postnasal : anterior loreal not or but slightly in contact with the 
first labial; supranasals (usually) in contact behind the rostral; 
frontonasal broader than long ; prtefrontals in contact mcsially ; 
frontal sliorter than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, 
in contact with the second supraocular ; four supraoculars, second 
largest ; six supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, as 
long as or slightly shorter than the interparietal, which entirely 
separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; four (or three) labials 
anterior to the subocular, which is large and not narrowed inferiorly. 

* Type examined. 



7. MABTJIA. 189 

Ear-openin,2; ovnl, as large as or a little larger than a lateral scale, 
"without projecting lo])ulos. 28 (or 20) scales roiuul the middle of 
the body ; dorsals sliglitly larger than the others, smooth or teehly 
bieariuate. The hind Umb reaches the elbow ot the adpresscd t'oro 
limb. Subdigital lamelhe smooth. Tail more than twice as long 
as head and body. Olive-brown above ; a broad dark l)rown band 
on each side; lower surfaces wliitish. 

millim. iniliin. 

Total length 340 Fore limb 32 

Head 22 Hind limb 47 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 225 

Body 93 

Siam, Southern China. 

a. Yg. Siam. M. Moiihot [C.]. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Hainan. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.]. 

41. Mabuia longicaudata. 

Euprepis longicaiidata, Hallow. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (2) xi. 
1856, p. 77, pi. iv. fig. 1. 

In habit similar to M. carinata. Lower eyelid with a trans- 
parent disk. A postnasal. Head-shields as in M. carinata. 30 scales 
round the body, dorsals distinctly bicarinate ; laterals indistinctly 
bicarinate. Olive-green above, white with a tinge of green below ; 
a broad black lateral band extending from behind the eye to the base 
of the tail. 

Siam. 

42. Mal)uia aurata. 

Mabouya genea, Gray, Cat. p. 94. 
Scincus am-atus, part., Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 176. 
bistriatus, Spix, Spec. Nov. Lacert. Bras. p. 23, pi. xxvi. 

fig- 1- . . 
Tiliqua bistriatas, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 69. 

fenea, Gray, I. c. p. 70. 

? Tiliqua albolabris, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 292. 

Eumeces spixii, part., Dinn. 8f Bibr. v. p. 642. 

Euprepes auratus, Gravenh. N. Acta Ac. Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i, 

p. 321, pi. xxxii. ; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1864, p. 51 ; Bocowt, 

Miss. Sc. Mex., Bept. p. 412, pi. xxii. c. fig. 7. 
Euprepis surinamensis, Hallotv, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. (2) xi. 1856, 

p. 80, pi. iv. fig. 2. 
Mabuia surinamensis, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1862, p. 186. 

unimarginata, Coi^e, I. c. p. 187. 

Euprepes (Mabuia) auratus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1877, p. 412. 
Mabuya agilis, part., Bocoiirt, I. c. p. 395, pi. xxii. a. fig. 2, 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. A postnasal ; anterior loreal usually not touching the 
first labial ; supranaals in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal 



190 sciNciD.f:. 

broader than long, usually in contact with the truncate anterior 
angle of the frontal ; latter shield as long as or a little shorter than 
the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the 
second supraocular only ; four supraoculars, second very large ; 
five or six supraciliarics ; frontoparietals two, about as large as the 
interparietal ; parietals usually entirely separated ; one pair of 
nuchals ; four, or more frecjueHtly five, upper labials anterior to the 
subocular, which is not narrowed interiorly. Ear-opening roundish- 
triangular or oval, as large as or smaller than a lateral scale, 
without projecting lobules. Dorsal scales very feebly but distinctly 
tricarinate, at least on the hind part of the back ; 30 or 32 scales 
round the middle of the body, laterals usually a little smaller than 
the others. Limbs usually overlapping when pressed against the 
body, rarely just meeting. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail once 
and one fourth to once and a half the length of head and body, 
cylindrical or slightly compressed in its posterior part. Olive or 
bronzy brown above, uniform or with small dark brown spots ; a 
broad dark brown lateral band, passing through the eye and ex- 
tending to the base of the tail, usually bordered inferiorly by a 
light streak ; lower surfaces greenish or greyish white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 215 Fore limb 28 

Head 20 Hind Hmb 87 

Width of head .... 16 Tail 120 

Body 75 

Tropical South America ; Windward Islands. 

Ad. W. Indies. I (Types of T. 



1.! 



a. .--.-- _ _ .... 

h. Hgr. St. Vincent. Rev. L. Guilding [P.]. j anea.) 

c. Ad. British Guiana. 

d. Ad. Better Hope, Brit. Rev. W. T. Turner [0.]. 

Guiana. 

e. Ad. Vryheids Lust, Rev. W. T. Turner [C.]. 

Demerara. 
/. Ad. Demerara Falls. 

g. Ad. Berbice. 

h. Ad. Para. 

i. Ad. Macuca, Pernam- W. A. Forbes, Esq. [P.]. 

buco. 
Z;. Hgr. Moyobamba, Peru. Mr. A. H. RofF[C.]. 
I. Ad. Cayaria, Peru. Messrs. Yeitch [P.]. 

m. Hgr. Puerto del Mairo, H. Yeitch, Esq. [P.]. 

Peru. 



43. Mabuia agilis. 

Scincus agilis, Raddi, Mem. Soc. Hal. Modenn, xix. 182.3, p. 62. 
Mabuya agilis, Fitzing. N. Classif. Itept. p. 52 ; Girard, U.S. Explor. 

Exped., Herp. p. 261 ; Cope, Proc. Ac. Phi/ad. 1862, p. 185. 
Eumeces spixii, part., Du/n. S,- Bihr. v. p. ij-^2. 



7. MABUIA. 191 

Copeoglossum cinctum, Tschudi, Faun. Per., Ilerp. p. 4-5, pi. iii. 

fig. 2. 
Mabuia cepedii, Cope, I. c. p. 186. 
Euprepes (Eumeces) bistriatus, Steindachn. Novara, liept. p. 44. 

(Mabuia) ciuctus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 4U0. 

Mabuya agilis, part., Bocuurt, Miss. Sc. Me.v., Rept. p. 395, pi. xxii. B. 

tigs. 2, G. 
? Mabuya metallica, Bocourt, I. c. p. 400, fig. 1. 
Mabuia tenea, part., O* Shaughn. Proc. Zool. Sue. 1881, p. 236. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. A postnasal ; anterior loreal not or but sliglitly in 
contact with the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral or narrowly separated ; frontonasal broader than long, 
usually in contact with the truncate anterior angle of the frontal ; 
prtefrontals rarely forming a median suture ; frontal usually a little 
shorter than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in con- 
tact with the second supraocular only ; four supraoculars, second 
very large ; four supraciliaries, second largest ; frontoparietals two, 
about as large as the interparietal ; parietals in contact behind the 
latter ; one pair of nuchals ; usually four upper labials (sometimes 
five or six) anterior to the subocular, which is not narrowed in- 
feriorly. Ear-opening roundish, smaller than the eye-opening, as 
large as or a little smaller than a lateral scale, without projecting 
lobules. Dorsal scales perfectly smooth or very slightly striated ; 
28 to 34 scales round the middle of the body, laterals a little 
smaller than the others. Limbs meeting or failing to meet when 
pressed against the body. Suhdigital lamellae smooth. Tail once 
and one fourth to once and three fifths as long as head and body. 
Olive or bronzy above, with a few small dark brown spots : usually 
a well-defined broad dark brown lateral band, passing through the 
eye and extending to the base of the tail, bordered inferiorly, 
and sometimes also superiorly, by a light streak ; lower surfaces 
yellowish-white or greyish. 

Diillim. millim. 

Total length 220 Fore limb 23 

Head 17 Hind limb 30 

Width of head .... 13 Tail 140 

Body 73 

Central America ; Tropical South America. 



M. Bocourt [P.]. 

Mr. Dvson [C.J. 

Sir R.'Schomburgk [P.I. 

G. Busk, Esq. [P.]. 

Mr. Buckley [C.]. 



a-b. Ad. & bgr. 


Yucatan. 


c. PIgr. 


S'era Cruz. 


d. Ad. 


Salvador. 


e. Ad. 


Venezuela. 


/. Ad. 


Briti.-^h Guiana. 


ff. Ad. 


Rio Janeiro. 


h. Ad. 


Brazil. 


i. Ad. 


Pallatanga, Ecuador 



192 



sciNcrD^. 



Tar. nigropunctata. 

Sciucus nijrropunctatus, Sjn.v, Spec. Nov. Lacert. Bras. p. 24, 

pi. XX vi. fip:. 1. 
Tiliqua niirropunctatiis, Gra\/, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 69. 
Eumeces uiabi)uia, Dum. Sf Bihr. v. p. 040. 
? Mabuia oenea, Cope, Pruc. Ac. PhilnrJ. 1S62, p. 18G. 
Euprepes (Mabuia) auratus, var. cepedii, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 

1877, pp. 412,414. 
Mabuya cepedii, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., liept. p. 406, pi. xxii. B. 

fig.'o. 

This form agrees with M. agilis in every respect save the presence 
of only three supraoculars, the first and second having fused to a 
single shield. I therefore do not feel justified in separating it 
specifically. 

Windward Islands to Northern Brazil. 

a. Ad. Martinique. 

b. Ad. W. Indies. 



44. Mal)uia dorsivittata. 

Mabuia dorsivittata, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1862, p. 350 ; Bocourt, 

Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 407, pi. xxii. c. %. 2. 
Euprepes (Mabuia) virpratus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 621 *. 
Mabuia tetratsenia, BoetUjer, Zeitschr. f. Naturio. iviii. 1885, 

p. 227*. 
? Mabuya joberti, Thomin, Bull, Soc. Philom, (7) viii. 1884, p. 148. 

This species is very closely allied to M. agilis, and distinguished 
only in the following points : — Snout rather shorter still. Three 
supraoculars, first very large ; three or four supraciliaries, first or 
second very long. The first supraocular is not formed by fusion of 
two shields, as in M. ar/ilis, var. nigropunctatn. Tail twice as long 
as head and body. Dark brown above, sides black ; a black ver- 
tebral line ; two greenish-white streaks on each side, the upper 
commencing on the canthus rostralis, the lower on the upper lip ; 
lower surfaces yellowish or greenish white. 

The number of scales round the body is 28 or 30. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 225 Fore limb 19 

Head 15 Hind limb 26 

Width of head 10 Tail 150 

Body 60 

Southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. 

a-d. Ad. & yg. S. Lorenzo, Rio Grande do Sul. Dr. v. Ihering [C.]. 
e-f. Ad. & yg. Uruguay. 



Types examined. 



7. MAIiUIA. 193 

45. Mabuia alliacea. 

Mabuia alliacea, CopCy Journ, Acad. Philad. ('2) viii. 187G, p. 115, 
pi. xxviii. tig. 1. 

Distinguished from 31. ar/iUs in the following points : — Snout 
long and acute. Snpranasals separated (abnormally?) by a small 
scute. Parictals entirely separated. 27 scales round the body. 
Pra^anal scales throe, large and subequal. limbs overlapping when 
adpressed. Colour above sap-green shaded with brown, below leek- 
green ; a light blue band from the lip to the groin ; a pale shade 
from the eyebrow to above the femur, brown-bordered above. 

Costa Eica. 

46, Mabuia sloanii. 

Mabouya sloanii, Orm/, Cat. p. 04. 

agilis {71011 Haddi), Gray, I. c. 

Sloane, Jam. ii. p. 3.'J."}, pi. 273. tig. ">. 

Sciiicus auratus, part., ISchneid. Ilkt. Amph. ii. p. 170. 

sloanii, Band. Rept. iv. p. 287, pi. Iv. fig. 2. 

Euprupes spilonotus, Wief/m. Arch. f. Nat. 1837, p. 135 ; Peters, 

Mon. Berl. Ac. 1864, p. oO, and 1871, p. 400. 

semitfeniatus, Wicf/ni. I. c. ; Peters, II. cc. 

Tiliqua sloanii, Grai/, Griff. A. JS. ix. Si/n. p. 70. 

ricbardii (Coci.), Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 292. 

Eumeces sloanii, Duvi. i^- Bihr. v. p. 639. 

Mabouya agilis, Gosse, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, p. 59. 

Gougylus (Eumeces) agilis, Reinh. 1^ Liltk. Vidensk. Meddel. 1862, 

p. 229. 
Mabuia sloanii. Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1802, p. 185 ; Bocoiirt^ Miss. 

Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 401, pi. xxii. b. fig. 3. 

fulgida, Cope, I. c.p. 186 ; Bocourt, I. c. p. 403, pi, xxii. B. fig. 4. 

laiiceolata, Co2}e, I. c. p. 187. 

The presence of two pairs of nuchal scales distinguishes this 
species from 21. agilis. The snout is usually longer and narrower. 
Frontonasal usually not broader than long. Usually five upper 
labials anterior to the subocular. Otherwise the structural cha- 
racters are identical, Olive or bronzy above, uniform or with small 
dark brown spots ; two light bands on each side, most distinct 
anteriorly, separated by a broad dark brown band ; the upper light 
band is the broadest, and begins on the end of the snout and follows 
the canthus rostralis and the supraciHary border ; from the latter to 
the scapular region it is edged internally by a dark brown band ; 
The lower light band begins on the lip. Lower surfaces yellowish 
or greenish. 

miliira. millim. 

Total length 227 Fore limb 24 

Head 17 Hind limb 31 

Width of head . , , . 13 Tail 130 

Body 80 

West Indies south of 20°. 
VOL. m. o 



1 94 SCTNCID^. 

a-b, c-d. Ad. Jamaica. P. H. Gosse, Esq. [P.l. 

e. Ad. Jamaica. R. Heward, Esq. [P.J. 

/.Ad. Jamaica. Sir W. Hooker [P.]. 

(/. Ad. Jamaica. 

h-i. Ad. Bluefields, Jamaica. Mr. Eraser [C.]. 

k-o. Ad, Sta. Cruz, W. Indies. A. Newton, Esq. [P.]. 

47. Mabuia frenata. 

Mabouya cepedii {no)i Cod.), Gray, Cat. p. 95. 
? Scincus sloanii, Wied, Beitr. Nat. Bras. i. p. 195, and Ahbild. 
Emoea frenata, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 18G2, p. 187. 
Eumeces (INlabonya) uattereri, Steindachn. Sitzb. Ah. Wien, Ixii. i. 

1870, p. 339, pi' iii. fig. 4. 
Mabuya frenata, Boeourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 404. pi. xxii. c. 

fig. 6. 
Mabuia senea, part., O^Shaughn. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 236. 
(Emoea) frenata, Boetty. Zeitschr.f. Naturiv. Iviii. 1885, p. 228. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. A postnasal; anterior loreal not or but slightly in 
contact with the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, in contact with the truncate 
anterior angle of the frontal ; latter shield as large as or a little larger 
than the interparietal, in contact with the second supraocular only ; 
four supraoculars, second very large ; five or six supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals united into a single shield ; parietals in contact behind 
the interparietal ; one (or two) pair of nuchals ; five (or six) labials 
anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening triangular, about as large 
as a lateral scale, without projecting lobules. Scales smooth, 30 or 
32 round the middle of the body, laterals a little smaller. Limbs 
meeting or overlapping when pressed against the body. Subdigital 
lamellae smooth. Tail slightly longer than head and body. Brown 
above, with small irregular darker and lighter spots, or with a 
double series of blackish spots forming a pair of vertebral bands ; 
a broad blackish-brown lateral band, bordered inferiorly by a more 
or less distinct light band, commencing from the nostril and passing 
through the eye ; lower surfaces dirty white, with more or less dis- 
tinct greyish longitudinal lines corresponding with the lateral edge 
of the scales. 

luillim. niillim. 

Total length 183 Fore limb 22 

Head 17 Hind limb 28 

Width of head .... 12 Tail 98 

Body 68 

Southern Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic. 

a. Hgr. Brazil. 

b-c. Ad. Paraguay. 

d. Hgr. Candelaria, Prov. Missioues, Marquis G. Doria [E.]. 

-.'ii'geutine liep. 



7. MABUIA. 195 



48. Mabuia megalura. 

Euprepes (Mabiiia) megalurus, Peters, Mun. Berl, Ac. 1878, p. :204, 

pi. ii. fig. 4 *. 
? Lunieces miissaianus, Fischer^ Jahrb. Hamh. Wiss, Anst. i. 1884, 

p. 18, pi. ii. fig. 5. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. A postnasal ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal nearly twice as broad as long, in contact with or 
narrowly separated from the frontal ; latter scarcely larger than 
the interparietal, in contact with the second and third supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, first very small ; frontoparietals distinct ; parietals 
entirely separated ; a pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the 
subocular, which is much elongate. Ear-opening a nearly hori- 
zontal cleft, with an elongate scale in front. All the scales 
perfectly smooth, 24 round the body, ventrals largest. The hind 
limb reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital 
lamella) tubercular. Tail three times as long as head and body. 
Brown above, with a light lateral band, beginning from the upper 
lip. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 283 Fore limb 20 

Head 12 Hind limb 26 

Body 56 Tail 215 

East Africa (Taita, Cacoma, Adal. Berl. Mus.). 



49. Mabuia trivittata. 

Euprepis carinatus, Gray, Cat. p. 115. 
Scincus carinatus (non Schneid.), Merrem, Beitr. Gesch. Amph, p. 100, 

pi. ix. 
Mabuya carinata, Fitzimj. N. Class. JRept. p. 52. 
Scincus trivittatus, Cuv. R. A. 2nd ed. ii. p. 62. 
Tiliqua capensis, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 68. 

ascensionis, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 18-j8, p. 290. 

Euprepes merremii, Dum. 8f Bihr. v. p. 671 ; Gravenh. N. Acta Ac. 

Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. p. 317, pi. xxxii. 
Euprepes trivittatus, Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept., App. p. 11. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril just above or behind the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal, frequently in 
contact with the second as well as with the first labial ; supranasals 
in contact behind the rostral : frontonasal broader than long ; pra3- 
frontals usually forming a median suture ; frontal shorter than the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the second 
and third, and sometimes also the first, supraoculars ; four supra- 



Type examined. 

o2 



106 



eciNCiDa;. 



oculars, second largest and usually in contact with the praefrontal ; 
five supraciliaries, second largest : frontoparietals distinct, smaller 
than the iutcrparietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; a pair 
of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the subocular, which is not much 
enlarged, and not or scarcely narrowed iuferiorly. Ear-opening 
crescentic, sometimes nearly concealed by the scales of its anterior 
border. Dorsal and nuchal scales strongly tricarinate, laterals 
feebly so ; 30 to 32 scales round the middle of the body, equal. 
The adpressed limbs meet, feebly overlap, or fail to meet. Toes 
short ; subdigital lamelhc sharply unicarinate. Tail about once 
and a half the leugtli of head and body. Olive or brownish above, 
with transverse blackish spots or cross bands and round pale spots; 
three light bands along the back, vertebral broadest ; lower surfaces 
greyish white. These markings may be indistinct or disappear 
entirely, some specimens being of a uniform olive-brown. 

niillini. milliiii. 

Total length 220 Fore limb 27 

Head 20 Hind limb 36 

Width of head .... 1() Tail (re[iroduced). . 100 

Eody 100 

South Africa. 

a. Several spec. : tid., S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

bgT., & yg. 

6-c. Ad. S. Africa. C. Darwin, Esq. [P.l. 

d. Ad. S. Africa. Dr. Quaui [P.]. 

c, f-h. Hgr. & yg. Cape Colony. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.]. 

i-k. Yg. Port EUzabeth. A. E. Craven, Esq. [P.]. 

I, m. Ad. Damaraland. 

n. Hgr. Is. of Ascension (r*). (Type of Tiliqua ascen- 

sionis.) 



50. Mabuia occidentalis. 

Euprepes vittatus, var. australis, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1862, p. 19*. 
occidentaHs, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 20. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril just above or behind the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the lirst labial ; a postnasal, in contact with 
the first and second labials; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, in contact with or narrowly 
separated from the frontal ; latter as long as or slightly shorter than 
the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the 
second and third, or first, second, and third, supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars, second largest; five supraciliaries, second largest; 
frontoparietals distinct, smaller than the interparietal, which en- 



* Tjpes examined. 



7. MABUIA. 197 

tirely separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; four labials 
anterior to the subocular, Avhich is not much enlarged, and not or 
scarcely narrowed interiorly. Ear-opening suboval, oblique, with 
two or three large, obtusely pointed projecting lobules anteriorly. 
Dorsal and nuchal scales feebly tricarinate, laterals smooth or nearly 
so ; 30 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The 
hind limb reaches the elbow or halfway between the wrist and the 
elbow. Subdigital lameila; sharply umcarinate. Olive above, with 
three yellowish-white, dark-edged dorsal streaks, vertebral broadest ; 
a whitish, dark-edged lateral baud from the upper lip to the groin ; 
sutures between the labials black ; lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 203 Fore limb 30 

Head 21 Hind limb 43 

Width of head .... Ifi Tail (reproduced ). . 105 

Body 77 

South-west Africa. 

a. Ad. Hereroland, Berlin Museum [P.]. 

b. Ad. Damaraland. 

c. Ad. S. Africa. 



51. Mabuia ivensii. 
Euprepes ivensi, Socage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. vii. 1879, p. 97. 

Head small, snout short and conical. Lower eyelid with a small 
transparent disk. Nostril in the supero-posterior angle of the 
nasal, which is in contact with its fellow, and foUowed by a post- 
nasal ; supranasals narrow, in contact behind the nasals ; fronto- 
nasal subtriangular, separated from the frontal by the praefrontals ; 
two frontoparietals ; parietals entirely separated by the interparietal ; 
four upper labials anterior to the subocixlar, which is not narrowed 
inferiorly. Three pointed lobules on the anterior border of the ear. 
Body elongate, cyclotetragonal. 32 scales round the body ; dorsals 
with three very distinct keels, laterals smooth. Limbs short : sub- 
digital lamelloe keeled. Tail more than twice as long as head and 
body. Blackish olive above, with five longitudinal yellow streaks, 
the median broadest ; lower surfaces pale blue. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 290 Fore limb 21 

Head 15 Hind limb 30 

Body 75 Tail 200 

Benguela. 



198 scracED-a:. 

52. Malinia qninquetseniata. 

Euprepis quinquetasniatus, Gray, Cat. p. 112. 
Scincus quinquetaeniatus, Licht. Verz. Dotihl, Mus. Berl. p. 103. 
Mabuya quinquetoeniata, Fitzing. N. Classif. Itept. p. r)2. 
Scincus savignyi, Audouin, Descr. Eyypte, Sept., Sap])!, p. 177, pi. ii. 

figs. 3, 4. 
Tiliqua quinquestriata, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 290. 
Euprepes savignyi, Dum. c^- Bibr. v. p. 077 ; Gravenh. N. Acta Ac. 

Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. p. 329, pi. xxxiii. ; Peters, Mon. Berl. 

Ac. 18o4, p. G18. 
— — margaritifer, Peters, I. c. * , and Reise n. Mossamh. iii. p. 64, 

pi. X. fig. 1 ; Bocaye, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. iv. 1872, p. 80. 
Euprepis gularis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 61. 

kirkii, Gray, I. c. p. 62, pi. ix. fig. 1. 

Euprepes binotatus, Bocaye, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. i. 1867, p. 230, pi. iii. fig. 3. 

Snout rather elongate, obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Nostril just above or behind the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a 
postnasal ; anterior loreal usually not or but slightly in contact with 
the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, usually separated from the frontal by the 
prjefrontals ; frontal as long as or a little shorter than the fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the second and 
third, or first, second, and third, supraoculars; five or six supra- 
ciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, as large as or smaller than the 
interparietal ; parietals usually meeting behind the interparietal ; a 
pair of nuchals ; four, sometimes five, labials anterior to the sub- 
ocular, which is not or but slightly narrowed infcriorly. Ear- 
opening oval, with three to five short obtusely-pointed lobules 
anteriorly. Dorsal and lateral scales more or less strongly tricari- 
nate, anterior nuchals mostly quinquecarinate ; 36 to 44 scales 
round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore limb or the axillar pit. 
Subdigital lamellae sometimes smooth, usually more or less strongly 
unicarinate. Tail once and a half to once and three fourths the 
length of head and body. Young blackish brown above, with five 
yellowish-white longitudinal bands, the upper of the laterals com- 
mencing from the eye, the lower from the upper lip; tail blue; 
lower surfaces greyish blue. The adults vary extremely : upper 
parts brown or olive, with or without the light bands so conspicuous 
in the young ; a blackish, often white-dotted band, or some large 
black spots on the temple and the side of the neck ; lower surfaces 
whitish, throat often dotted or marbled with dark brown. 

minim. millira. 

Total length 240 Fore limb 81 

Head 20 Hind limb 42 

Width of head 15 Tail 154 

Body 66 

* Types examined, 



7. MABFTA. 199 

Tropical Africa, North-east Africa, Arabia. 

a-b. Ad. k hgr. Mt. Sinai. 

c-e. Ad. Luxor. Dr. Anderson fP.]. 

f. Ad. Edfou. Dr. Anderson [P.]. 

g, h-vi. Ad. Sc yg. Egvpt. A. Paul, Esq. [P.". 

n. Ad. Senaf(5, Abyssinia. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

0. Ad. Sooroo, Abyssinia. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.J. 

li-r. Yg. Tette, Mozambique. Sir J. Kirk [C.]. (Types of 

Euprepis kirkii.) 
s-M. Ad. S.E. Africa. (Types of Euprepis (/ularis.) 

V. Ad. Benguela. Prof. B. du Bocage [P.]. 

(One of the types of Euprepes binotatus.) 
w. Ad. Lagos, 

x-a. Hgr. & yg. Senegal. M. Petit [C], 

^-y, S-e, C, v- Ad., W. Mrica. 



hgr., & yg. 



53. Mabuia lacertiformis. 



Euprepes (Euprepis) lacertiformis, P^'^ers, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. G18, 
and Seise n. Mossamb, iii. p. 70, pi. x. flg. 2. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided 
transparent disk. Xostril anterior to the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior lorcal 
not touching the first labial; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal a little broader than long, in contact with, or 
narrowly separated from, the frontal ; latter as long as the fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the second and 
third supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; five supra- 
ciliaries; frontoparietals distinct, slightly larger than the inter- 
parietal ; parietals in contact behind the latter shield ; a pair of 
nuchals ; six labials anterior to the subocular, which is much nar- 
rowed inferiorly. Ear-opening with four long pointed lobules 
anteriorly. Dorsal scales mostly quinquecarinate, some occasionally 
tricarinate ; 38 to 40 scales round the body. The hind limb reaches 
the shoulder. SubdigitallameUoe smooth. Olive-brown above, black- 
dotted ; limbs with white dots and a black network : a white band 
on each side of the tail ; lower surfaces white, with feebly marked 
blackish lines. 

millim. miUim. 

Total length 120 Fore limb 18 

Head 12-5 Hind limb 26 

Width of head 6-5 Tail 71 

Body 36-5 

Boror, Mozambique. 



54. Mabuia elegans. 

\ters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 18 
3, pi. xi. fig. 1. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided trans- 



Euprepes elegans, Peters., Mon. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 619, and Bei^e n. 
Mossamb. iii. p. 73, pi. xi. fig. 1. 



200 SOINCED^. 

parent disk. Nostril pierced in advance of the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal 
in contact with the first labial ; supranasals usually in contact behind 
the rostral ; frontonasal scarcely broader than long, touching the 
frontal ; latter scarcely shorter than the frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the second and third supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars : frontoparietals distinct, a little larger than the 
interparietal ; parictals in contact behind the latter shield ; a pair 
of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the subocular, which is mucli 
narro^Acd interiorly, the fourth labial very long and angular pos- 
teriorly. Three pointed lobules on the anterior border of the ear. 
Do: sal and lateral scales quin(|uecarinate , 30 scales round the body. 
The hind limb reaches the axilla. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail 
twice as long as head and body. Ochreous-brown above, with four 
rows of black, white-dotted spots ; a black lateral band, edged 
inferiorly by a white streak ; lower surfaces white. 

luillim. millim. 

Total length 176 Fore limb 16 

Head 12-5 Hind limb 29 

Width of head 7 Tail 117 

Body 46-5 

St. Augustin's Bay, Madagascar. 

55. Mabuia gravenhorstii. 

Euprepis bistriatus, Grcqi, Cat. p. 115. 
Tiliqua bistriatus {non Spix), Gray., Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 70. 
Euprepes gravenhorstii, Dam. ^- Bibr. v. p. 086 ; Gravenh. N. Acta 

Ac. Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. p. 33o, pi. xxxiii. 
(Euprepes) bistriatus, Boettg. Abh. Senck. Ges. xii. 1881, 

p. 455, 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril pierced just above or in advance of the vertical 
of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; 
anterior loreal in contact with the first labial ; supranasals usually 
in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, usually 
in contact with the frontal ; latter much shorter than the fronto- 
parietal and interparietal together, in contact with the second, or 
second and third (or first, or first and second) supraoculars ; four 
or three supraoculars, l,he first and second frequently fused to a 
single shield : three or four supraciliaries ; frontoparietals fused to 
a single shield, as long as or longer than the interparietal ; parietals 
usually forming a suture behind the latter shield ; four or five 
labials anterior to the subocular, which is much narrowed inferiorly 
(exceptionally not reaching the lip), and forming a long obliquely 
curved suture w^th the elongate fourth (or fifth) labial. Ear-opening 
about as large as the transparent palpebral disk, anteriorly with 
three or four short pointed lobules. Xuchal, dorsal, and lateral 
scales strongly quinque- to scptemcarinate ; 30 to 36 scales round 



7. MABUIA. 201 

the middle of the body, suhoqiial. The hind limb reaches the elbow 
of the adpressed fore limb, or nearly so far. Subdigital lamellae 
smooth or tubercular. Tail once and a half to once and three fourths 
the length of head and body. Olive-brown above, sides blackish; 
back with small black and light spots or ocelli ; two or three light 
streaks on each side; lower surfaces whitish. 

uiillim. 

Fore limb 22 

Hind limb 33 

Tail 113 





niillim. 


Total length . . 


. . . . 183 


Head 


.... 15 


Width of head 


.... U 


Body 


.... 55 


Madagascar. 




a. Ad. 


Madagascar. 


b-c. Ad. & hgT. 


Madagascar. 


d. Ad. 


Madagascar. 


e-f. Ad. it hgr. 


Autananarivo. 


ff-l. Ad. & yg. 


Near Tamatave 


7rt. Ad. 






Dr. J. E. Gray [P.]. 
.1. Caldwell, Esq. [P.], 

Rev. J. Wills [C.]. 
Rev. W. D. Cowan [C.]. 
Zoological Society. 

56. Mahuia bayonii. 

Euprepes gravenhorstii (non D. ^' £.), Bocage,Jorn. Sc. Lisb, i. 186G, 

P-21- .. ... 
bayonii, Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lish. iv. 1872, p. 75. 

The only differences I can find for separating this Mahuia from 
the preceding are the larger size of the ear-lobules, which cover a 
considerable part of the ear-opening, and the shorter limbs, which 
scarcely overlap. 

Angola and Mossamedes. 

a. Ad. Duque de Bragance, Angola. Prof. B. du Bocage [P.]. 

57. Mahuia isselii. 

Euprepes (Euprepis) isselii, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 567. 
Euprepis quinquetseniatus, part., Blanford, Zool. Abyss, p. 45G. 

\ Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided trans- 
parent disk. K ostril behind the vertical of the suture between the 
rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior lorcal not or but 
slightly in contact with the first labial; supranasals in contact 
behind the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, sometimes in 
contact with the frontal ; latter shorter than the frontoparietal and 
interparietal together, in contact with the second and third supra- 
oculars ; foiu' supraoculars, second largest ; five supraciliaries, second 
longest : frontoparietals fused to a single shield, which is as long as 
or longer than the interparietal : parietals forming a suture behind 
the interparietal : a pair of nuchals ; four (or five) labials anterior 
to the subocular, which is feebly but distinctly narrowed inferiorly. 
Ear-opening suboval, smaller than the transparent palpebral disk, 



202 SCINCIDJE, 

■with two or three small projecting lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, 
nuchal, and lateral scales strongly tricarinate ; 30 scales round the 
middle of the body, subequal. The hind limb reaches the wrist or 
the elbow of the ud])rcssed fore limb. Scales on the soles sharply 
keeled, spinose ; subdigital lamella) sharply tricarinate, sjnnose. 
Tail 071CC and one third to once and Iavo thirds the length of head 
and body. Olive above, with small black spots and light dots or 
shafts ; two light streaks on each side, the lower, beginning on the 
upper lip and passing through the eye, edged interiorly with a 
blackish streak : lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 146 Fore limb 19 

Head 14 Hind limb 25 

Width of head .... 9 Tail 85 

Body 47 

Abyssinia. 

a. Ad. Keren, Bogos. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. (One of 

the types.) 
h-d. Ad. cl- hgr. Lake Ashanghi. W. T. i31auford, Esq. [P.]. 

58. Mabuia varia. 

Euprepes olivieri {non D. Si- B.), S7){itk, 111. S. Afr., liept. pi. xxxi. 

figs. 3-5 ; Feters, Hon. Bed. Ac. 18o4, p. 618. ' 
(Euprepis) varius, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1807, p. 20 *, and 

Reise n. Mossamh. iii. p. 68. 
olivieri, var. albopunctatus, Socage, .Torn. Sc. Lisb. i. 1867, 

p. 223. 

(Mabuya) la^vigatus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1869, p. 434*. 

damarauus, Peters, (Efvers. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1869, p. 657 *. 

angolensis, Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. iv. 1872, p. 78. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril usually just above or behind the vertical of 
the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; 
anterior loreal usually in contact Avitli the first labial ; supranasals 
in contact behind the rostral : frontonasal broader than long, usually 
in contact with the frontal ; latter a little shorter than the fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the second and 
third supraoculars : four supraoculars, first small, second very large : 
five supraciliaries, second as large as the three others together ; 
frontoparietals distinct, as^ large as or smaller than the interparietal ; 
parietals usually meeting beiiind the interparietal : a pair of nuchals ; 
four or five labials anterior to the subocular, which is feebly but 
distinctly narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening oval, oblique, smaller 
than the transparent palpebral disk, with three to five short pointed 
lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales strongly tri- 
carinate ; 30 to 34 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. 



Types examined. 



7. MABTTTA. 203 

The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore 
limb. Scales on the soles sharply keeled, spinose ; subdigital 
lameUoo sharply tricarinate, spinose. Tail once and a lialf to once 
and two thirds tlie length of head and body. Olive or brownish 
above, with small dark brown spots and liglit dots, with or without 
two or three paler dorsal bands ; a whitish, dark-edged lateral band, 
beginning on the upper lip and passing through the ear ; lower 
surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 165 Fore limb 19 

Head 14 Hind limb 27 

Width of head 10 Tail 100 

Body 51 

Africa south of the equator. 

a, b, c. Ad. >.^- hijr. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith j"P.]. 

d. Several spec.^ ad. Cape Colony. F. P. M. Weale, Esq. [P.]. 
& hgr. 

e. Ad. Pt. Natal. Mr. T. Ayres [P.]. 

/ Yg. Pt. Elizabeth. A. E. Craven, Esq. [P.]. 

ff-k. Ad. & hgr. Angola. Mr. Rich [C.]. 

59. Mabuia bocagii. 

Euprepes quinquetaeniatus (non Licht.), Bocarje, Jorn. Sc. Linh. i. 

1867, p. 44. 
petersi (non Sfeind.), Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. iv. 1872, p. 74. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with a large undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril anterior to the vertical of the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal not in 
contact with the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with the 
frontal ; latter as long as or a little shorter than the frontoparietal 
and interparietal together, in contact with the second and third 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars, first small, second very large ; 
five supraciliaries, second largest ; frontoparietal distinct, a little 
smaller than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind 
the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals ; five labials anterior to the 
subocular, which is much narrowed interiorly. Ear-opening oval, 
as large as the transparent palpebral disk, with four or five long 
pointed lobules anteriorly. Dorsal and nuchal scales strongly quin- 
quecarinate, laterals tricarinate ; 36 to 38 scales round the middle 
of the body, dorsals largest. The hind limb reaches the wrist or 
the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Scales on the soles sharply 
keeled, spinose ; subdigital lamelte sharply tricarinate, spinose. 
Tail about ouce and a half the length of head and body. Olive- 
brown above, black-dotted, with five yellowish, black- edged bands, 
the lower (lateral) beginning below the eye and passing through 
the ear ; lower surfaces whitish. 



204 SCINCID^. 

millim. millim. 

Total Icugth (tail re- _ Body 58 

produced) 130 ' Fore limb 22 

Head 15 Hiud limb 31 

^idthofhead 10 

Angola. 

a. Ad. Duque do Bragance. Prof. B. du Bocage [P.]. 

b. Ad. Puugo Andongo. Ur. Wehvitsch [P.]. 

c. Hgr. Angola. Dr. Welwitsch [P.J. 

60. Mal)uia cMmbana. 
Euprepes affiuis(no?2 Dt Fit.), Bocaye, Jvni. Sc. Lisb. iv, 1872, p. 77. 

Agrees in the seutellation with M. bocagii, except that the 
auricular lobules are not lanceolate but triangular and three in 
number. Bronzy green above, with irregularly scattered black 
dots ; a rather indistinct lighter dorso-lateral band ; no light band 
on the flanks ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

Total length 125 millim. ; head 11 : tail 72. 

Rio Chimba, Mossamedes. 

61. Mahuia pimctulata. 

Euprepes punctulatus, Bocaye, Jorti. Sc. Lisb, iv. 1872, p. 76. 

Differs from 21. cJiimbana in having only 30 to 32 scales round 
the body. Olive-green or light brown above, with small square 
black spots, forming six longitudinal series on the back, and con- 
fluent on the flanks ; two narrow white black-edged streaks on each 
side, the upper extending from the temporal region to the tail, the 
lower from the first loreal to the groin ; sometimes a light vertebral 
band ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

Total length 120 millim. ; head 10 ; tail 70. 

Rio Coroca, south of Mossamedes. 

62, Mabuia striata. 

Tropidolepisma striatum, Pdern, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1844, p. 36*. 
Euprepes punctatissiuius, Smith, III. S. Afr., liept. pi. xxxi. tig. 1. 

sundevallii. Smith, I. c, App. p. 11. 

Euprepis grantii. Gray, Proc. Zuul. Soc. 18G4, p. 62. 

Euprepes variegatus, Peters, CE/vers. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1869, p. 660*. 

(Euprepis) striatus, Peters, Reise n. Mossamb. iii. p. 67. 

Snout moderate, obtusely acuminate ; loreal region concave. 
Lower eyelid with a large transparent disk. Nostril pierced above 
or behind the vertical of the suture between the rostral and the 
first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal usually in contact with 

* Types examined, 



7. MABUIA. 205 

the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; fronto- 
nasal a little broader than long, usually in contact -with the frontal ; 
latter as long as or a little longer than the frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the second and third supraoculars ; 
four sujiraoculars, first small, second largest ; five supraciliaries, 
second largest ; frontoparietals distinct, smaller than the inter- 
parietal ; parietals usually in contact behind the latter shield ; a 
pair of nuchals ; subocular much narrowed interiorly, sometimes 
not reaching the lip, usually wedged in between the sixth and 
seventh, or fifth and sixth, labials. Ear-opening oval, oblique, 
smaller than the transparent palpebral disk, with two to four short 
subtriangular lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales 
strongly tricarinate (a few may be quinquecarinate) ; '32 to 36 
scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The hind 
limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. 
Scales on the soles sharply keeled, spinose ; subdigital lamellae 
sharply uni- or tricarinate. Tail once and one fourth to once and 
a half the length of head and body. Olive or brown above, with 
dark or yellowish dots ; frequently a broad light dorso-lateral band ; 
no light streak on the flanks ; the upper parts may be of a pale 
yellowish brown, with a dark brown band on the temple and side 
of neck ; lower surfaces whitish, uniform or brown-dotted ; throat 
usually brown-spotted. 

uiillim. millim. 

Total length 171 Fore limb 26 

Head 18 Hind limb 35 

Width of head .... 13 Tail U3 

Body 60 

Africa south of the equator. 

a. Several spec. : S. Afi-ica. Su' A. Smith [P.]. (Types of 

ad. & hgr. Euprepes pundatissimm.) 

h. Yg. S. Africa. Sh- A. Smith [P.]. (Type ol 

Euprepes sundevallii.) 
c-e. Ad. & hgr. Damaraland. 

/. Ad. Zambezi. Sir J. Kirk [P.]. (Type of 

Exprepis t/rantii.) 
(/. Hgr. Zanzibar. Sir J. Kirk [C]. 

63. Mabuia wahlbergii*. 
Euprepes wahlbergii, Peters, CEfveis. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1869, p. 661. 

Snout moderate, obtusely acuminate ; loreal region concave. 
Lower eyelid with a large transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
behind the vertical of the suture between the rostral and the 
first labial ; a postnasal : anterior loreal not touching the first 
labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal a 



Described from the tjpe Bpecimeu in the Eerliia Museum. 



206 sctNCiD^. 

littlo broader than long, in contact with the anterior angle of the 
frontal ; latter shield as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the second and third supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars, first small, second lai'gest ; five sui)raciliaries, second 
largest ; frontoparietals distinct, smaller than the interparietal ; 
parietals entirely separated by the interparietal; a pair of nuchals ; 
suboeular much narrowed inferiorly, bordering the lip between the 
fifth and sixth upper labials. Ear-opening oval, oblique, not quite 
so large as the transparent palpebral disl<, with two or three very 
small triangular lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral 
scales strongly tricarinate ; 40 scales round the middle of the body, 
subcqual. The hind limb reaches the elbow. Scales on the soles 
sharply keeled, spinose ; subdigital lamella? sharply unicarinate. 
Tail nearly once and a half as long as head and body. Olive 
above, with a rather indistinct broad light dorso-lateral band ; an 
ill-defined dark brown band from the eye to the side of the body ; 
lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 180 Fore limb 23 

Head 17 Hind limb 33 

Width of head 12 Tail 105 

Body 58 

Damaraland. 

Perhaps not specifically distinct from 21. striata. 

64. Mabuia sulcata*. 

Euprepes olivaceus (non Gray), Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1862, p. 21. 
svdcatus, Peters, Mon. Bei-l. Ac. 1867, p. 20. 

Head and body very strongly depressed ; snout model ate, obtusely 
acuminate ; loreal region concave. Lower eyelid with a large 
transparent disk. IS^ostril pierced behind the vertical of the suture 
between the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior 
loreal in contact with the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind 
the rostral ; frontonasal as long as broad, or a little broader than 
long, in contact with or narrowly separated from the frontal ; latter 
as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the second and third, or first, second, and third, supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, second largest ; five supraciliaries, second largest ; 
frontoparietals distinct, smaller than the interparietal ; parietals in 
contact behind the latter shield ; a pair of nuchals : suboeular not 
reaching the lip, resting on the fifth, sixth, and seventh, or fifth and 
sixth, labials. Ear-opening oval, as large as the transparent palpe- 
bral disk, with two or three very small lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, 
nuchal, and lateral scales strongly quinquecarinate ; 34 to 38 scales 
round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The hind limb reaches 

* Types examined. 



I 



7. MABtriA. 207 

the axilla. Scales on the soles sharply keeled, spinose ; subdigital 
lamella? sharply tricarinatc, spinose. Tail once and one fourth to 
once and a half the length of head and body. In specimens a-d 
the upper parts arc blackish, the lower dark brown. In specimen e 
the upper parts are olive, with six blackish longitudinal bands, and 
the lower greenish, with black spots on the throat. 

millim. milliin. 

Total length 160 Fore liml) 25 ' 

Head 17 Hind limb 34 

Width of head 12 Tail 90 

Body 53 

South and South-west Africa. 

a-c. Ad. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

(7, e. Ad. Kan'oo. The Trustees of the South-African 

Museum [P.]. 

05. Mahuia hildebrandtii*. 

Euprepes (Euprepis) hildebrandtii, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, 
p. 372, pi. -. fig. 4. 

Snout rather short, obtuse, much depressed, with deeply concave 
loreal region, sharp canthus rostralis, and convex upper labials. 
Lower eyelid with a very large transparent disk. Xostril on the 
canthus rostralis, just above the suture between the rostral and 
the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal largely in contact 
with the first labial ; suprauasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal as. long as broad, or a little broader than long, usually 
in contact with the frontal ; latter as long as the frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contact with the second and third 
(rarely also the first) supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest; 
five supracLliaries, second largest ; frontoparietals distinct, as large 
as or a little smaller than the interparietal ; parietals entii'ely sepa- 
rated or forming a ver}- short suture behind the interparietal; a 
pair of nuchals ; subocular much narrowed inferiorly, bordering the 
lip between the fourth and fifth, or fifth and sixth upper labials. 
Ear-opening oval, smaller than the transparent palpebral disk, ^vith 
three or four long lanceolate lobules anteriorly. Dorsal, nuchal, 
and lateral scales strongly tricarinate ; 30 to 34 scales round the 
middle of the body, subequal. The hind limb reaches the axilla or 
the shoulder. Toes long ; scales on the soles sharply keeled ; sub- 
digital lamellae sharply unicarinate. Tail once and a half to once 
and two thirds the length of head and body. Pale olive-brown above, 
uniform or with three light dorsal streaks with dark and light spots 
between them ; sides white-spotted ; sides of the neck usually with 
large black spots; lips sometimes black-spotted; lower surfaces 
white, throat sometimes black-spotted. 

* Described li-oiii tlie type specimens. 



208 feciNcrD.B. 

milliui. milliiii. 

Total length 170 Fore Umb 22 

Head 18 Hind limb 36 

Width of head .... 12 Tail 102 

Body 50 

Brava, East Africa. 

G(!. Mabuia acutilabris *. 

Euprepes acutilabri.-;, I'ctcrs, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1802, p. 19. 

damarauus {iiou Peters), Steindaclin. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixii. i. 

1870, p. 338, pl. iii. figs. 1-3. 

Snout short, obtuse, much depressed, with deeply concave loreal 
region, sharp canthus rostralis, and angularly projecting upper 
labials. Lower eyelid with a very large transparent disk. Nostril 
on the upper surface of the snout, just above or in front of the 
vertical of the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; a 
postnasal ; anterior loreal not or but slightly in contact with the 
first labial ; supranasals forming a suture behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal broader than long, usually in contact with the frontal ; 
latter longer than frontoparietals and interparietal together, in con 
tact with the first, second, and third supraoculars; four supraoculars, 
second and third subcqual; five supraciliaries, second longest; fronto- 
parietals distinct, as large as or a little larger than the interparietal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of 
nuchals ; subocular not reaching the lip, in contact with the fifth 
and sixth upper labials. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the trans- 
parent palpebral disk, with three or four long lanceolate lobules 
anteriorly. Dorsal and nuchal scales strongly tricarinate, laterals 
sometimes bicarinate ; 28 to 32 scales round the middle of the body, 
subcqual. The hind limb reaches the shoulder or the ear. Toes 
very long ; scales on the soles sharply keeled ; subdigital lamellae 
sharply unicarinate. Tail not quite twice as long as head and body. 
Brownish or fulvous above, with transverse darker bars with light 
dots on the back, interrupted by a yellowish vertebral band ; two 
light lateral bands, the lower commencing below the eye, passing 
through the ear, and extending to the groin ; lower surfaces white. 





millim. 




millim. 


Total length . . . 


... 174 


Pore 


limb 20 


Head 


. . . 14 


Hind limb 35 


Width of head . 


... 10 


Tan 


115 


Body 


... 45 






South-west Africa. 








a. Ad. 


Angola. 




J. J. Mouteiro, Esq. [C.]. 


b-c. Ad. 


Carangigo. 




Dr. Wehvitsch P.]. 


d. Ad. 


Benguela. 




J. J. Moiiteiro, Esc^ [C.]. 
Berlin Museum [P.J. 


e-f. Ad. & hgr. 


Hererolaiid. 




ff-h. Ad. 


Damaraland. 






^•. Yg. 


s 








* Types examined. 





8. LYGOSOMA. 209 



8. LYGOSOMA*. 



Mabuya, part., Fitzinr/. N. Clasdf. llept. p. 23; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 93. 

Seps {non Laur.), Fitziny. I. c. 

Z^'gnis, part., Fitzin;/. I. c. 

Lygosoina, Gray, Zoo/. Joiirn. iii. 1828, p. 228; Way I. Syst Amph. 

p. 101; Wie'ym. llerp. Me.v. p. 11; Dum. i^ Bibr. v. p. 711; 

Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 85 ; Bocoiirf, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 445. 
Peromeles, Wayl. I. c. p. IGO ; Wieym. I. c. 

nemierg-i.-*, IFayl. I. c. ; Dum. (^- Bibr. p. 766 ; Gray, Cat. p. 86. 
Tiliqua, part., Gray, Cfrrff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 07, and Cat. Liz. p. 108. 
Siaphos, Gray, II. cc. pp. 72, ^%. 
Podophis, Wieqm. I. c. : Grai/, Cat. p. 88. 
Dasia, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. 331, and Cat. p. 108. 
? Herinia, Gray, Ann. N. II. ii. p. ;>32. 
Ttiopa, Gray, I. c, and Cat. p. 90; Bocourt, I. c. p. 410. 
Chiamela, Gray, II. cc. pp. 332, 07. 

Tetradactylus (non Merr.), Gray, I. c. p. 333 ; Dum. ^- Bibr. p. 763. 
Ilairria, Gray, II. cc. pp. 333, 97 
Tridactylus, Gray, I. c. p. 333. 
Rhodona, Gray, II. cc. pp. 335, 89. 
Soridia, Gray, II. cc. 

Ronia, Gray, in Grfy^s Trav. Austral, ii. p. 436. 
Eiimeces, part., Dum. 4' Bibr. p. 629 ; Giinth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 84. 
Eiiprepes, part., Dum. S^- Bibr. p. 663; Giinth. I. c. p. 78. 
Leiolepisma, Dum. ^- Bibr. p. 742 ; Crray, Cat. p. 84. 
Cyclodus, part., Dum. 8f Bibr. p. 749. 

Heteropus {non Fitz.), Dum. 8f- Bibr. p. 757; Gray, Cat. p. 107. 
Campsodactylus, Dum. 8f- Bibr. p. 761. 
Chelonieles, Dum. l^- Bibr. p. 774 ; Gray, Cat. p. 87. 
Brachystopus, Dtim. 8)- Bibr. p. 778. 
Praepeditus, Dum. i^- Bibr. p. 787. 
Hiniilia, part., Gray, Cat. p. 74. 
Keneuxia, Gray, I. c. p. 79. 
Elania, Gray, /. c. p. 80. 
Mocoa, Gray, I. c. 
Lipinia, Gray, I. c. p. 84. 
Omolepida, Gray, I. c. p. 87. 
Eumeces, Gray, I. c. p. 92. 
Otosaurus, Gray, I. c. p. 93. 

Emoia, Gray, I. c. p. 95 ; Cxirard, U. 8. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 262. 
Ateuchosaurus, Gray, I. c. p. 107. 



* 1. Mocoa formosa, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beug. xxii. 1854, p. 651. — Mirza- 
pur and Wazirabad, Northern India. 

2. Hombronia undosa, Girard, U. S. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 240, pi. xxvii. 
figs. 17-24. — New Zealand. 

3. Hombronia fasciolaris, Girard, I. c. p. 243, figs. 25-32. — New Zealand. 

4. Hinulia atrocosiata, Macleay, Journ. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii. 1877, 
p. 62. — Katow, New Guinea. 

5. Sinulia pardalis, Macleas', I. c. p. 63. — Barrow Island, N.E. Australia. 

6. Mocoa nigricaudis, Macleay, I. c. p. 63. — Dai-nley Island, Torres Straits. 

7. Lygosoma fragile, Macleay, I. c. p. 64. — Hall Sound, New Guinea. 

8. Euprepis mefaUicits, Macleay, I. c. p. 69. — Hall Sound. 

9. Tetradactylus gutfulafus, Macleay, Proc, Linn. Soc. N. S. W. x. 1885, 
p. 66. — Herbert River, Queensland. 

VOL. in. p 



210 SCINCID^. 

Carlia, Gray, I. c. p. 271. 

Pholeophilus, Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept., App. p. 15. 

Anomalopus, A. Dum. Cat. M6th. Hept. p. 18o. 

Lissouota, Bli/th, Journ. As. Soc. Ben;), xxii. 1853, p. 653. 

Cyclodina, Girard, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 195, and U.S. E.i-jilor. 

Exped., Herp. p. 235. 
Ilombrouia, Girard, II. cc. pp. 196, 239. 
Oligosoma, Girard, II. cc. pp. 190, 245. 
Ijygosomella, Girard, II. cc. pp. 106, 251 . 
Lvgosaiu'us, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 496. 
Apteryg'odon, Edelini/, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. ii. 1864, p. 201. 
Mochius, Gimfh. Proc. Zool. >S'oc.'l864, p. 308. 
Lainpi'opliolis, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1864, p. 179. 
Cophoscincus, Peters, Man. Perl. Ac. ] 807, p. 19. 
Eumecia, Bocar/o. Jorn. Sc. Lish. iii. 1870, p. 67. 
Aiiotis, Bavay, Cat. Rept. N. Calcd. p. 29. 
Nanuoscincus, Gi'mth. Ann. 4' Mag. N. H. (4) x. 1872, p. 421. 
OpMosciucus. Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1873, p. 747. 
Coloscincus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1876, p. 532. 
Lioscincus, Bocaijc, Jorn. Sc. Lish. iv. 1873, p. 228. 
Tropidosciucus, Bocar/e, I. c. p. 230. 

Saurosciucus, Peters, Sitzb. Ges. Katurf. Freunde, 1879, p. 149. 
Sepacontias, Gimfh. Ann. d,- Mae/. N. H. (5) vi. 1880, p. 235. 
Cophoscincus, Vaill. Bull. Soc. Philoni. (7) ^nii. 1884, p. 170. 
? Mj'ophila, De lis, Proc. Roy. Soc. Qacensl. i. 1884, p. 77. 
? Lygisaurus, De Vis, I. c. 

Palatine bones in contact mcsially : pterygoid bones usually also 
in contact anterioiij', the palatal notcli not extending forwards to 
between the centre of the eyes ; pterygoid teeth minute or absent. 
Maxillary teeth conical or obtuse. Eyelids well developed. Ear 
distinct or hidden ; if distinct, tympanum more or less sunk. 
Nostril pierced in the nasal : supranasal present or absent. Limbs 
more or less developed, rudimentary, or absent. 

Australasia, East Indies, China, North and Central America, 
Tropical and 8outh Africa. 

Synopsis of the Sitbgenera. 

I. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; the length of the hind limb 

exceeds the distance between the centre of the eye and the 
fore limb. Lower eyelid scaly. Tympanum distinct. No 
supranasals. Frontal not broader than the suijraocular region. 
Frontoparietals distinct. A pair of enlarged prajanals. 

(Himilia, Gray, p. 212.) 

II. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle. Lower eyelid scaly. Ear- 

opening very large, without auricular lobules. Supranasals 
present. Frontal not broader than the supraocular region. 
Frontoparietals distinct. A pair of enlarged pneanals. 

(Otosaiirus, Gray, p. 214.) 

III. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle, overla])ping when pressed 
against the body ; the digits strongly compressed distally. 






8. LTQOSOMA. 211 

Lower eyelid scaly. Ear-opening- distinct, small. Su})raTiasals 
present or ab.scnt. Frontal not broader than tlie suiiraocular 
region. Frontoparietals distinct. Pncanals not enlarjjjiid. 

(Keneuxia, Gray, p. -!I4.) 

IV. Limbs well developed : the length of the hind limb exceeds the 
distance between the centre of the eye and th3 fore limb. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Tympanum 
distinct. No supranasals. llostral forming a suture Avith the 
frontonasal. Frontal not broader than the supraocular region. 
One or more pairs of enlarged nuchals. 

{Liolejiisma, D. & B., p. 215.) 

V. Lim])s well developed, pentadactyle, overlapping when pressed 

against the body. Lower eyelid with an undivided transpai'cnt 
disk. Tympanum distinct. Supranasals present. llostral 
forming a suture with the frontonasal. Frontal not broader 
than the supraocular region. Pra'anals not or scarcely enlarged. 

(Emoa, Gray, p. 2 ID.) 

VL Limbs short or rudimentary. Lower eyelid scaly or with 
a transpai'ent disk. Ear distinguishable. Supranals present (or, 
in one species, the nasal partially divided longitudinally and 
forming a suture with its fellow). Prsefroutals well developed. 
Frontal not broader than the supraocular region. 

(Riojni, Gray, p. 220.) 

VII. Limbs short, the hind limb not measuring more than the distance 
between the anterior corner of the eye and the fore limb, 
pentadactyle. Lower eyelid scaly. Tympanum distinct. No 
supranasals. Praefrontals well developed. Frontal not broader 
than the supraocular region (Homolepida, Gray, p. 221.) 

VIII. Limbs very short, with less than five digits. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided transparent disk. Ear covered with scales. 
No supranasals. Prsefrontals well developed. Frontal not 
broader than the supraocular region. (Hemiergis, Wagl., p. 223.) 

IX. Limbs more or less developed. Lower eyelid scaly or with a 
transparent disk. Ear covered with scales, or very minute. 
No supranasals. Praifi^ontals (in the species with short limbs) 
minute or absent. Frontal not broader than the supraocular 
region (Siaphos, Gray, p. 223.) 

X. Limbs short or rudimentary. Lower eyelid with a transparent 

disk. Ear distinct, minute. No supi-anasals. Prtefrontals 
very small and widely separated, or absent. Frontal broader 

than the supraocular region [Bhodona, Gray, p. 223.) 

p2 



212 sciNcro^. 

XI. Limbs short, or rudimentary, or absent. Lower eyelid scaly. 
xS^o supranasals. Praefrontals small and widely separated. 
Frontal broader than the supraocular region. 

(Lygosoma, Gray, p. 224.) 



Synojysis of the Species. 

I. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; the length of the hind 
limb exceeds the distance between the centre of the eye and 
the fore limb. Lower eyelid scaly. Tympanum distinct. 
No supranasals. Frontal not broader than the supraocular 
region. Frontoparietals distinct. A pair of enlarged prseanals. 
(Hinulia, Gray.) 

A. Ear-opening with projecting lobules anteriorly ; three or four 
supraoculars. 

1. Praefrontals forming a median suture. 

24 to 34 scales round the middle of the 
body ; subdigital lamellae feebly keeled ; 
four supraoculars 1. lesueurii, p. 225. 

30 scales round the body ; subdigital 
lamellae feebly keeled ; three supra- 
oculars 2. dorsale, p. 226. 

22 scales roiind the body ; subdigital 

lamellae sharply keeled 3. lece, p. 226. 

2. Frontonasal forming a suture with the frontal. 

a. Frontal in contact with the three anterior supraoculars. 

24 to 26 scales round the body ; four 

labials anterior to the subocular .... 4. tceniolatum, p. 227. 
30 scales round the body ; four labials 

anterior to the subocular 5. Jischeri, p. 228. 

28 scales round the body ; three labials 

anterior to the subocular 6. straucliii, p. 229. 

h. Frontal in contact with the two anterior supraoculars. 

26 to 28 scales round the body 7. labUlanUern, p. 229. 

B. No auricular lobules ; frontonasal in contact with the rostral. 

1. Frontoparietals distinct. 

a. Four large supraoculars ; a single anterior loreal. 

a. 36 to 40 scales round the middle of the body ; pre- 
frontals in contact. 

The adpresscd limbs overlap 8. quoyi, p. 230. 

The adpresscd limbs fail to meet 15. ru-hardsoaii, p. 235. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 213 

/3. 22 to 34 scales round the body. 

* Frontonasal forming a suture with the frontal. 

t Caudal scales smooth. 

t No regular nuchals ; three or more pairs of scales 
bordering the parictals. 

Ear-opening as large as or a little smaller 
than the eye-opening ; 28 to 32 scales 
round the body 9. tenue, p. 231, 

Ear-opening a little larger than the eye- 
opening ; 34 scales round the body . . 10. murrayi, p. 232. 

Ear-opening smaller than the eye-open- 
ing ; snout much depressed 11. pallidum, p. 233. 

XX 0ii6 or more pairs of large transverse nuchals. 

22 scales round the body 12. minutum, p. 233. 

28 to 32 scales round the body ; dorsals 

equal, laterals a little smaller 13, isolejns, p. 234. 

26 to 28 scales round the body ; dorsals, 

especially the two vertebral series, 

largest 14. elegantulum, p. 235. 

ft Upper caudal scales obtusely keeled, the keels 
forming continuous lines. 

32 to 34 scales round the body, all 

smooth 16. fasciolatum, p. 236. 

28 to 30 scales round the body ; dorsals 

obtusely unicarinate 17. monotropis, p. 237. 

** Praefrontals in contact. 

Dorsal scales much larger than ventrals ; 
praefrontals, inner angles in contact ; 
interparietal smaller than fronto- 
parietals 20. rufum, p. 239. 

Dorsal scales much larger than ventrals ; 
prefrontals forming a median suture; 
interparietal as large as fronto- 
parietals 21. maindroni, p. 239. 

Dorsal and ventral scales subequal .... 22. consobrinum, p. 240. 

y. 36 to 38 scales round the body ; frontonasal forming 
a suture "with the frontal. 

Frontal in contact with the two anterior 

supraoculars, the first of which is at 

least twice as long as the second .... 23. jagorii, p. 240. 
Frontal in contact with the three anterior 

supraoculars, the first of which is not 

much longer than the second 24. indicum, p. 241. 



214 SCINCIDJE. 

h. Five or more supraoculars. 
a. A single anterior loreal. 

* 28 to 30 scales round the body ; three or four pairs 

of nuchals. 

The adprcssed limbs fail to meet ; ear- 
opening nearly as large as the eye- 
opening 18. fasciatum, p. 237. 

The adpressed limbs slightly overlap ; 
ear-opening considerably smaller than 
the eye-opening 19. undidatum, p. 238. 

** 38 to 50 scales round the body ; no nuchals. 

38 to 40 scales round the body ; rostral 

flat or concave above ; the hind limb 

does not reach beyond the axQla .... 25. macidatum, p. 242. 
40 scales round the body ; rostral flat or 

concave above ; the hind limb reaches 

the shoulder or beyond 26. dussumien, p. 243. 

44 to 50 scales round the body ; rostral 

convex above, forming a curved suture 

with the frontonasal 27. melanopocjon, p. 244. 

/3. Two superposed shields behind the nasal. 

* Dorsal scales keeled. 

50 scales round the body 28. nirjrilabre, p. 245. 

40 scales round the body 29. simum, p. 245. 

** Dorsal scales smooth. 

Six or seven supraoculars, first three in 

contact with the frontal 30. varier/atum, p. 246. 

Five supraoculars 31. jobiense, p. 247. 

2. Frontoparietal single. 

Six supraoculars 32. acutiim, p. 248. 

II. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Ear-opening very large, without auricular lobules. Supra- 
nasals present. Frontal not broader than the supraocular 
region. Frontoparietals distinct. A pair of enlarged pra)- 
anals. [Otoaaarus, (iraj'.) 

Eight supraoculars ; 46 to 50 scales round 

tlie body 33. cumingii, p. 249. 

[II Limbs well developed, pentadactyle, overlapping whci) pressed 
against the body ; the digits strongly compressed distally. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Ear-opening small. Frontal not broader 
than the supraocular region. Frontoparietals distinct. Fric- 
anals not enlarged. (Keneu.via, Gray.) 



3. LYGOSOMA. 215 

Dorsal scales smooth or nearly so; no 

supranasals ; an enlarged scale on the 

heel 34. sniaragdinum, p. 250. 

Dorsal scales keeled, nuchals smooth or 

very indistinctly keeled; supranasals 

present '6b. olluaceum, p. 251. 

Dorsal and nuchal scales strongly keeled ; 

supranasals present 36. vittatum, p. '2b2. 

IV. Limbs well developed. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent ' disk. Xo supranasals ; rostral forming a suture with 
the frontonasal. One or more pairs of enlarged uuchals. 
{Liolejnsma, D. & B.) 

A. Limbs, both pairs pentadactyle. 

1. One or two pairs of praeanal scales considerably enlarged. 

a. Frontonasal at least as long as broad. 

(I. Digits more or less dilated; fourth toe little longer 
than third. 

••" Five supraoculars ; ear-opening small. 

38 scales round the body 37. anolis, p. 253. 

30 scales round the body 38. virens, p. 254. 

** Four supraoculars ; ear-opening large. 

24 scales round the body 39. sempev'i, p. 254. 

/5. Digits not distinctly dilated ; fourth toe much longer 
than third ; ear-opening large. 

* Prsefrontals forming a median suture. 

Five supraoculars, first very small ; 24 

scales round the body 40. pulchellum, p. 254. 

Four supraoculars ; 30 scales round the 

body 41. vulcanium, p. 255. 

** Frontonasal in contact with the frontal. 

26 scales round the body 42. noctna, p. 250. 

b. Frontonasal broader than long. 

a. Rostral forming a straight suture with the frontonasal, 

* Frontoparietals two. 

t Ear-opening smaller than the eye-opening. 

22 to 24 scales round the middle of the 
body ; ear-opening smaller than the 
transparent palpebral disk 43. siklimense, p. 257. 

' Occasionally opaque. 



216 SCINCID^ 

26 to 30 scales round the body ; 16 to ] 8 

lamella) under the fourth toe 44. lihnalayanum, p. 257. 

32 to 38 scales round the bodj- 45. ladacense, p. 258. 

22 to 24 scales round the body ; enlarged 

praeanals much longer than broad. . . . 46. bilineatum, p. 259. 
26 to 28 scales round the body ; 21 to 25 

lamella) under the fourth toe 47. later imaculatum, 

20 to 22 scales round the body ; ear- [p. 260, 

opening larger than the transparent 

palpebral disk 48. beddomii, p. 261. 

ft Ear-opening nearly as large as the eye-opening, 
without projecting lobules. 

28 to 32 scales round the body 51. laterale, p. 263. 

** Frontoparietal single. 

22 to 24 scales round the body; ear- 
opening much smaller than the eye- 
opening 49. travancoi'icum,]).261. 

26 to 30 scales round the body ; ear- 
opening as large as the eye-opening. . 52. assatum, p. 264. 

22 scales round the body ; ear-opening 

minute 50. nitens, p. 262. 

22 scales round the body ; ear-opening [p. 265. 

very large 53. macrotympanum, 

/3. Posterior border of rostral convex and forming a curved 
suture with the frontonasal. 

31 scales round the body ; ear-opening 

very large 54. macrotis, p. 265. 

2. Praeanals not or but feebly enlarged. 

a. Frontoparietals two. 

a. The suture between the rostral and the frontonasal as 
broad as the frontal. 

* Ear-opening not larger than the transparent palpebral 
disk. 

24 or 26 scales round the body ; fifth 

upper labial largest and entering the 

orbit 55. africanum, p. 265. 

22 scales round the body ; fourth upper 

labial largest and entering the orbit ; 

frontonasal longer than broad 56. reiclienovii, p. 266. 

22 or 24 scales round the body ; fourth 

upper labial largest and entering the 

orbit ; frontonasal broader than long . 57. miistelinum, p. 267. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 217 

** Ear-opening larger than the transparent palpebral 
disk. 

26 scales round the body 58. challencjeri, p. 2G8. 

/3. The suture between the rostral and the frontonasal 
narrower than the frontal. 

* Transparent palpebral disk much smaller than the 
eye. 

t Ear-opening much larger than the transparent 
palpebral disk; IG to 18 lamellae under the 
fourth toe. 

36 scales round the middle of the body ; 

three supraoculars 59. cupreum, p. 268. 

42 scales round the body ; four supra- 
oculars 60. lichenigerum, p. 269. 

ft Ear-opening much larger than the transparent 
palpebral disk ; 20 or more lamellae under the 
fourth toe. 

36 to 38 scales round the body ; fronto- 
nasal nearly as long as broad 61. nigrofasciolatum, 

48 to 52 scales round the body ; fifth [p. 270. 

upper labial below the centre of the 

eye 62. telfairii, p. 270. 

40 to 50 scales round the body; sixth 

upper labial below the centre of the 

eye 63. grande, p. 271. 

28 to 32 scales round the body ; rostral 

nearly twice as broad as deep 64. moco, p. 272. 

32 to 36 scales round the body ; rostral [p, 273. 

slightly broader than deep 65. lineo-ocellatum, 

34 scales round the body ; ear-opening [p. 274. 

as large as the eye-opening 66. infrapunctatum, 

ttt Ear-opening not or scarcely larger than the 
transparent palpebral disk ; 16 to 20 lamellae 
under the fourth toe. 

36 to 38 scales round the body 67. smWiii, p. 274. 

26 to 28 scales round the body 68. aneum, p. 275. 

** Transparent palpebral disk nearly as large as the 
eye. 

28 to 32 scales round the body 69. entrecasteauccn, 

[p. 276. 



218 sciNCiB-aE. 

h. Frontoparietal single. 

a. 28 or more lamellsc under the fourth toe. 

40 scales round the body 70. tricolor, p. 277. 

34 scales round the body 71. variabile, p. 277. 

28 to 30 scales round the body 72. austro-ccdedonicum, 

[p. 278. 
/3. 2G or fewer lamella) under the fourth toe. 

* Not more than 30 scales round the middle of the 
body. 

t The suture between the rostral and the frontonasal 
considerably narrower than the frontal. 

26 to 28 scales round the body ; five or 

six supraciliaries 73. trdineatum, p. 279. 

24 to 2S scales round the body ; six or 

seven supraciliaries ; the adpressed 

limbs meet or overlap 74. metcdlicum, p. 280. 

ft The suture between the rostral and the fronto- 
nasal as broad as the frontal. 

26 to 30 scales round the body : seven 

or eight supraciliaries 75. guichenoti, p. 281. 

** More than 30 scales round the body. 

34 to 38 scales round the body 76. pretiosum, p. 282. 

50 to 54 scales round the body 77. ocellatum, p. 283. 

B. Fingers four, toes five ; frontoparietal single. 

1. Transparent palpebral disk not larger than the ear-opening. 

a. Interparietal present, small. 

Dorsal scales more or less distinctly tri- 
or quinquecariuate, or nearly smooth ; 
frontal not longer than the fronto- 
parietal 78. fuscum, p. 283. 

Dorsal scales strongly tricarinate ; frontal 
as long as frontoparietal and inter- 
parietal together 80. heccarii, p. 285. 

Dorsal scales sharply bicarinate 81. albertisii, p. 286. 

b. No distinct interparietal .... 79. rhomhoidale, p. 285. 

2. Transparent palpebral disk much larger than the ear- 

opening. 

a. Dorsal scales sharply keeled. 

Dorsal scales bicarinate 'S2. peronii, p. 280. 

Dorsal scales tricarinate 83. pedorah, p. 287. 



8. LYG080MA. 219 

h. Dorsal scales smooth or very feebly keeled. 

34 scales round the body 84. tetraclfictylum, p. 288. 

30 scales round the body 85. mumhinn, p. 288. 

24 to 2G scales round the body 86. )iovce-fjuinece, p. 289. 

V. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle, overlapping when adpressed. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. 8upranasals 
present. {Emoa, Gray.) 

A. Frontoparietal single. 

1. Frontal plate considerably longer than a proefrontal. 
«. 40 or more lamellae under the fourth toe. 

26 to 32 scales round the middle of the 
body ; 40 to GO lamellae under the 
fourth toe ; no interparietal 87. cijanurum, p. 290. 

34 to 38 scales round the body ; 40 to 
45 lamella) under the fourth toe ; no 
interparietal ; the hind limb reaches 
the axilla or beyond 88. mivarti, p. 292. 

24 to 26 scales round the body ; 70 to 
90 lamellte under the fourth toe ; in- 
terparietal distinct 89. cyanogaster, p. 292. 

30 to 36 scales round the body ; 50 to 
64 lamellae under the foui^th toe ; in- 
terparietal distinct 90. samoense, p. 293. 

6. 40 or fewer lamellae under the fourth toe. 

28 scales round the body, dorsals bicari- 

nate ; 36 lamellae under the fourth toe 91. caUistictum, ]). 205. 

34 scales round the body 94. sln(i(ij_)orense, p. 297. 

37 to 40 scales round the body ; 35 to 
38 lamella) under the fourth toe ; in- 
terparietal distinct ; ear-opening not 
or but little larger than the transpa- 
rent palpebral disk ; a single large sub- 
ocular 92. atrocostatam, p. 295. 

36 to -JO scales round the body; 30 to 
38 lamellie under the fourth toe ; in- 
terparietal absent ; ear-opening not 
much larger than t]ie palpebral disk. . 93. baudinii, p. 296. 

36 to 40 scales round the body ; 32 to 
40 lamellae under the fourth toe ; ear- 
opening much larger than the palpe- 
bral disk ; the hind limb reaches the 
axilla or the shoulder 95. nigrum, p. 297. 

58 to 64 scales round the body ; 30 to 

33 lamellae under the fourth toe .... 96. adspersum, p. 298. 



220 SCfNCTDiE. 

2. Frontal not or scarcely larger than a praefrontal. 

36 scales round the body 97. parietale, p. 299. 

B. Frontoparietals two. 

37 scales round the body 98. jerdonianum, p. 300. 

56 or 57 scales round the body 99. breviceps, p. 300. 

YI, Limbs usually short or rudimentary. Lower eyehd scaly or 
with an undivided transparent disk. Ear distinguishable. 
Supranasals present (or, in one species, the nasal partially di- 
vided longitudinally, and forming a suture with its fellow). 
Pra^frontals well developed. Frontal not broader than the 
supraocular region. (Biojja, Gray.) 

A. Limbs, both pairs pentadactyle. 

1. Frontoparietal single ; limbs well developed ; rostral not 

forming a suture with the frontonasal. 

65 to 67 scales round the body 100. microlejns, p. 301. 

33 or 34 scales round the body 101. garnieri, p. 301. 

2. Frontoparietals two. 

a. Eostral forming a suture with the frontonasal. 

[p. 302. 

34 or 36 scales round the body 102. alhofasdolatum, 

28 or 30 scales round the body 103. rufescens, p. 303. 

h. Rostral not forming a suture with the frontonasal. 

a. Lower eyelid scaly. 

* 30 or more scales round the middle of the body; 
dorsals strongly tri- or quinquecarinate. 

30 scales round the body ; four large 
marginal praeanals ; ear nearly entirely 
hidden under the scales 104. durum, p. 304. 

32 to 36 scales round the body ; no en- 
larged prseanals ; ear exposed 105. fernandi, p. 304. 

** 26 or 28 scales round the body. 

t Supranasal imperfectly separated from the nasal. 

Dorsal scales sharply tricarinate 106. laviceps, p. 305. 

Dorsal scales smooth 107. modestum, p. 306. 

ft Supranasal perfectly separated. 

Frontal longer than frontoparietals and 
parietals together ; a pair of enlarged 
nuchals 108. guiiieense, p. 306. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 



221 



punctatum, p. 310. 



Frontal about as long as frontoparietals 
and parictals together ; no enlarged 
nuchals 109. sundevallii, p. 307. 

Frontal as long as frontoparietals and 
interparietal together ; hind limb mea- 
suring about three fifths the distance 
between axilla and groin 110. bowrmgii, p. 308. 

Frontal as long as frontoparietals and 
interparietal together ; hind limb mea- 
suring loss than half the distance be- [p. 309. 
tween axilla and groin 111. albopunctatum, 

(3. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. 
* 2-1 or 26 scales round the body. 

The distance between the end of the 

snout and the fore limb is contained 

twice to twice and a half in the distance 

between axilla and groin 112. 

The distance between the end of the 

snout and the fore limb is contained 

about thrice in the distance between 

axiUa and groin 113. gueniheri, p. 311. 

** 22 scales round the body. 

The fore limb, stretched forwards, reaches 

slightly beyond the ear ; fourth toe 

slightly longer than third 114. cyanellum, p. 312. 

The fore limb does not reach the ear; 

third and fourth toes equal 115. angiiinum, p. 313. 

3. Frontoparietal single ; limbs very small. 

Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk ; 22 scales round the body 116. calamus, p. 314. 

Lower eyelid scaly ; 24 or 25 scales 

round the body 117. lineolatum, p. 314. 

B. Less than five toes. 

Fingers five, toes four 118. vosmaeri, p. 315. 

Fingers and toes four 119. lineatum, p. 316. 

Fingers two, toes three 120. ancJiietce, p. 316. 



YII. Limbs short, the hind limb not measuring more than the 
distance between the anterior corner of the eye and the fore 
limb, pentadactyle. Lower eyelid scaly. Tympanum distinct. 
No supranasals. Prefrontals well developed. Frontal not 
broader than the supraocular region. (Homolepida, Gray.) 



222 scrNCiD^, 

A. The distance between the end of tlie snout and the tore limb 

is contained less than once and three fourths in the distance 
between axilla and groin ; rostral forming a suture with the 
frontonasal. 

1. Foui'th toe longer than third. 

a. 28 or 30 scales round the middle of the bod}'. 

Dorsal scales smooth ; frontal as long as 
frontoparietals and interparietal to- 
gether 121 . ornatum, p. 317. 

Dorsal scales smooth ; frontal much 
shorter than frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together 122. depJancliii, p. 318. 

Dorsal scales bicarinate 123. chiaense, p. 318. 

b. 24 or 26 scales round the body. 

Frontoparietals two ; dorsal scales trica- 

riiiato 124. peUopIeurum, p. 319. 

Frontoparietals two ; dorsal scales smooth 125. taj)robanense, p. 319. 
Frontoparietal single 126. fallaoc, p. 320. 

2. Fourth toe not longer than third. 

32 scales round the body 127. temmincl-ii, p. 321. 

B. The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb 

is contained at least once and three fourths in the distance 
between axilla and groin. 

1. Fourth toe not longer than third ; interparietal entirely 

separating the parietals. 

Four supraoculars 128. brancJdale, p. 321. 

Three supraoculars 129. casuarince, p. 322. 

2. Fourth toe longer than third; parietals forming a suture 

behind the interparietal. 

a. Ear-opening much larger than the nostril. 

18 or 20 scales round the body ; 21 la- 

melUie under the fourth toe 130. australe, p. 323. 

18 or 20 scales round the body ; 12 to 14 

lamella) under the fourth toe 131. punctulatam, p. 324. 

22 scales round tlic body ; 15 to 18 la- 
mellae under the fourth toe 132. crassicaudum, p. 325. 

b. Ear-opening scarcely larger than the nostril. 

20 scales round the body 133. pwmilum, p. 325. 



8. LTGOSOWA. 223 

YIII. Limbs very short, with less than five digits. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided trans])arent disk. Ear covered with scales. 
No siipranasals. Pra^frontals well developed. Frontal not 
broader than the supraocular region. {IJemiergis, AVagl.) 

Limbs tetradactyle 134. peronii, p. 326. 

Limbs tridactyle 135. decresiense, p. 327. 

Limbs didactyle 136. quadriUneatum, 

[p. 328. 

IX. Limbs more or less developed. Lower eyelid scaly or with a 
transparent disk. Ear covered with scales, or very minute. 
No supranasals. Praefrontals (in the species with short limbs) 
minute or absent. Frontal not broader than the supraocular 
region. (Sicqihos, Gray.) 

A. Limbs overlapping when adpressed ; prefrontals well de- 

veloped. 

Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk : 22 scales round the body 137. hifralineolatum. 

Lower eyelid scaly ; 18 or 20 scales round [p. 328. 

the body 138. quadrivitfatum, 

[p. 329. 

B. Limbs weak ; praefrontals minute or absent. 

1. Limbs pentadactyle. 

Ear covered with scales ; dorsal scales 

smooth 139. smtirosirum, p. 330. 

Ear covered with scales : dorsal scales 

pluricarinate 140. mario', p. 330. 

Ear-opening distinct, minute 141. (/racile, p. 331. 

2. Limbs tridactyle 142. ceqiude, p. 332. 



X, Limbs short or rudimentary. Lower eyelid with a transparent 
disk. Ear distinct, minute. Xo supranasals. Praefrontals 
very small and widely separated, or absent. Frontal bi^oader 
than the supraocular region. (BJiodona, Graj^) 

A. Limbs, both pairs i)resent, pentadactyle. 

20 scales round the body ; frontal as long 
as frontoparietals and interparietal 
together 143. microtis, p. 333. 

22 or 24 scales round the body ; frontal 
longer than frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together 144. hov/jainvillii, p. 333. 



224 SCTNCID^. 

B. Limbs rudimentary ; at least indications of the front pair ; 

pracfrontals present. 

1. Interparietal plate distinct from the frontoparietals. 

Both pairs of limbs tridactyle ; fronto- 
parietal single ; 20 scales round the 
body 145. fragile, p. 334. 

Fore limb mono- or didactyle ; hind limb 
didactyle ; frontoparietals two ; 20 
scales round the body 146. gerrardn, p. 335. 

Fore limb monodactyle, hind limb didac- 
tyle ; frontoparietals two ; 18 scales [p. 335. 
round the body 147. punctatovittatum, 

2. Interparietal and frontoparietals fused into a single large 

shield. 

Fore limb reduced to a styliform rudi- 
ment ; hind limb didactyle 148. Uneojpunctulaium, 

Fore limb reduced to an almost imper- [p. 336. 
ceptible tubercle ; hind limb mono- 
dactyle 149. miopus, p. 337. 

C. No trace of fore limbs ; no praefrontals. 

Hind limb didactyle ; 18 scales round 

the body 150. hipes, p. 337. 

Hind limb monodactyle ; 16 scales round 

the body 151. iircepeditum, p. 337. 



XI. Limbs short, or rudimentary, or absent. Lower eyelid scaly. 
No supranasals. Praefrontals small and widely separated. 
Frontal broader than the supraocular region. (Lygosoma, Gray.) 

A. Limbs pentadactyle ; ear distinct. 

Hind limb at least half as long as its 
distance from the axilla ; fourth toe 
longer than third; two frontoparietals 152. mnelleri, p. 338. 

Limbs very short ; third and fourth toes 
equal ; a single frontoparietal ; ear- 
opening an oblique slit 153. isodactylum, p. 339. 

Limbs very short ; third and fourth toes 
equal ; a single frontoparietal ; ear- 
opening punctiform 154. cJmlcides, p. 340. 

B. Limbs extremely small; ear covered with scales. 

Both pairs of limbs tridactyle 155. reticulatinn, p. 341. 

Both pairs of limbs didactyle 156. sumatrense, p. 342. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 225 

Fore limb tridactyle ; hind limb undi- 
vided 157. verremuvii, p. 342. 

Both pairs of limbs undivided 158. iruncatum, p. 343. 

C. Limbs altogether absent ; ear co- 
vered with scales 159. ophioscincus, p. 343. 

1. Lygosoma lesueurii. 

Hinulia australis, Gray, Cat. p. 77. 
Tiliqua australis, Gray, Ann. N. II. ii. 1838, p. 291. 
Lygosoma lesueurii, IJuni. ^- Bibr. v. p. 733. 

australe {non Gray), Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1863, p. 231. 

schomburgkii, Peters, I. c. 

Euprepes australis, Steindachn. Novara, Rept. p. 49. 

Lygosoma (Ilinulia) pantherinum, Peters, Mon. Berl, Ac, 1866, 

p. 89. 
Hinulia spaldingi, Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii. 1877, p. 63. 

Habit lacertiform, slender ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half to twice in the 
distance between axilla and groin, Snout moderate, obtuse ; loreal 
region nearly vertical. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a 
single nasal ; no supranasal ; no postnasal ; rostral usually in 
contact with the frontonasal ; latter broader than long ; praefrontals 
forming a median suture ; frontal as long as or a little longer than 
the frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact with the three 
anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; eight supraciliaries, first 
largest; frontoparietals distinct, as long as or shorter than the 
interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
two to four pairs of nuchals ; fifth and sixth, or sixth and seventh 
upper labials largest and below the eye. Ear-opening oval, about 
as large as the eye- opening, the anterior border with a fringe of 
four or five lobules. 24 to 34 smooth scales round the body ; 
dorsals, especially the two vertebral series, largest, laterals smallest. 
Two large praeanals. The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow 
of the adpressed fore limb. Toes long and slender, compressed ; 
subdigital lameUee feebly unicarinate, 22 to 26 under the fourth toe. 
Tail over twice the length of head and body. Brown or olive 
above, with a black, white-edged vertebral band, and a white, 
black-edged dorso-lateral streak ; sides blackish, with regular series 
of white spots ; a white streak from above axilla to groin. The 
ground-colour of the back may be black, with the usual white 
markings. Lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 275 Fore limb 24 

Head 16 Hind Hmb 40 

Width of head 10 Tail 190 

Body 69 

Australia. 
VOL. in. Q 



226 




BCINCID-^. 




a-d. Ad. 


& llgT. 


W. Austi-alia. 


Mr. Buchanan [C.l. 


t-f. Ad. 




\V. Australia. 


J. Gould, Esq. rC._. 
J. Gould, Esq. [CJ. 


g-h. Ad. 


& hgi-. 


Houtman's Abrolhos. 


i. Ad. 




N. Australia. 


G. Kreffi, Esq. 


k. Ad. 




xiustralia. 


Haslar Collection. 


I. Yg. 




Australia. 


Sir E. Belcher [P.]. 


7M. Ad. 




Australia. 


P. L. Sclater, Esq. [P.], 


n. Ad. 




Australia. 


G. Ki-efl"t, Esq. 


o,p,y. Ad. 


Australia. 





Var. inornatum. 

Himilia inornata. Gray, Cat. p. 78. 
Ilinulia inornata, Gray, Zool. Ereh. 8f Terr., Reiyt. pi. x. fig. 3. 

Yellowish olive above, with a whitish, dark-edged dorso-lateral 
streak beginning from the supraciliary border ; a broader whitish 
streak from car to hind limb ; sometimes a very fine blackish 
vertebral Line. 



a. Ad. 

b. Ad. 

c. Ad. 



Swan River. 
Cape York. 
Australia. 



(Type.) 

Sir J. Richardson [P.], 



2. Lygosoma dorsale. (Plate XII. fig. 1.) 

Closely allied to L. Jcsvcurii. Only three supraoculars, first very 
large ; frontal much longer than frontoparietals and interparietal 
together. Two or three auricular lobules. Adpressed limbs slightly 
overlapping. 30 scales round the body. Pale brown above ; a 
black vertebral streak ; a yellowish, black-edged lateral streak ; a 
lateral series of black spots and an ill-defined light, dark-edged 
streak from axilla to groin ; lower surfaces white. 



millim. 
From snout to vent. 94 

Head 20 

Width of head 11 



New Guinea. 
(i-b. Ad. 



Fly River. 



millim. 

Fore limb 22 

Hind limb 39 



Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 



3. Lygosoma leae. (Plate XII. fig. 2.) 

Habit lacertiform, slender ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse ; loreal region 
nearly vertical. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single 
nasal ; no supranasal : no postnasal ; nasals in contact mesiaUy ; 
frontonasal broader tlian long; praefrontals forming a median suture ; 
frontal as long as frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact 
with the three anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven 



8. LTGOSOMA, 227 

supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, shorter than the 
interparietal ; parietals forming a median suture ; three pairs of 
nuchals ; sixth iipper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening oval, 
nearly as large as the eye-opening, the anterior border with a fringe 
of four or live lobules. 22 smooth scales round the body ; dorsals, 
especially the two vertebral series, largest, laterals smallest. Two 
large pra3anals. The hind limb reaches the elbow. Toes long 
and slender, compressed ; subdigital lamella) sharply unicarinatc, 
28 under the fourth toe. Erown above, with six white longitudinal 
lines ; upper lip and side of body white ; two brown lines from the 
ear to the fore limb, and another from axilla to groin ; lower 
surfaces white. 

luillim. inillim. 

Total length 162 Fore limb 19 

Head VS Hind limb 31 

Width of head 8 Tail (reproduced) . . 100 

Body 49 

Adelaide. 
«. Ad. Adelaide. Rev. T. E. Lea [P.]. 

4. Lygosoma tseniolatiim. 

Hinulia t^uiolata, Gray, Cat. p. 78. 
Lacerta tfeuiolata, Wliite, Journ. N. S. Wales, p. 245, pi. — . fig. 1. 
Scincus octolineatus, TJaucl. Rept. iv. p. 285. 

tfeniolatus, Men: Tent. p. 72. 

undecimstriatus, Kuld, Beitr. z. Zool. u. Vergl. Anat. p. 129. 

multilineatus, Lesson, Vol/. Coqidtle, Zool. ii. p. 45, pi. iii. 

fig. 2. 
Tiliqua tteniolata, Gm;/, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 68. 
Lygosoma tjeniolata, Dum. ^- Bibr, v. p. 733 ; Hallow. Proc. Ac. 

Philad. 1860, p. 490. 
Hinulia taeniolata, Girard, U.S. Explor. Exped., Ilerp. p. 258. 
Euprepes taeuiolata, Steindachn. Novara, liept. p. 49. 

Habit lacertiform, slender ; the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half to once 
and four fifths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
moderate, obtuse ; loreal region nearly vertical. Lower eyelid 
scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; no post- 
nasal ; rostral sometimes in contact with the frontonasal ; latter 
broader than long, forming a suture with the frontal, separating 
the praefrontals ; frontal as long as or a little longer than 
frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact with the three 
anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven to nine supra- 
cUiaries, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, as long as or shorter 
than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; three to five pairs of nuchals ; fifth and sixth upjjer 
labials largest and below the eye. Ear-opening oval, a little 
smaller than the eye-opening, with a fringe formed by three to five 
lobules anteriorly. 24 or 26 smooth scales round the body ; dorsals, 

q2 



228 sciNCiD^. 

especially the two vertebral series, largest, laterals smallest. Two 
large praeanals. The adprcssed limbs slightly overlap, or the hind 
limb reaches the elbow. Toes long and slender, compressed ; sub- 
digital lamellas feebly unicarinate, 20 to 2G under the fourth toe. 
Tail about twice the length of head and body. Yellowish brown 
above, with three broad black bands and four white streaks along 
the back ; sides without any spots, with alternating black and 
white longitudinal streaks ; altogether, eight white streaks on the 
body, the two on each side broadest ; limbs with longitudinal black 
lines ; lower surfaces white. 

milliiu. millirn. 

Total length 230 Fore limb 19 

Head 14 Hind limb 33 

Width of head .... 9 Tail 155 

Body 61 

New South "Wales. 

G. Krefft, Esq. 

A. G. Butler, Esq. [P.l. 
■ C. Darwin, Esq. [P.]. ' 
P. L. Sclater, Esq. [P.]. 
Lord Derby [P.]. 



Hinulia essingtonii, Gray, Cat. p. 78. 
Tiliqua essino'tonii, Gray^ Zool. Miscell. 1842, p. 51. 
Lygosoma (Hinulia) essingtonii, Peters <Si- Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, 
xiii. 1878, p. 345. 

The vertebral band is absent or indicated only on the nape, and 
the sides of the head, neck, and body, instead of being regularly 
striped, are light-spotted on a dark ground. In every other respect 
this form does not differ from L. tceniolatum. 

North Australia. 

Mr. Gilbert [C.]. (T^-pe.) 
Sir J. Richardson [P.j. 



a, b-c. Ad. & hgr. 


Sydney. 


d. Ad. 


Svduey. 


e. Ad. 


Paramatta. 


f. Ad. 


Australia. 


>. Ad. 


Australia. 


h-i. Ad. & ho-r. 


Australia. 


k-m. Ad. & hgr. 


Australia. 


Var. essingtonii. 





a. Yg. 


Port Essington. 


b. Ad. 


Australia. 


c. Hgr. 


Australia. 



5. Lygosoma fischeri. 

Hinulia muelleri, Fischer, Arch. f. Xat. 1882, p. 295, pi. xvi. 
figs. 16-19. 

Distinguished from L. tceniolatum in having 30 scales round the 
middle of tho body. Brownish yellow above, with a line blackish 
light-edged vertebral line, which is sometimes absent ; two or three 
fine light longitudinal lines on each side, the interspaces between 
them largely spotted with blackish. 

Nicol Bay, N.W. Australia. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 229 

6, Lygosoma stranchii. (Plate XII. fig. 3.) 

Habit laccrtiform, slender ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and two thirds in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse ; loreal 
region nearly vertical. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced in a 
single nasal ; no supranasal, no postnasal ; nasals in contact behind 
the rostral ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a broad suture 
with the frontal ; latter longer than frontoparietals and parietals 
together, in contact with the three anterior supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars ; eight supraciliaries, first and last largest ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, shorter than the interparietal ; parietals forming a 
suture behind the interparietal ; four pairs of nuchals ; fourth and 
fifth upper labials below the eye. Ear-opening oval, a little larger 
than the eye-opening, with a few rather indistinct lobules anteriorly. 
28 smooth scales round the body ; laterals smallest, the two ver- 
tebral series largest. Two large prseanals. The hind limb reaches 
the elbow. Toes long and slender, compressed ; subdigital lamellae 
unicarinate, 22 under the fourth toe. Pale brown on the head and 
a broad vertebral zone, black with pale brown and whitish spots on 
the sides ; a whitish streak from the supraciliary edge to the tail, 
and another broader one from axilla to groin : a white streak from 
below the nostril to above the ear ; limbs with black longitudinal 
lines ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 123 Fore limb 13 

Head 10 Hind limb 22 

Width of head 6 Tail (reproduced) . . 78 

Body 35 

Queensland. 

a. Hgr. Gavndah. Godeffroy Museum. 



7. Lygosoma labillardierii. 

Hinulia grevii, Grai/, Cat. p. 76. 

labillardieri, Gmi/, Cat. p. 77. 

Tiliqua labillardieri, Graif, Ann. X. H. ii. 1838, p. 289. 
Lygosoma labillardieri, Dum. ^- Bihr. v. p. 731. 
Hinulia gi-eyii, Gray, Zool. Ereb. i§- Terr., Eept. pi. x. fig. 3. 
labillardieri, Giinth. Zool. Ereb. S)- Terr., Rept. p. 11. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and two thirds to once and 
three fourths in the distance between axiUa and groin. Snout 
moderate, obtuse ; loreal region nearly vertical. Lower eyelid 
scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal, no post- 
nasal ; frontonasal broader than long, narrowly in contact with the 
rostral and broadly with the frontal ; latter shorter than fronto- 
parietals and parietals together, in contact with the first and second 



230 SCTNCID^. 

supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest : eight supraciliaries, 
first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, as long as or shorter than the 
interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
three or four pairs of nuchals ; sixth and seventh, or fifth and sixth, 
upper labials largest and below the eye. Ear-opening oval, about 
as largo as the eye-opening, with three or four pointed lobules 
anteriorly. 26 or 28 smooth scales round the body, laterals 
smallest, the two vertebral series largest. Two large pracanals. 
The hind limb usually reaches the wrist or the elbow. Toes long, 
compressed ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 22 to 24 under the fourth 
toe. Tail not twice as long as head and body. Olive-brown above, 
sides black, white-dotted ; a whitish dorso-lateral streak, beginning 
from the supraciliary border ; another undulated whitish streak on 
each side, from ear to groin ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 145 Fore limb 16 

Head 12 Hind limb 23 

Width of head 8 Tail 92 

Body 41 

Western Australia. 

a. Ad. King George's Sound. 

b-c. Ad. & hgr. Albany. _ ' II. Ling Roth, Esq. [P.]. 

d. Ad. Swan River. (Type of Himdia yreyii.) 

e. Ad. Swan River. 

f. Hgr. Australia. G. Ki-efft, Esq. 

8. Lygosoma quoyi. 

Quoy ^ Gaim. Voy. JJranie, Zool. pi. xlii. fig. 1. 

Lygosoma quoyii, Duni. Sj- Mhr, v. p. 728. 

Hiuulia gastrosticta, Gilnth. Zool. Ereb. ^ Terr.,Reiot. p. 11. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and a half in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a narrow suture with 
the rostral ; prsefrontals forming a median suture or in contact with 
their inner angles ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the two or three anterior supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, usually followed by a very small fifth ; nine supra- 
ciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, equal, or latter a 
little shorter than former ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal; three enlarged shields on each side, bordering the 
parietals ; sixth upper labial largest and below the eye. Ear-opening 
oval, nearly as large as the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 36 to 
40 scales round the middle of the body ; ventrals largest, laterals 
smallest : dorsal scales smooth or tricarinate (young). A pair of 
large pracanals. The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow. 



8. LTQOSOMA. 231 

Digits slightly compressed ; subdigital lamclloc smooth, divided, 27 
to 32 under the fourth toe. Tail about twice as long as head and 
body. Olive-brown above, with small scattered black spots ; sides 
black, with small whitish spots ; a yellow dorso-lateral line : lower 
surfaces whitish ; throat, and sometimes also belly, with longitudinal 
series of black dots, 

milliin. millira. 

Total length 285 Fore limb 30 

Head 24 Hind limb 46 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 190 

Body 71 

Australia. 

a. Ad. Australia. Lord Derby [P.]. ) (Tj-pes of Ri- 

b. Ad, Kangaroo Id. Zoological Society, i nulia yastro- 
c-d. Ad. it hgr. Queensland. G. Krefft, Esq. ' j sticta.) 

e. Yg. Ilockhampton. Godeftroy Museum. 



9. Lygosoma tenue. 

Hinidia elegans, Oray, Cat. p. 70. 

tenuis, part., Gray^ I. c. 

Tiliqiia tenuis, Gray, Griff". A. K. ix. Syn. p. 71, and Ami. N. II. ii. 

1838, p. 291. 
Lygosoma erucata, Dum. Sf- Bibr, v. p. 726. 
Hinulia elegans, Gray, Zool. Ereb. S,- Terr., Rept. p. G, pi. x. fig. 1. 

tenuis, Gray, I. c. pi. xi. fig. 3 ; Giinth. op. cit. p. 11. 

Euprepes tenuis, Steindaclm. Novara, Rept. p. 49, 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and two fifths to once and a half in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; fronto- 
nasal much broader than long, forming a broad suture with the 
rostral and in contact with the truncate anterior angle of the frontal ; 
latter shield as long as or a little shorter than frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals 
and interparietal distinct, subequal or latter longest ; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; three enlarged shields 
on each side bordering the parietals ; fifth and sixth upper labials 
below the eye. Ear-opening oval, as large as or a little smaller 
than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 28 to 32 smooth scales 
round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A 
pair of large praeanals. The hind Hmb reaches the wrist or not 
quite so far. Digits compressed; subdigital lamellae smooth or 
obtusely keeled, 20 to 25 under the fourth toe. Tail once and one 
fourth to once and a half as long as head and body. Pale greyish 
or brownish above, with irregular black markings sometimes forming 
a network ; a series of large black spots, more or less confluent 



232 BCINCID^. 

into a zigzag band, along each side ; lips spotted with blackish ; 

lower surfaces yellowish white ; throat spotted or variegated with 

brown. 

millim. millini. 

Total length 170 Fore limb 22 

Head 17 Hind limb 32 

Width of head 12 Tail 95 

Body 58 

New South "Wales. 

a. Ad. Australia. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Australia. (Type of Hinulia elegans.) 

c. Ad. Australia. J. Stokes, Esq. [C.]. 

d. Yg. Australia. G. Kreft\ Esq. 
e-f, tj-i. Ad. & vg. N. S. Wales. G. Kretft, Esq. 

fc.' Ad. ' ■ Paramatta. H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 

I. Ad, Paramatta. A. G. Butler, Esq. [P.]. 



10. Lygosoma murrayi. (Plate XIII. fig. 1.) 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one third in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Nostril pierced in a single nasal; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral and with the 
frontal ; latter as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together, 
in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
first twice as long as second ; eight supraciliaries, first largest ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in length ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; 
fourth and fifth upper labials below the eye. Ear-opening oval, a 
little larger than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 34 smooth 
scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. 
Two enlarged prteanals. The hind limb reaches the wrist. Digits 
rather short, compressed ; subdigital lamella; obtusely keeled, 19 
under the fourth toe. Tail thick, nearly once and a half the length 
of head and body. Brown above ; sides blackish, with irregular 
small yellowish sjwts ; lower surfaces yellowish white, throat 
marbled with grey. 



millim. 




millim, 


Total length . . . . 195 


Fore limb . . 


23 


Head 18 


Hind limb . . , 


31 


Width of head .... 13 


Tail 


115 


Body 62 






Queensland. 






Ad. Queensland, 


H.M.S. 


' Challenger.' 



8. LTG080MA. 233 

11. Lygosoma pallidum. (Plate XIII. fig. 2.) 

Hinulia pallida, Giinth. Zool. JSreb. Sf Terr., Rept. p. 12. 

Body elongate, limbs rather thin ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and two thirds in 
the distance between axilla and groin. 8nout much dox)ressed, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced in a single nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter slightly longer than fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact witli the three 
anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; nine supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in length ; 
parietals fonning a suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; 
fifth and sixth upper labials below the eye. Ear-opening rather 
small, subtriangular ; no auricular lobules. 32 smooth scales round 
the middle of the body, subequal. A pair of enlarged prseanals. 
The adpressed limbs slightly overlap. Digits moderately elongate, 
slender, compressed; subdigital lamellae strongly unicarinatc, 24 
under the fourth toe. Pale rufous-brown above, white inferiorly. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 135 Fore limb 20 

Head 15 Hind limb 28 

Width of head .... 10 Tail (reproduced) . . 60 

Body 60 

Xorth-western Australia, 

a. Ad. Nicol Bay. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. (Type.) 



12. Lygosoma minutum.* 
Lygosoma (Hinulia) minuta, Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 132. 

Body moderately elongate, subquadrangular. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced in a single nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a broad suture 
with the rostral and with the frontal ; praefrontals very small and 
widely separated, frontal shorter than frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, subequal in length ; seven supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in size ; parietals in 
contact behind the interparietal ; enlarged nuchals present, passing 
gradually into the vertebral scales ; fourth and fifth upper labials 
largest and below the eye. Ear-opening moderate, suboval, much 
smaller than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 22 smooth scales 
round the body ; dorsals largest. A pair of slightly enlarged prteanals. 
Limbs moderately elongate, just meeting when adpressed. 15 

* Described from the type specimen (.308) in the Dresden Museum. 



234 



scrscmM. 



smooth lamellae under the fourth toe. Brown above, with a few 

smaller li<i;hter and darker spots ; lower surfaces pale brown ; lips 
with dark bars. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail re- Body 24 

produced) 62 Fore limb 8 

Head 8 Hind limb 11 

Width of head 4-5 

New Guinea. 



13. Lygosoma isolepis. (Plate XV. fig. 1.) 

Hinulia tenuis, part., Gray, Cat. p. 7G. 
Hinulia striatiila {non Steind.), part., Gilnth. Zool. Ereb. i^- Terr., 
Rept. p. 11. 

Body elongate, limbs rather short ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and two fifths 
to once and three fifths in the distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a 
single nasal, no supranasal : frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a suture with the rostral and with the frontal; latter as long as or 
a little longer than frontoparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 
eight or nine supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal dis- 
tinct, of equal length ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; one or two pairs of nuchals ; usually the fourth, sometimes 
the fifth, upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening 
suboval, smaller than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 30 or 
32, rarely 28, smooth scales round the body ; laterals a little 
smaller, dorsals equal. A pair of large praeanals. The adpressed 
limbs fail to meet, or just meet. Digits short, feebly compressed ; 
subdigital lamelloe tubercularly keeled, divided, 21 to 26 under the 
fourth toe. Tail thick, about once and two thirds the length of 
head and body. Brown above, with small dark brown spots, which 
are more crowded on the sides, forming a dorso-lateral band, 
and intermixed with whitish dots ; the sutures of the labials dark 
brown ; lower surfaces whitish. 



millim. 

Total length 198 

Head 16 

Width of head ... . 11 
Body 59 



millim. 

Fore limb 18 

Hind limb 25 

Tail 123 



Western Australia. 

a. Hgr. 

h-c. Ad. i^ hgr. 

d^e. Ad. 



Nicol Bay. 
Swan River. 
Australia. 



Mr. Duboulay [C.]. 
Lord Derby [P.]. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 235 

14. Lygosoma elegantulum. 

Hinulia striatula (iion Steind.), part., Giinth. Zoul. Ereb. ^- Terr., 

Rept. p. 11. 
Lygosoma (Hinulia) elegantulum, Peters ^- Doria, Ann. Mus. 

Genova, xiii. 1878, p. 344. 

Body elongate, limbs rather short ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and three fifths to 
twice in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with the 
rostral and with the frontal : latter as long as or a little shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two 
anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; eight, rarely seven or 
nine, supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, sub- 
equal in length ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
three or four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial below the centre 
of the eye. Ear-opening suboval, smaller than the eye-opening ; 
no auricular lobules. 28, rarely 2(), smooth scales round the body ; 
laterals smallest, dorsals, especially the two vertebral series, largest. 
A pair of large pracanals. The adpressed limbs fail to meet. Digits 
short, feebly compressed ; subdigital lamelloe smooth, divided, 16 to 
20 under the fourth toe. Tail very thick, once and one third or 
once and a half the length of head and body. Brown above, uni- 
form or with small irregular dark brown spots, often forming trans- 
verse series on the nape ; lips with blackish spots or vertical bars ; 
lower surfaces yellowish. 

milliiii. 

Total length 192 

Head 15 

Width of head ... . 11 
Body 65 

Cape York, islands of Torres Straits, New Guinea. 

a. Ad. Fly River. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

b-e,f-h. Ad. ^luriay Island. Rev.. 8. Macfarlane [C.]. 

i-k. Ad. Islands of Torres Straits. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.j. 

/-?«. Ad. Sunday Island (?). J. B. Julies, Esq. [P.J. 



15. Lygosoma richardsonii. 

Hinulia richardsonii, Grai/, Cat. p. 271. 
Hinulia richardsonii, Gra;/, Zool. Ereb. (^ Terr., Rept. pi. xi. fig. 2. 

Body elongate, limbs short ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and two thirds in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; 
frontonasal a little broader than long, forming a narrow suture with 





millini 


Fore limb . . . . 


.... 16 


Hind limb . . . . 


.... 24 


Tail 


.. .. 112 



236 sciNCiD^. 

the rostral ; pra3frontals in contact with their inner angles ; frontal 
as long as frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact with the 
three anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; eight supraciliaries, 
first and last largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
equal in length ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
a pair of irregular nuchals ; sixth and seventh upper labials below 
the eye. Ear-opening suboval, much smaller than the eye-opening, 
with four projecting granules on the anterior border. 36 smooth, 
subequal scales round the middle of the body. A pair of slightly 
enlarged prteanals. The adpressed limbs fail to meet. Digits short, 
compressed ; subdigital lamelhc smooth, divided, 25 under the fourth 
toe. Tail very thick. Pale brown above, with broad dark brown 
cross bands, nine between the head and the base of the tail ; lower 
surfaces white. 

uiillim. iiiilliin. 

Total length 277 Fore limb 29 

Head 27 Hind limb 38 

Width of head .... 19 Tail (reproduced) . . 150 

Body 100 

Western Australia. 

a. Ad. Houtman's Abrolhos. B. Bjmoe, Esq. [P.]. (Type.) 

16. Lygosoma fasciolatum. (Plate XIV. fig. 1.) 

? Euprepes striatulus, Steindachn. Novara, Rept. p. 49. 

HinuUa fasciolata, Giinth. Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (3) xx. 1867, p. 47. 

Habit lacertiform, limbs rather short ; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and one fourth 
to once and two fifths in the distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single 
nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a 
narrow suture with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter as long 
as frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact with the two or 
three anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; nine or ten supra- 
ciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, equal in length, 
or latter shorter than former ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; three enlarged scales on each side border the parietals ; 
sometimes three pairs of nuchals ; sixth and seventh, or sixth to 
eighth, upper labials below the eye. Ear-opening suboval, much 
smaller than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 32 or 34 
smooth scales round the middle of the body ; laterals smallest. A 
pair of large pmeanals. The adpressed limbs meet, nearly meet, or 
overlap. Digits rather short, slightly compressed ; subdigital 
lamellae tubercularly keeled, divided, 20 to 23 under the fourth toe. 
Tail very thick, a little longer than head and body ; upper caudal 
scales obtusely keeled, the keels forming continuous lines. Pale 
brown above, with rather irregular narrow dark brown cross bands, 
ometimes interrupted, obliquely descending forwards on the sides ; 



8, LYGOSOMA. 237 

twelve to fourteen cross bands between the head and the base of the 

tail ; lower surfaces whitish. 

milliin. mtllini. 

Total length 208 Fore limb 27 

Head 24 Hind limb 33 

Width of head ... . 17 Tail 110 

Body 74 

Queensland. 

a. Ad. Port Curtis. G. Kreffl, Esq. I /rp^„_„ n 

b. Ad. Rockbampton. f ^^-JV*'''-^ 

c. Hgr. Rockbampton. 

17. Lygosoma monotropis. (Piate XIV. fig. 2.) 
Habit lacertiforra, limbs rather short; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and one third 
to once and a half in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single 
nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal a little broader than long, forming 
a narrow suture with the rostral and with thefronlal; latter as long 
as or a little longer than frontoparietals and parietals together, in 
contact with the three anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 
eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, equal 
in length ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
no regular nuchals ; three enlarged scales on each side border the 
parietals ; sixth and seventh upper labials below the eye. Ear- 
opening suboval, much smaller than the eye-opening ; no auricular 
denticulation. 28 or 30 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 
largest and obtusely unicarinate, the keels forming continuous lines 
along the back and tail. A pair of enlarged prseanals. The ad- 
pressed limbs meet or overlap. Digits rather short, compressed ; 
subdigital lameU^e smooth, divided, 22 to 2G under the fourth toe. 
Tail very thick. Pale brown above, with broad dark brown trans- 
verse bands, nine or ten between the head and the base of the tail ; 
lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. rnillim. 

Total length 178 Fore limb 21 

Head 18 Hind limb 30 

Width of head .... 12 Tail (reproduced) . . 95 

Body 65 

North- Avesteru Australia. 

a-b. Ad. «& yg. Champion Bay. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. 

c. Ad. W. Australia." Mr. Duboulay [0.]. 

18. Lygosoma fasciatum. (Plate XV. fig. 2.) 

Ilinulia tasciata, Gray, Cat. p. 75. 
Lygosoma (Hinulia) fasciatum, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1872, p. 583. 

Body elongate, limbs rather short ; the distance between the end 



238 sctNCiD^. 

of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and two thirds in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; 
rostral forming a narrow suture with the frontonasal, which is 
broader than long ; prefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal as 
long as frontoparietals, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars ; five supraoculars ; nine supraciliarics, first largest ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in length ; parietals 
forming a short suture behind the interparietal ; four pairs of 
nuchals ; sixth upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening 
oval, nearly as large as the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 30 
smooth scales round the middle of the body, the two vertebral series 
composed of very broad scales. A pair of enlarged pra}anals. The 
adpressed limbs fail to meet. Digits moderately elongate, com- 
pressed ; subdigital lamellae obtusely keeled, divided, 25 under the 
fourth toe. Tail thick, once and one third as long as head and body. 
Blackish brown above, with irregular yellowish cross bars ; lower 
surfaces yellowish, throat marbled with dark brown. 

milliiu. luillim. 

Total length 163 Fore limb 15 

Head 15 Hind limb 22 

Width of head .... 10 Tail 93 

Body 55 

■■ Philippine Islands. 

a. Ad. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Type.) 

19. Lygosoma undulatum. 

Lygosoma (HinuHa) undulatum, I'eters t^" Doria, Ann. 3fus, Genovct, 
xiii. 1878, p. 313. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and two fifths to once and three fifths 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; rostral narrowed and produced superiorly, forming a straight 
suture with the frontonasal, which is broader than long ; prsefrontals 
forming a median suture ; frontal not or scarcely longer than the 
frontoparietals, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
five supraoculars, first at least twice as long as second ; ten supra- 
ciliarics, first and last largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct, subequal in length ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; three or four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial 
below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening moderate, oval, con- 
siderably smaller than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 28 
smooth scales round the middle of the body ; laterals smallest, the 
two vertebral series composed of very broad scales. A paii- of large 
pra3anals. The adpressed limbs slightly overlap. Digits moderately 
elongate, compressed ; subdigital lamellse obtusely keeled, 20 under 



8. LTGOSOMA. 239 

the fourth toe. Pale hrown above, with brown spots or irregular 
undulated transverse bands ; a dorso-latcral series of darker brown 
spots ; lower surfaces brownish white, throat spotted with brown. 

milliin. iiiilliin. 

Total length (tail re- IJody 45 

produced) 105 Fore limb 15 

Head 13 Hind limb 21 

Width of head 8 

Papuasia. 

a-b. Ad. & yg. Katow, S. New Guinea. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 

20. Lygosoina rufum. (Plate XV. fig. 3.) 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and two fifths in the distance between 
axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril 
pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; rostral forming a gently 
curved suture with the frontonasal, which is broader than long ; 
inner angles of pra^froutals meeting ; frontal nearly as long as 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two 
anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, followed by a very small 
fifth ; nine or ten supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals and 
interparietal distinct, former longer than latter ; parietals forming a 
sutui-e behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth upper labial 
below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening oval, a little smaller than 
the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 32 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body ; laterals smallest, dorsals, especially the two 
vertebral series, largest. A pair of enlarged prseanals. The ad- 
pressed limbs slightly overlap. Digits rather short, compressed ; 
subdigital lamella; smooth, divided, 20 under the fourth toe. Eed- 
dish brown above, variegated with darker and lighter, brownish 
white inferiorly. 

millim. milliru. 

Total length 108 Fore limb 16 

Head 14 Hind limb 22 

Width of head 9 Tail (reproduced) . . 48 

Body 46 

Aru Islands, Papuasia. 

a. Ad. VVokan. H.M.S. 'Challenger.' 



21. Lygosoina maindroni. 
.ilia) maindroni, Sauvaye, Bu 

Lower eyelid scaly. Snout rather short, liostral large, its upper 



Lygosonia (HiniUia) maindroni, Sauvaye, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7 ) iii. 
1878, p. 55. 



240 scrffCiD^. 

border pointed ; nasals not widely separated ; frontonasal with 
straight posterior border ; pra^frontals forming a median suture ; 
frontal pointed posteriorly ; four supraoculars ; interparietal as 
large as frontoparietals, which are distinct ; a single anterior loreal. 
Ear-opening moderate, without lobules. 30 smooth scales round 
the body ; laterals smallest, dorsals, especially the two vertebral 
series, largest, A pair of enlarged prajanals. Limbs moderate. 
Brown above, with yellowish-grey spots forming transverse bands 
on the back and tail ; throat with irregular brown lines. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent. 60 Fore limb 14 

Head 12 Tail 70 

Haas, New Guinea. 



22. Lygosoma consobrinum. 

Lvgosoma (Hinulia) consobrinum, Peters Sf Doria, Ann. Mtis. Genova, 
'xiii. 1878, p. 342. 

Allied to L. variegatmn and L. jarjoni. Rostral small ; fronto- 
nasal twice as broad as long ; praefrontals in contact mesially ; four 
supraoculars ; frontoparietals distinct ; interparietal very large. 
No auricular lobules. 30 to 32 smooth scales round the body ; 
laterals smallest, dorsals and ventrals of nearly e(]ual size. A pair 
of enlarged praeanals. The hind limb, stretched forwards, covers 
two thirds of the space between groin and axilla. Reddish brown 
above, variegated with oblique and irregular darker spots ; sides of 
body blackisb, with undulated transverse whitish lines; yellowish 
interiorly, throat with black spots or longitudinal lines. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent. 35 Fore limb 9 

Head 8 Hind limb 13 

Batchian, Moluccas. 



23. Lygosoma jagorii. 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) jagorii, Peters, Man. Berl. ^c. 1864, p. 54. 
Hinulia variegata {iion Peters), Gilnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p. 165, 
pi. xvii. fig. B. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one third to once and a 
half in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; rostral forming a straight suture with the frontonasal, which 
is broader than long and in contact with the frontal ; latter as long 
as frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; four large su])raoculars, followed by two 



8. LTGOSOMA. 241 

very small ones ; first supraocular at least twice as long as second ; 
eleven supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct, subequal; parietals forming a short suture behind the in- 
terparietal ; no nuchals ; sixth and seventh, or seventh and eighth, 
upper labials largest and below the eye. Ear-opening moderate, 
oval, much smaller than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 
36 or 38 smooth scales round the middle of the body, subequal. A 
pair of enlarged prteanals. The hind limb reaches the wrist or the 
elbow. Digits moderately elongate, compressed ; subdigital lamellae 
obtusely keeled, 23 to 2(3 under the fourth toe. Brown above, with 
darker and lighter variegations. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 215 Fore limb 2:i 

Head 20 Hind limb 35 

Width of head 14- Tail (reproduced) . . 120 

Body 75 

Philippine Islands. 

a. Ad. Philippines. H. Cimiing, Esq. [C.]. 

b. Ad. Philippines. H. J. Yeitch, Esq. [P.]. 



24. Lygosoma indicum. (Plate XVI. fig. 1.) 

Hinulia indica, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. (2) xii. 1853, p. 388 ; 

Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 122 ; Tlieoh. Cat. 

Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 54. 
Eumeces indicus, part., Gilnth, Rept. Brit. lad. p. 89 ; Anders. Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 158. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and two fifths to once and three 
fifths in the distance between axiUa and groin. Snout short, obtuse ; 
loreal region nearly vertical. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced 
in a single nasal, or between a nasal and a postnasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; rostral convex, largely in contact with the frontonasal, 
which is broader than long, and forms a narrow suture with the 
frontal ; latter as long as frontoparietal and parietals together, in 
contact with the first, second, and third supraoculars ; four large 
supraoculars, followed by two very small ones ; first supraocular 
not much longer than second ; nine or ten supraciliaries, first 
largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, former a little 
longer than latter ; parietals forming a short suture behind the 
interparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials largest and 
below the eye. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the eye-opening : 
no auricular lobules. 36 or 38 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body, laterals smallest. A pair of large pra^anals. When the 
limbs are pressed against the body, the hind limb reaches the elbow 
or not quite so far. Digits rather elongate, compressed ; subdigital 
lamellte smooth or obtusely keeled, 17 to 20 under the fourth toe. 

VOL. III. K 



a, b. Ad. 


Himalayas 


c. Ad. 


Sikkim. 


d. Ad 


Darjeeliug. 


e. Ad. 


? 



242 SCTNCID^. 

Tail almost twice as long as head and body. Brown or olive above, 
uniform or with scattered darker dots ; sides of head and body dark 
brown, light-margined above ; flanks usually with large light spots ; 
lower surfaces whitish. 

milliiu. millino. 

Total length 224 Fore limb 25 

Head 18 Hind limb 36 

Width of head .... 12 Tail 144 

Body 62 

Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Burma. 

Sir J. Hooker [P.]. (Type.) 
Messrs. v. Schlagintweit [P.]. 
W. T. Blauford, Esq. [P.]. 



25. Lygosoma maculatum. 

Lissonota maculata, Bhjth, Jouni. As. iSoc. Beng. xxii. 1853, p. 653. 

Mabouia maculata, G'dnth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 84. 

Hinulia maculata, Thcoh. Cat. liept. As. Soc. 3Ius. p. 25 ; Stoliczka, 

Journ. As. Soc. Bejiy. xxxix. 1870, p. 174, and xli. 1872, p. 123; 

Theoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 55. 
Eumeces indicus, part., Gi'tnth. I. c. p. 89 ; Anders. P)-oc. Zool. Soc. 

1871, p. 158. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb equals once and one fifth to once and a half the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse ; loreal region nearly 
vertical. Lower eyelid scaly, IS^ostiil pierced in a single nasal ; 
no supranasal ; rostral perfectly flat or a little concave above, largely 
in contact with the frontonasal, which is broader than long, and forms 
a narrow suture with the frontal ; latter shield as long as fronto- 
parietals and pai-ietals together, in contact with the two or three 
anterior supraoculars ; five large supraoculars, first much longer 
than second, fifth smallest : nine or ten supraciliaries, first and last 
largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, former a little 
longer than latter ; parietals forming a short suture behind the in- 
terparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials largest and 
below the eye. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the eye-opening ; 
no auricular lobules. 38 or 40 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of large pra:- 
anals. The hind limb reaches the elbow or the axilla. Digits long, 
compressed; subdigital lamelUc feebly unicarinate, 16 to 21 under 
the fourth toe. Tail almost twice as long as head and body. Brown 
or olive-brown above, usually with two dorsal series of small dark 
brown spots ; a dark brown lateral band, usually spotted with 
whitish and edged below with white, extends from the nostril to 
the tail, passing through the eye and above the car ; flanks white- 
spotted ; lower surfaces white. 





8. LTGOSOMA. 




inillini. 


Total length 


.. .. 177 


Head 


. ... 14 


Width of head . . 


9 


Body 


. . . . 4U 



243 



millim. 

Fore limb 19 

Hind limb 32 

Tail 114 



Eastern Himalayas, Northern Bengal, Burma, Tcnasserim, 
Andaman Islands. 

a. Ad. Silddm. Sir J. Hooker [P.]. 

b. Ad. Sikkim. Messrs. v. Schl.agiutweit [P.]. 
c-f. Ad. & yg. Sikkim. T. C. Jerdou, Esq. [P.l. 
g-h,i-h. Ad. Pegu. W. Theobald, Esq. [C.]. 

& hgr. 
l-m. Ad. Burma. F. Day, Esq. [P.]. 

n-o. Ad. Elphiustone Island; Dr. J. Audersou [P.]. 

Mergrui. 
p-q. Ad. King Island, Mergui. Dr. J. Anderson [P.]. 

Lyrjosoma sanctum, Dum. & Bibr. v. p. 732, from Java, described 
from a young specimen in bad condition, is probably closely allied 
to the preceding species. 



26. Lygosoma dussumieri. 

Hinulia dussumieri. Gray, Cat. p. 75. 
Lygosoma dussumieri, Bum. l^- Bibr. v. p. 725. 
Eumeces dussumieri, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870. 
Hinulia dussumierii, Stoliczka, Journ. As. Sue. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 124, 
pi. iv. hg. o ; Thcoh. Cat. Eept. Brit. Lid. p. 55. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb equals once to once and one third the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout .short, obtuse ; loreal region con- 
cave. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no 
supranasal ; rostral flat or a little concave above, largely in contact 
with the frontonasal, which is broader than long and sometimes in 
contact with the frontal ; prtefrontals sometimes forming a median 
suture ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and parietals together, in 
contact with the three (or two) anterior supraoculars ; five large 
supraoculars, first two sometimes fused to a single shield, first much 
longer than second ; a very small posterior supraocular ; eleven to 
thirteen supraciliaries, first and last largest ; frontoparietals and 
interparietal distinct, subequal in length ; parietals forming a sliort 
suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper 
labials largest and below the eye. Ear-opening oval, smaller than 
the eye-opeuing ; no auricular lobules. 40 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body ; laterals smallest. A pair of large proBanals. 
The hind limb reaches the shoulder or the ear. Digits long, com- 
pressed ; subdigital lamellae unicarinate, 22 or 23 under the fourth 
toe. Tail almost twice as long as head and body. Pale olive above, 
with small light spots or a series of dark brown spots along each 

r2 



244 sciNCiD^. 

side of the back ; a broad dark brown lateral band, involving the 
upper half of the ear, edged above and below with a light streak ; 
tail reddish ; lower surface of head and body greenish white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 16S Fore limb 23 

Head 15 Hind limb 37 

Width of head .... 9 Tail 109 

Body 44 

Malabar. 

a-g. Ad., hgr., & yg. Malabar. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

27. Lygosoma melanopogon. 

Hinulia ntevia, part., Gray, Cat. p. 75. 
Lygosoma melanopogon, part., Dum. &; Bibr, v. p. 723. 
Tiliqua nsevia, part., Gray, in Greys Trav. Aiistr. ii. p. 426. 
Lygosoma (Hiniilia) meyeri, Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, vi. 1874, 

p. 332, pi. xi. fig. 6; O'Shaughn. Zool. Hec. 1875, p. 97; Peters 

%• Doria, Ami. Mas. Genova, xiii. 1878, p. 341. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb equals once and two fifths to once and a half the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; rostral large and 
convex, forming a broad suture with the concave anterior border of 
the frontonasal, which is at least twice as broad as long ; praefrontals 
forming a median suture, sometimes separated by a small az}-gos 
shield ; frontal as long as froutoparietals and interparietal together, 
in contact with the three anterior supraoculars ; six or seven supra- 
oculars, first at least twice as long as second ; eleven supraciliaries, 
first largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in 
length ; parietals forming a short sutui'c behind the interparietal ; 
usually no nuchals ; fifth or sixth upper labial largest and below 
the centre of the eye. Ear-opening large, oval, nearly as large as 
the eye-opening ; uo auricular lobules. 44 to 50 smooth scales 
round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A 
pair of large praeanals. The hind limb reaches the elbow or nearly 
the axilla. Digits moderately elongate, compressed ; subdigital 
lamellne unicarinate, 17 to 19 under the fourth toe. Tail not quite 
once and a half the length of head and body. Brown above, with 
dark brown transverse spots or network ; these spots usually largest 
on the sides of the neck ; lower surfaces yellowish or brownish, 
throat sometimes with brown longitudinal lines. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 208 Fore limb 25 

Head 20 Hind limb 40 

Width of head 14 Tail 118 

Body 70 

Papuasia. 



8. LYGOSOMA. 245 

a, b. Ad. New Guinea. 

c-J. Ad. Aru Islands. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. (As 

typical of L. meyeri.) 

28. Lygosoina nigrilabre. 

Hinulia nigrolabris, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p. IGG, pi. xvii. 

%. A. 

Habit lacertiform ; tho distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one third in the distance be- 
tween axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse ; supraocular region 
much swollen. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single 
nasal ; no supranasal ; two superposed loreal shields behind the 
nasal ; rostral forming a straight suture with the frontonasal, 
which is twice as broad as long ; prajfrontals forming a median 
suture ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together,. 
in contact with the three anterior supraoculars ; six supraoculars, 
first more tlian twice as long as second ; eleven supraciliaries, first 
largest; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, former longer 
than latter ; parietals forming a short suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; no nuchals ; fourth and fifth or fifth and sixth labials 
below the eye. Ear-opening large, oval, a little smaller than the 
eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 50 scales round the middle of 
the body ; dorsals largest and feebly keeled, laterals smallest. A 
pair of enlarged praeanals. The hind limb reaches the shoulder. 
Digits elongate, compressed ; subdigital lamellae unicarinate, 2Q 
under the fourth toe. Tail about once and a half the length of 
head and body. Chestnut-brown above, with irregular transverse 
dark brown spots ; a dark brown dorso-lateral band, interrupted by 
yellowish spots ; the dark band extends to the nostril, passing 
through the eye ; sides reticulated with brown ; edge of the jaws 
blackish ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 235 Fore limb 35 

Head 21 Hind limb 52 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 140 

Body 74 

Celebes. 

a. Ad. N. Celebes. Dr. A. B. Meyer [C.]. (Type.) 

29. Lygosoma simum * 

Lvgosoma (Hinulia) siuia, Saiivage, Bull. Soc. Phihm. (7) iii. 1879, 
p. 54. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and two fifths in the distance 

* Described from a specimen (9489) in the Berlin Museum. 



246 sciNCiD^. 

between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse ; supraocular region 
swollen. Lower eyelid soaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; 
no supranasal ; two superposed lorcals behind the nasal ; rostral 
concave above, forming a broad straight suture with the frontonasal, 
which is twice as broad as long ; prajfrontals forming a median 
suture ; frontal nearly as long as frontoparietals and parietals to- 
gether, in contact with the three anterior supraoculars ; six supra- 
oculars, first more than twice as long as second ; twelve supra- 
ciliaries, first lai'gest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
former Jarger than latter ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials below the 
eye. Ear-opening oval, nearly as large as the eye-opening ; no 
auricular lobules. 40 scales round the middle of the body : dorsals 
largest and unicarinate, laterals smallest. A pair of enlarged proe- 
anals. The hind limb reaches halfway between the arm and the 
■ ear. Digits elongate, compressed; subdigital lamellae unicarinate, 
25 under the fourth toe. Tail nearly twice as long as head aud 
body. Chestnut-brown above, with yellowish and blackish trans- 
verse spots ; lips black-spotted ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. niillira. 

Total length 161 Fore limb 24 

Head 14 Hind limb 38 

Width of head 9 Tail 105 

Body 42 

New Guinea. 

30. Lygosoma variegatum. 

Lygosoma melanopogou, part., Ditm. 8f Bihr. v. p. 723. 

(IlinuJia) variegatum, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 20*. 

■ ( ) najvium, Peters 8f Doria, Ann. Mas. Genova^ xiii. 1878, 

p. 340. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb equals once to once and one third the distance between 
axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse ; supraocular region much 
swollen. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; 
no supranasal ; two superposed loreal shields behind the nasal ; 
rostral forming a broad straight suture with the frontonasal, which 
is at least twice as broad as long ; prajfrontals forming a median 
suture ; frontal as long as or a little shorter than frontoparietals 
and parietals together ; in contact with the three anterior supra- 
oculars ; six or seven supraoculars, first at least twice as long 
as second ; twelve or thirteen supraciliaries, first largest ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, subequal, or latter a little 
shorter than former ; parietals forming a short suture behind the 
interparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth or sixth upper labial below the 
centre of the eye. Ear-opening large, oval, smaller than the eye- 

* Type examiued. 



a-e. Ad. 


Dinagat Island 


d. Ad. 


Borneo. 


e. Ad. 


Timor. 


/. Ad. 


Awek, .lobi. 


g. Ad. 


Mansinam. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 247 

opening ; no aurioalar lobules. 38 or 40 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of 
enlarged prtcanals. The hind limb reaches the axilla or a little 
beyond the shoulder. Digits elongate, compressed ; subdigital 
laracllas smooth or feebly unicarinato, 20 to 2o under the fourth 
toe. Tail about once and a half the length of head and body. 
Brown above, variously spotted or marbled with darker ; frecpicntly 
a dorso-lateral scries of light spots ; sides of neck sometimes with 
a large black spot ; sides of bodj' light-spotted ; lower siu'faces 
brownish white. 

niilliiu. niilliui. 

Total length 139 Fore limb 20 

Head 13 Hind limb 33 

Width of head .... 8 Tail 84 

Body 42 

Philippines, Borneo, Moluccas, Papuasia. 

A. Everett, Esq. [C.l. 
L. L. DiUwyn, Esq. [P.]. 

Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 
Marquis Gr. Doria [P.]. 

31. Lygosoma jobiense. 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) jobiensis, Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 1.31. 
Eumeces aruensis, Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, vi. 1874, p. y35, pi. xi, 

fig. c. 
Hinulia megaspila, Gilnth. Proe. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 128, pi. xxviii. 
? Hinulia papueusis, Macleat/, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii. 1877, 

p. 62. 
Eumeces jobiensis, Peters Sf Doria, Ann. Mus, Genova, xiii. 1878, 

p. 349. 

Habit laccrtiform, rather stout ; the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb equals once and one third to once and a 
half the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyeHd scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supi'a- 
nasal ; two superposed loreal shields behind the nasal ; rostral con- 
vex, narrowed and rounded behind, where it forms a suture with 
the frontonasal ; latter smaU, broader than long, sometimes in con- 
tact with the anterior angle of the frontal ; prsefrontals usually 
forming a median suture ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the two or three anterior 
supraoculars ; five supraoculars, first longest ; ten to twelve supra- 
ciliarics, first largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
latter usually shorter than former ; parietals forming a short suture 
behind the interparietal ; usually no nuchals ; sixth or seventn 
upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening large, oval, 
a little smaller than the eye-opening; no auricular lobules. 38 to 
46 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest. 



248 SCINCTD^. 

laterals smallest. A pair of large pra^anals. The hind limb reaches 
the wrist or the elbow. Digits moderately elongate, compressed ; 
subdigital lamella; smooth or obtusely keeled, 18 to 27 under the 
fourth toe. Tail about once and a half the length of head and body. 
Brown above ; back uniform or with small scattered blackish spots 
or irregular, rather indistinct dark cross-bands ; sides finely mottled 
with dark brown ; three to five large blackish spots on each side, 
the anterior above the ear, the third above the shoulder ; a more or 
less distinct blackish streak through the eye; lower surfaces yel- 
lowish ; throat sometimes with brown longitudinal streaks. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 226 Fore limb 28 

Head 22 Hind limb 4-1 

Width of head .... 15 Tail 130 

Body 74 

Papuasia, New Ireland. 

a-b. Ad. Ansus, Jobi. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 

(As typical of Eumeces aruensis.) 
c. Ad. Fly Eiver. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

d-e. Ad. Duke of York Island. Rev. G. Brown [C.]. 

(Types of Hinulia meffaspila.) 

32. Lygosoma acutum. 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) acutum, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1864, p. 54. 

Habit lacertiform, slender ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb equals the distance between axilla and 
groin. Snout very loiig, pointed. Lower eyelid scaly. Kostril 
pierced in the middle of a rather large nasal ; no supranasals ; two 
superposed anterior loreals ; frontonasal scarcely broader than long, 
forming a broad straight suture with the rostral ; prefrontals form- 
ing a median suture ; frontal kite-shaped, a little shorter than the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the three 
anterior supraoculars ; six supraoculars, first longest, third broadest ; 
supraciliaries numerous, and, with the exception of the anterior, 
very small ; frontoparietals coalesced into a single shield ; inter- 
parietal distinct, similar in shape to but smaDcr than the frontal ; 
parietals forming a short suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; 
nine or ten upper labials, sixth and seventh or seventh and eighth 
below the eye, separated from the orbit by small scales. Ear- 
opening vertically elliptic, much smaller than the eye-opening, with- 
out lobules. 26 scales round the middle of the body, all perfectly 
smooth ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest ; on the nape, the scales of 
the two median series are transversely dilated. Two enlarged prae- 
anals. The adpressed hind limb reaches the shoulder. Digits long 
and slender, compressed, especially in their distal portion ; fourth 
toe much longer than third ; subdigital lamella? smooth, 32 under the 
fourth toe. Tail once and two thirds the length of head and body. 



8. LYGOSOMA, 2-19 

Brown above, with a vertebral series of black spots and a black 
lateral band, beginning from tiie nostril and passing through the 
eye ; lower surfaces whitish. 

niilliin. iiiillini. 

Total length 183 Fore limb 2y> 

Head IS Hind lim1> 37 

Widtli of head .... 10 Tail 115 

Body 50 

Philippine Islands. 

a. Ad. Dinagat Island. A. Everett, Esq. [C.]. 

33. Lygosoma cuiningii. (Plate XVI. fig. 2.) 

Otosauriis cumingii, Gray, Cat. p. 1).3. 
Euprepes otus, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 18G7, p. 20. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb equals, or nearly equals, the distance between axilla 
and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril 
pierced in a single nasal ; a large supranasal, forming a suture with 
its fellow ; frontonasal very small, scarcely broader than long, and 
forming a suture with the frontal ; latter as long as or slightly 
shorter than the frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact 
with the four anterior supraoculars ; eight supraoculars, last very 
small, first twice as long as second ; 12 to 1 4 supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in length ; parietals 
forming a very short suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; 
sixth and seventh labials below the eye. Ear-opening very large, 
oval, nearly as large as the eye-opening ; tympanum scarcely sunk ; 
no auricular lobules. 46 to 50 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body ; laterals smallest. A pair of enlarged proeanals. The 
hind limb reaches the shoulder or halfway between the latter and 
the ear. Digits elongate, compressed ; subdigital lamellae unicari- 
nate, divided, 22 to 24 under the fourth toe. Tail about once and 
a half the length of head and body. Pteddish brown above, spotted 
with black ; a lateral series of blackish spots, bordered with small 
white spots, the former very large on the sides of the neck ; lips 
with small brown spots ; lower surfaces yellowish white, throat 
sometimes with small brown spots. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 168 Fore limb 31 

Head 20 Hind limb 43 

Width of head 13 Tail (reproduced) . . 88 

Body 60 

Philippine Islands. 

a-h. Hgr. & yg. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Types.) 

c. Yg. Diuagat Island. A. Everett, Esq. [C.]. 



250 SCrNCTDiE. 

34. Lygosoma sinaragdiiium. 

Keneuxia sinaragdina, Gray, Cat. p. 79. 
Sciacus smaragdinus, Lesson, Voij. Coquille, Zool. ii. p. 43, pi. iii. 

tig. 1 ; Svhlecf. Abbild. p. 33, pi. xi. 

viridipuuctus, Lesson, I. c. p. 44, pi. iv. fig. 1. 

coelestiuus, Guer. Icon. R. A., Rept. pi. xv. tig. 2. 

Lygosoma sinaragdina, Dum. et Bibr. v. p. 738. 

(Iliuulia) smaragdiniiLii, var. viridifLiscum, Peters, Mon. Berl. 

Ac. 1872, p. 776. 
(^Keneuxia) sinaragdiuum, Peters ^y Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, 

xiii. 1878, p. 345. 

Habit lacertiforin ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fifth to once and one third in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout long, pointed, much 
depressed. Lower eyelid scaly. Nasals widely separated, usually 
divided into nasal and postnasal, not or but slightly deeper than the 
anterior loreal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal as long as broad or 
slightly broader than long, its anterior, convex border forming a 
broad suture with the rostral ; the frontonasal frequently forming a 
suture with the frontal ; latter large, as long as or a little longer than 
the frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact with the first, 
second, and third supraoculars ; four supraoculars, subequal or first 
and fourth longest ; supraciliarics numerous, all, with the exception 
of the first two, very small ; frontoparietals and interparietal dis- 
tinct, latter much smaller than former ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal; one to three pairs of uuchals ; a large 
temporal, in contact with the outer border of the parietal ; five 
labials anterior to the suboculars. Ear-opening small, usually with 
one or two small projecting rounded lobules on its anterior border. 
22 or 24 scales round the middle of the body (26 in the var. viridi- 
fuscum) ; dorsals largest, especially the two median series ; all 
smooth, or dorsals feebly quadricarinate. Praeanal scales not en- 
larged. The hind limb reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore 
limb, or nearly as far as the axil. Digits slender, with strong 
sharp claws, the basal phalanges cyclotetragonal, the distal strongly 
compressed ; subdigital lamcUas smooth, 28 to 35 under the fourth 
toe. Heel with an enlarged suboval scale. Tail once and one 
third to once and a half the length of head and body. Green, olive, 
or brown above, with or without darker and lighter spots or black 
margins to the scales ; sometimes a more or less distinct light lateral 
band. Lower surfaces yellowish or pale green. 

niillim. luillim. 

Total length 24(3 Fore limb 37 

Head 26 Hind limb 45 

Width of head 17 Tail 143 

Body 77 

Indian Archipelago, l\ipuasia, Caroline Islands, Solomon Islands. 





8. LYGOSOMA. 


2 


51 


a. Ad. 


Luzon. 




Dr. A. B. Meyer [0.1. 


0, c. Ad. 


Negros. 




Dr. A. B. Meyer [C.^ 




d. Ad. 


Uinagat Island. 




A. Everett, Esq. |_C. 




e. Ad. 


Zebu, Pliilippiues. 




II.M..S. ' Challen-er. 


/. Ad. 


Teniate. 




H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 


g-h. Ad. 


Misol. 






i-k. Ad. 


N. Ceram. 






/-«. Ad. 


Molucca. 




Leyden Museum. 


0. Ad. 


Timor Laut. 




II. 0. Forbes, Esq. [0.]. 


p. Ad. 


rdew Islands. 




G. L. King, Esq. [P.]. 


q. Ad. 


Wild I., Admiralty Islands. 


II. M.S. ' Challenger.' 


r. Ad. 


Duke of York Island 




liev. (t. Brown [C.]. 


X, t. ^^any spec. 


Treasury I., Solomon 


Islands. 


11. B. Guppy, Esq.LP.]. 



35. Lygosoma olivaceum. 

Dasia olivacea, (rrmj^ Cat. p. 108. 
Tiliqua grisea, Oraij, I. c. p. 110. 
Dasia olivacea, dnuj, Ann. N. H. ii. 18-38, p. o-Sl. 
Euprepes eruestii, hum. iSj- Bibr. v. p. 0915 ; Cantor, Cat. Mai, llept. 
p. 47. 

olivaceus, Gilnth. Rept. Brit. Inch p. 80, pi. x. fig. D ; Theoh. 

Cat. Rept. Brit. lad. p. 51. 

(Tiliqua) semicinctus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 21. 

Tiliqua olivacea, iStoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, p. 172. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fifth to once and a half in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout rather elongate, obtusely 
acuminate, much depressed. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced 
in the middle of a small nasal ; a supranasal, rarely in contact with 
its fellow ; frontonasal broader than long, usually in contact with 
the rostral, and frequently also with the frontal ; latter as long as 
or a little longer than the frontoparietals and parietals together, in 
contact with the first and second, or first, second, and third supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, subequal in length ; seven or eight 
supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
latter as large as or a little smaller than former, and entirely sepa- 
rating the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the 
subocular. Ear-opening very smaU. '2'6 or 3(J scales round the 
middle of the body ; the dorsals and laterals with three to nine mor>j 
or less strong keels ; nuchal scales smooth or indistinctly keeled ; 
dorsals a little larger than ventrals. Prieanals not enlarged. The 
adpressed limbs feebly overlap, the hind limb never reaching beyond 
the wrist. Digits moderately elongate, with strong sharp claws, 
the basal phalanges cyclotetragoual, the distal strongly compressed ; 
subdigital lamella) smooth, 17 to 20 under the fourth toe. Tail 
about once and one third the length of head and body. Young with 
transverse dark brown bands separated by narrow pale olive inter- 
spaces. Adult olive or olive-brown above, with more or less regular 
transverse series of pale, dark-edged spots or traces of dark cross 
bauds; a more or less distiiict pale dorso-lateral band on the 



a. Ad. 






Tiivoy, Tenasserim. 


b-d. Ad. 


& 


yp:- 


Peuaiifr. 


e. Ad. 






iSuiuatra. 


/■• Yg. 






Borneo. 


i'- Yg- 






Sarawak. 


h. Yg. 






Indian Archipelago, 


?■. Ad. 






Philippines. 



252 SCTXCIDJ5. 

posterior part of the body, continued on the tail ; lower surfaces 
light green. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 238 Fore limb 32 

Head 24 Hind limb 39 

Width of bead 18 Tail 130 

Body 84 

Malay Peninsula, Xicobars, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines. 

W. T. Blauford, Esq. [P.]. 
Dr. Cantor [P.]. 

A. R. Wallace, Esq. [C.]. 
A. Everett, Esq. [C.]. 
Dr. Bleeker [C.J. 
H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Type 
of Tiliqua grisea.) 
k. Ad. ? 



3G. Lygosoma vittatum. 

Aptervgodon vittatum, Edeling, Nederl. Tijdskr. Dierk. ii. 1864, 

p. 2U1. 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) prteornatus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 570, 

and Ann. Mus. Genova, iii. 1872, p. 29, pi. iii. tig. 2 ; Giinth. Proe. 

Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 589. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and two 
thirds in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, ob- 
tuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the middle of a small 
nasal ; a supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, in contact 
with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter a little longer than 
the frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; five supraoculars, fifth very small, second 
largest ; eight or nine supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals 
distinct, larger than the interparietal, which entirely separates the 
parietals ; nuchals often not distinctly differentiated ; four labials 
anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening small, elliptical, oblique. 
30 scales round the middle of the body, subequal, dorsals and 
laterals with three or five strong keels. Prseanals not enlarged. 
The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow. Digits moderately 
elongate, with strong claws, the basal phalanges somewhat flattened, 
the distal stronglj- compressed ; subdigital lamellje smooth, 17 to 20 
under the fourth toe. Tail a little longer than head and body. 
Head, neck, and anterior part of the back black ; a pale yellowish 
or greenish band from the rostral to the occiput ; two others on 
each side, the upper beginning on the supraciliary border, the lower 
below the eye ; scattered pale dots between the light bands ; the 
rest of the body and the limbs olive, with small black and pale 
spots ; lower surfaces greenish white. 



I 



8. LYGOSOMA. 253 

millim. millim. 

Total length 204 Fore limb 29 

Head 19 Hind limb 30 

Width of head .... 15 TaU 108 

Body 77 

Borneo, Coram ? 

a. Ad. Matang. 

b. Ad. Borneo. L. L. Dillwyn, Esq. [P.], 

c. Ad. Borneo. 

d. Ad. Cerani ? Dr. Bleeker (as Eaprepes ceramensia, Blkr.). 

37. Lygosoma anolis. 

Lipinia anolis, Boulenq. Ann. 8f Mm/. N. H. (5) xii. 1883, p. IGl, 
and Tr. Zool. Soc. xii. 1886, p. 40," pi. vii. f . 2. 

Habit lacertiform, slender ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once 
and one third in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout long 
and pointed, much depressed. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the middle of the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; anterior loreal as deep as the nasal ; frontonasal about 
as broad as long, forming a broad straight or slightly curved suture 
with the rostral ; proefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal 
kite-shaped, shorter than the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the two or three anterior supraoculars ; 
five or six supraoculars, anterior much the largest ; eight to ten 
supraciliaries, first large ; frontoparietals distinct, about as long as 
the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; four or five pairs of nuchals ; eight or nine upper labials, 
sixth or seventh entering the orbit. Ear-opening small, elliptical, 
slightly oblique, with four small rounded projecting scales on its 
anterior border. 38 scales round the middle of the body, perfectly 
smooth ; laterals smallest, those of the two vertebral series twice as 
broad as long. Two enlarged prteanals. The hind limb reaches 
the elbow or not quite so far. Digits moderately elongate, the 
basal portion strongly depressed, distinctly dilated, the distal slender 
and compressed ; fourth toe little longer than third ; subdigital 
lamellae smooth, 16 to 18 under the dilated, and 7 under the com- 
pressed portion of the fourth toe. Tail a little longer than head and 
body. Upper surfaces uniform pale olive or pinkish brown, the head 
frequently darker and more olive ; limbs sometimes pinkish ; lower 
surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 135 Fore limb 21 

Head 16 Hind limb 24 

Width of head 8-5 Tail 78 

Body 41 

Solomon Islands. 



254 



SCrNCIB^. 



a. Ad. Santa Anna Island. H. B. Giippv, Esq. [P.]. I ,rr n 

b-ff. Ad. Treasury Island. H. R. GuppV, Esq. [P.]. f y^yV^^O 

h. Ad. Treasury Island. H. B. Guppy, Esq. IP.]. 

i- Ad. Shortlaud Islands. H. B. Guppy, Esq. [P.]. 

38. Lygosoma virens *. 

Lipinia virens, Peters, Sitzh. Ges. Nattirf. Freunde, 1881, p. 81. 

Yery closely allied to L. anolis, from which it differs in having 
30 scales round the body, and 13 lamellae under the dilated portion 
of the fourth toe. 

South-east New Guinea. 

39. Lygosoma semperi *. 
Lygosoma (Lipinia) semperi, Peters, Mun. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 18. 

Less slender in habit than L. pulchellum. Likewise with a 
transparent palpebral disk and a large roundish ear-opening. Four 
supraoculars ; frontal less narrowed posteriorly. 24 scales round 
the body, dorsals much the largest. The hind limb covers hardly 
two thirds of the space between axilla and groin. Fourth toe little 
longer than third. Digits, especially the toes, slightly dilated in 
the basal portion ; 15 lamella) under the depressed portion of the 
fourth toe. Golden above ; two black bands commence on the 
supraocular regions, become gradually narrower on the back, and are 
lost on the tail ; another similar band on each side, beginning on the 
nasal and passing through the eye and above the ear ; lower surfaces 
metallic green. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 105 Fore limb 11 

From snout to vent. 40 Hind limb 14 

Mindanao, Philippine Islands. 

40, Lygosoma piilchellum. (Plate XYII. fig. I.) 

Lipinia pulchella, Gray, Cat. p. 84. 
Euprepes pulchellus, Steindaehn. Novara, Rept. p. 48. 

Habit lacertiform, slender ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and one fifth in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout very long and pointed, 
much depressed. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. 
Nostril pierced in the middle of a rather large nasal ; no sujiranasal ; 
anterior loreal as deep as the nasal ; frontonasal a little longer than 
broad, forming a broad straight suture with the lostral ; ])ra}frontals 
forming a median suture ; frontal small, produced into a verj' narrow 
interorbital portion, its length somewhat exceeding that of the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together ; it is in contact with the 

* Type examined. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 255 

second, third, and fourth supraocnhirs ; five supraoculars, first very 
small, sucond and fifth longest, third and fourth hroadcst ; eight supra- 
ciliaries; frontoparietals distinct, smaller than the interparietal, which 
is as large as the frontal (without tlie narrow posterior portion) ; 
parietals forming a suture hehind the interparietal ; two or throe pairs 
of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening 
vertically oval, nearly as large as the eye-opening ; tympanum 
scarcely sunk. 24 scales round the middle of the body, perfectly 
smooth ; dorsals, especially the two vertebral series, largest, laterals 
smallest. Two enlarged prolan als. The hind limb reaches the 
axilla. Digits long and slender, comjjressed, especially distaUy ; 
fourth toe much longer than third ; subdigital lamella) smootli, 21 
under the fourth toe. lirown above, with a bi'oad whitish vertebral 
band, beginning on the snout, edged on each side by a broad dark 
brown band ; a dark brown streak on each side, from the eye to 
the groin ; limbs brown-spotted ; lower surfaces whitish. 





millini. 




iiiillim 


Head 


.. 10 


Fore limb .... 


. ... 14 


Width of head . . 


5 


Hind limb .... 


. . . . 19 


Body 


.. 29 







Philippine Islands. 
a. Ad. ? Philippines. 11. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Type.) 

41. Lygosoma vulcanium. 

Lipinia viilcania, Girard, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 106, and U. S. 
Bxphr, E.vped., Hcrp. p. :^o4. 

Snout short and subacute. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. jN'ostril pierced in the middle of the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal forming a broad suture with the rostral ; 
prsefrontals forming a median suture : frontal elongate, sublanceolate, 
tapering posteriorly to an acute angle extending somewhat beyond 
the middle of the supraocular region ; four supraoculars, first and 
fourth longest, second and third broadest ; frontoparietals and 
interparietal distinct ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; six upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth bordering the 
orbit. Ear-opening large, subcireular, without lobules ; tympanum 
somewhat sunk. 30 scales round the middle of the body, smooth, 
subequal, somewhat smaller on the flanks. Two large pra;anals. 
Limbs slender and rather weak, barely meeting when adpressed. 
Digits very slender, compressed, with large smooth lamelko interiorly. 
Tail as long as head and body. Light brown above, with darker 
specks ; a lateral dark brown streak, interrupted or speckled with 
whitish or yellowish, extends from the eye to a certain distance 
along the tail ; lower surfaces light brown. 

Caldera, Mindanao, Philippine Islands. 



256 sciKciD^. 



42. Lygosoma noctua. 

Scincus noctua, Lesson, Voy. CoqiiUle, ZooL ii. p. 48, pi. iii. fig. 4 ; 

O'Shawjhn. Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (4) xii. 1873, p. 44. 
Oligosoma noctuum, Girard, U. S. E.vplor. Exped., Herp. p. 249, 
Lygosoma vertebrale, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 18(30, p. 487. 
Euprepes novarfe, Steind. Kovara, Rept. p. 47, pi. ii. f. 4. 
Mocoa novarne, Gilnth. in Brenchley, Cura(;ao, p. 403. 
Lygosoma (Lipiuia) am-ea, Meyer, Man. Bed. Ac. 1874, p. 132 *. 
(Mocoa) noctua, Peters <)$- Doria, Ann. Mtis. Genoca, xiii. 1878, 

p. 347 ; O'Shaughn. Zool. Pec. 1878, Pept. p. 8. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and three 
fifths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, 
pointed. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. 
Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal at least 
as long as broad, forming a suture with the rostral and with the 
frontal ; latter shield as long as or a little shorter than frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contact with the first and second 
supi'aoculars ; four supraoculars, first and fourth longest ; eight 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; two or three 
pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening 
roundish, a little smaller than the eye-opening without project- 
ing lobules. 26 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 
much larger than the others. A pair of enlarged prseauals. Tho 
adpressed limbs overlap. Digits cylindrical at the base, com- 
pressed at the end ; subdigital lamellte smooth, 21 or 22 under the 
fourth toe. Tail a little longer than head and body. Golden brown 
above ; a whitish, brown-edged spot on the occiput, continuous with 
a light vertebral band edged on each side with brown spots ; a dark 
brown lateral band or series of large spots, intermixed with pale 
dots ; lips brown-spotted ; lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 98 Fore limb 12 

Head 10 Hind limb 10 

Width of head .... 6 Tail 55 

Body 33 

Fiji, Friendly, Samoa, Society, and Sandwich Islands ; New 
Guinea. 

a. Ad. Fiji. H.M.S. ' Herald.' 

b-c. Ad. Tongatabu. H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 

f-h. Ad. Tongatabu. J. Brenchley, Esq. [F.], 

t-l. Ad. & hgr. Samoa. Rev. T. Powell [P.J. 



* Type (Dresden Mus. 310) examined. 



8. LYGOSOilA. 257 

43. Lygosoma sikkimense. 

Mocoa sikkimensis, lHyth, Juiirn. As. »b'oc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 652 ; 

StoUczka, Jouni. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 120, pi. v. fig. 2 ; 

Thcoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 5('). 
Tiliquaschle^-elii, G'dnth. Pnic. Zuol. Soc. 1860, p. 15."3, pi. xxv. fig. c. 
Eumeces sciilegelii, G'dnth. liept. Brit. Ind. p. 80. 

sikimensis, Anders. Proc. Zool. >Soc. 1871, p. 158. 

Mocoa sacra, StoUczka, I. c. p. 128, pi. iv. fig. 4 ; Thcoh. I. c. p. 57. 

Body more or less elongate ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and one third to twice in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout sliort, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk, Xostril pierced in the 
nasal; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a 
suture -with the rosl ral and usually also with the fi'ontal ; latter 
shield as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the two anterior supraoculars; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; seven or eight supraciliarics ; frontoparietals 
and interparietal distinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; two to four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper 
labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening small, smaller than the 
transparent palpebral disk, with or without very indistinct lobules. 
22 to 24 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest. 
A pair of large pra}anals. The adpressed limbs fail to meet, meet, 
or overlap. Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 16 
to 19 under the fourth toe. Tail once and a half to once and three 
fourths the length of head and body. Bronzy olive or brown 
above, dark brown on the sides, which are limited above by a blackish 
line ; back with small blackish spots ; sides with small light spots ; 
lower surfaces "whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 116 Fore limb 14 

Head 11 Hind Hmb 18 

Width of head .... 8 Tail 70 

Body 35 

Eastern Himalayas ; Parisnath Hill, Western Bengal. 

a. Ad. Sikkim. Messrs. v. Schlagintweit [P.]. 

(Type of Tiliqua schlegelii.) 

b. Ad. Sikkim. Messrs. v. Schlagintweit [P.]. 
c-g. Ad. k hgr. Sikkim. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 
h-k, I. Ad. Darjeeling. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [P.]. 

44. Lygosoma himalayanum. (Plate XYII. fig. 2.) 

Eumeces himalayanus, Giinth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 86, pi. x. fig. h, 
Euprepes himalayanus, Steitid. Novara, Rej^t. p. 45. 

blythi, Steind. I. c. p. 46. 

Mocoa himalayana, StoUczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 127 ; 

Theoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 57 ; Blanf. 2nd Yark. Miss., Rept. 

p. 19. 

blythii, Theob. I. c. p. 59. 

YOL. in. 8 



258 



SCINCID-S!. 



Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and a half to twice in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supi-anasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield as long as fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two, rarely 
three, anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six 
to eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
subequal, or latter smallest ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; three or four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial 
entering the orbit. Ear-opening oval, much smaller than the eye- 
opening, about as large as the transparent palpebral disk, with one to 
three projecting lobules or gianules anteriorly. 20 to 'M smooth scales 
round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A 
pair of large pra:anals. The adpressed limbs fail to meet, meet, or 
overlap. Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 16 to 18 
under the fourth toe. Tail once and two fifths to once and two thirds 
the length of head and body. Eronzy olive or brown above, with 
small dark, and sometimes also light, spots ; a blackish vertebral 
streak sometimes present ; a broad blackish-brown lateral band, 
usually edged above and below by a light streak ; lower surfaces 
greenish white or plumbeous. 



inillim. 

Total length 157 

Head 12 

Width of head 9 

Body 53 

Western Himalayas. 



a-b. HgT. & yg. 

C. HgT. 

d-e. Ad. & hgr. 
f, (/. Several spec. 

ad. & hgr. 
h-k. Ad. & hg-r. 



Gurwhal. 

Simla. 

Kaslimere. 

Kashmere. 

Ladak. 



millim. 

Fore limb 17 

Hind limb 23 

Tail 92 



Messrs. v. Scblaa'intweit fP. 



Messrs. v. Schlagintweit 
Messrs. v. Schlagiotweit 
T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 

T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P]. 



45. Lygosoma ladacense. (Plate XVII. fig. 3.) 

Eumeces ladaceiisis, Giinth. Repf. Brit. IncL p. 88, pi. x. fig. i; 

Anders. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 375. 
Euprepes stoliczkai, Steind. ^ovara, Repf. p. 4-3. 

kargilieusis, Sfeiiid. I. c. p. 46. 

Mocoa stoliczkfe, Theob. Cat. Rept. Brit, Ind, p. 59 ; Blanf. 2n:l 

Yark. Miss., Rept. p. 20. 
kargilensis, Theob. I. c. p. 60. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and a half to once and two thirds 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid w ith an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 



8. LTGOSOMA. 259 

in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a suture with the rostral, and usually also with the frontal ; latter 
shield as long as or a little longer tlian frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the three anterior supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, second and third equal ; six to eight supraciliaries; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, sube(jual ; parietals form- 
ing a suture behind the interparietal ; tliree or four pairs of nuchals; 
fifth or sixth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear- opening oval, 
much smaller than the eye-opening, wnth two or three projecting 
lobules or graiudes anteriorly. '32 to 38 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body ; laterals smallest. A pair of large praeanals. 
The adpressed limbs meet or overlap. Digits subcylindrical ; sub- 
digital lamellae smooth, 21 to 24 under the fourth toe. Tail a little 
longer than head and body. Bronzy olive above, with small darker 
and lighter spots ; a more or less dark brown lateral band, dotted 
with pale olive, sometimes bordered above and below by a light 
streak ; lower surfaces greenish. 

uiillim. milliui. 

Total length 120 Fore limb 16 

Head 11 Hind limb 22 

Width of head .... 7 Tail 07 

Body 42 

Kashmere. 



a. Ad. Ladak. Messrs. Schlagintweit 

b-c. Ad. Ladak. T. C. .Jerdon, Esq. [P.; 

d. Ad. Kashmere. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P. 



P.]. (Type.) 



46. Lygosoma bilineatiim. (Plate XYIII. fig. 1.) 

Mocoa bilineata, Graij, Ann. ^- Mng. N. H. xviii. 184G, p. 430 ; 

Jerd. Jonrn. As. Soc. Beny. xxii. 1853, p. 477. 
Eumeces bilineatiis, Giinth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 85. 

Body elongate ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and two thirds to twdcc in the 
distance between axilla and groin in the adult, once and a half in 
the young. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; 
frontonasal broader than long, foiming a suture with the rostral and 
with the frontal ; latter shield as long as or slightly longer than 
the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the 
first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; 
six or seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal dis- 
tinct, usually subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; three to five pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial 
entering the orbit. Ear-opening roundish, a little smaller than the 
eye-opening, with two projecting granules on its anterior border. 
22 or 24 smooth scales rouud the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, 
laterals smallest. Four large praeanals, much longer than broad, 
Dointed posteriorly in the male. The adpressed limbs are widely 

s2 



260 SCIXCIDiE. 

separated in the adult, slightly overlap in the young. Digits sub- 
cylindrical ; subdigital lamell;e smooth, IG to 21 under the fourth 
toe. Tail once and one fourth to once and a half as long as head 
and body. Bronzy olive or brown above ; a black streak on each 
side, from above the ear to the base of the tail ; usually another finer 
black streak on each side along the back ; small black dots on the 
sides of the head, and usually also below the lateral streak ; lower 
surfaces greenish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 115 Fore limb 11 

Head 10 Hind limb 15 

Width of head .... 7 Tail (reproduced) . . 59 

Body 46 

N'ilghcrry Hills, 

a-c. Ad. & yg. Summit of the Nil- T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 

gherries. (Types.) 

d-e. Ad. Nilgherries. Col. Beddome [P.]. 

f-h. Ad. Nilgherries. F. Day, Esq. [P.]. 

i-k. Hgr. & yg. Coouoor, Nilgherries. W. Davison, Esq. [P.]. 

47. Lygosoma laterimaculatum. (Plate XVIII. fig. 2.) 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and one third 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal : frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a suture with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield a little 
shorter than the frontoparietals and interj^arietal together, in con- 
tact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and 
interparietal distinct, usually subcqual ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; three to five pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper 
labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the eye- 
opening, without projecting granules or lobules. 26 or 28 scales 
round the middle of the body, smooth, or dorsals feebly pluricari- 
nate ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of enlarged pra^anals, 
not much longer than broad. The hind limb reaches the wrist or 
the elbow. Digits subcyliudrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 21 to 
25 under the fourth toe. Tail once and two thirds to once and 
three fourths the length of head and body. Bronzy above, with a 
blackish, above light-edged, lateral streak along the head and body ; 
two fine black lines or series of dots along the back ; side of head 
and body below the lateral streak largely and closely spotted with 
black ; lower surfaces greyish ; tail blue in the young. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 94 Fore limb 12 

Head 9 Hind limb 17 

Width of head 6 Tail (reproduced) . . 47 

Bodv 38 



8. LTGOSOJIA. 261 



Southern India. 



a-c. Ilgr. & Tg. Top of Sivaglien-y Ghat, Col. Beddome [C.I. 

d. Yg. Wiila Gliat, Nilgherries. Col. Beddome [C.J. 

e. Yg. NilghoiTifS. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 
/. Y'g. Travaucore. Col. Beddome [C.]. 



48. Lygosoma 'beddomii. (Plate XVIII. fig. 3.) 

Mocoa travankorica, part., Ikddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 
Theoh. Cat Hept. Bnt. Lid. p. 58. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb is 
contained once o.nd one third to once and three fifths in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Kostril pierced in the nasal; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the I'ostral and with the frontal ; latter shield as long as the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the 
first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest and, 
sometimes also the third, touching the supraciliary margin ; five to 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, longer than the inter- 
parietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; three 
or four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering the oi'bit. Ear- 
opening oval, much smaller than the eye-opening, without projecting 
lobules or granules. 20 or 22 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of feebly en- 
larged prteanals, not much longer than broad. The adpressed limbs 
just meet in the adult, overlap m the young. Digits subcylindrical ; 
subdigital lamellae smooth, 17 or 18 under the fourth toe. Tail 
once and two thirds the length of head and body. Bronzy brown 
above, lighter on the limit of the blackish-brown colour, which covers 
the sides of the head and body ; sometimes a blackish vertebral line ; 
limbs dark brown ; lower surfaces dark brown or bronzy olive, the 
scales edged Avith darker. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent . 58 Fore limb 14 

Head 11 Hind limb 20 

Width of head 8 

Southern India. 

a-c. Ad. & bgr. Travancore Hills and Wynad. Cul. Beddome [C.]. 

(Types of Mocoa travankorica.) 



49. Lygosoma travancoricum. (Plate XYIII. fig. 4.) 

Mocoa travankorica, part., Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 
Theob. Cat. Mept. Brit. Ind. p. 58. 

Habit lacertiforra ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb equals or slightly exceeds the distance between axilla 



262 RCINCIBiE. 

and groin in the young, is contained once and two fifths to once 
and two thirds in the adult and halfgrown. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a suture with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield as long 
as or shorter than frontoparietal and interparietal together, in con- 
tact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single, 
longer than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; three or four pairs of nuchals ; fifth, or rarely fourth, 
upper labial enteriiig the orbit. Ear-opening oval, much smaller 
than the eye-opening, without projecting lobules or granules. 22 
or 24 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, 
laterals smallest. A pair of enlarged prseanals. The adpressed 
limbs meet or slightly overlap in the adult. Digits subcylindrical ; 
subdigital lamella? smooth, 18 to 2-i under the fourth toe. Tail once 
and three fifths to once and three fourths the length of head and 
body. Bronzy brown or olive above, lighter on the limit of the 
blackish-brown sides ; back uniform, or with scattered blackish 
dots, or with a blackish vertebral line ; lower part of sides black- 
spotted : limbs dark brown ; lower surfaces dark grey or olive. 

millim. inillim. 

From snout to vent . 62 Fore limb 15 

Head 12 Hind limb 21 

Width of head .... 8-5 

Southern India. 

a-d. Hgr. & yg. Travancore HUls and Col. Beddome [C.]. 

Wynad. (Tvpes.) 

c-i. Ad. & hgr. Pulnev Hills. Col. Beddome [Cj. 

k-l. Ad. & hgr. Top of Sivagherry Ghat. Col. Beddome [C.J. 



50. Lygosoina nitens. 

Lygosoma (Mocoa) nitens, Peters, Mon, Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 573, and 
Ann. Mus. Genova, in. 1872, p. 32, pi. iv. fig. 2. 

Body elongate. Snout short, truncate. Lower eyelid with an 
undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; rostral very large ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a 
broad suture with the rostral and with the frontal : latter shield 
hardly larger than the interparietal ; four supraoculars ; fronto- 
parietal single, larger than the frontal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; no enlarged nuchals ; fourth upper labial 
below the centre of the eye, fifth largest. Ear-opening punctiform. 
22 smooth scales round the body, the two vertebral series very 
broad. A pair of enlarged pra^anals. Metallic green above, with a 
black streak on each side of the back, originating on the supraocular 
region ; sides of body spotted black and pale green ; throat with 
brown longitudinal lilies. v 



8. LTGOSOMA, 263 

iiulliii). luillim. 

Total length 7<i Fore limb 8 

Head 7 Hind limb lO-o 

Body -22 Tail 47 

Sarawak, Borneo. 

51. Lygosoma laterale. 

Mocoa laterali-5, Orai/, Cat. p. 83. 
Scincus lateralis, .SWy, in Long's Expecl. Jiocki/ Mount, ii. p. .324 ; 

Harlan, Juiirn. Ac. Philad. vi. 1828, p. 12; Ilolhr. X. Am. Herp. 

i. p. 71, pi. viii. 

unicolor, Harlan, Juurn. Ac. Philad. v. 1825, pp. 156 & 221. 

Lygosoma lateralis, Diun. >S' Bibr. v. p. 719; Hulbr. op. cit. 2nd ed. 

ii. p. 133, pi. xix. 
Oligosoma gemmingeri, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1864, p. 180. 

laterale, Cope, Check-List N. Am. Itept. p. 39. 

Lygosoma (Mocoa) lateralis, Boconrt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept, p. 446, 

pi. xxii. F. fig. 3. 

( ) gemmiugerii, Bocourt, I. c. p. 449. 

Mocoa lateralis, Giinth. Biol. C.-Am., Rept. p. 31. 

Body elongate ; the distance between the end of the snout and the 
fore limb is contained once and three fifths to twice in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Xostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, broadly in contact with 
the rostral, and usually fonning a narrow suture with the frontal ; 
latter shield as long as or shorter than frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, second largest; seven or eight supraciliarics ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, latter usually smaller than former ; 
parietals forming a short suture behind the interparietal ; two to 
four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. 
Ear- opening oval, about as lai'ge as the eye-opening ; no auricular 
lobules. 28 to 32 smooth scales roiuid the middle of the body, laterals 
smallest. A pair of large praeanals. The adpressed limbs fail to 
meet. Digits subcylindrical, slightly compressed ; subdigital lamellae 
smooth, 15 to 18 under the fourth toe. Tail once and a half to 
twice the length of head and body. Yellowish or brown above, with 
dark brown dots ; a dark brown lateral band, more or less distinctly 
light-edged above ; flanks brown-dotted ; lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 120 Fore limb 11 

Head 10 Hind limb 17 

Width of head .... 6 Tail 72 

Body 38 

Southern North America ; Mexico. 

a-e. Ad. & hgi-. N. America. E. Doubleday, Esq. [P.]. 

/. Ad. Georgia. 



a-h. Ad. 


& Lgr. 


China. 


c. Ad. 




China. 


d-e. Ad. 




Near Ninppo. 


/. Ad. 




SuoAvy Talley, 
Ningpo. 


g. Ad. 




Sze Chuen. 



264 scixciDJE, 

q-h. Ad. lSre"(;v Orleans. 

'i-l. Ad. Calif oriiia (?). M. Salle [C.]. 

m. Ad. Jalapa. M. Hoege [C.]. 

Being unable to find distinctive characters to separate the following 
Chinese Pcink {L. reevesii), I must, at least provisionallj', refer it 
to this species, with the following synonymy : — 

ITinulia reevesii, Gray, Cat. p. 7G. 
Tiliqua reeresii, Gray, Ajd). JS\ H. ii. 18.38, p. 292. 
Eumeces reevesii, Giinih. liepf. Brit. I)}d. p. 87, pi. x. fig. K. 

• modestus, Gi'tnth. 1. c. fig. g. 

Lygosnma nigropimctatinn, Bocoxirt, Ann. Sc. Nat. (6) vii. 1878, 

art. 16, and Miss. Sc. Mex., Hept. pi. xxii. F. fig. 2. 
? Mocoa exigua, Anders. Zool. W. Yunnan, p. 797. 

J. Reeves, Esq. [P.]. (Types of 

Tiliqua reevesii.) 
A. Adams, Esq. [C.]. 
(Types of Eumeces modestns.) 
J. H. Leech, Esq. [P.]. 

R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.]. 

52. Lygosoma assatum. 

Lampropholis assatus, Cope, Proc. Ac. rhilad. 18(14, p. 179, 
Mocoa assata, Cope, Journ. Ac. Fhilad. (2) viii. 1870, p. 115. 
Lygosoma (Mocoa) assata, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Bept. p. 450, 
pi. xxii. r. fig. 7. 

Body elongate ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained twice and two thirds to twice and three 
fourths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans])arent disk. Xostril 
pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, 
broadly in contact with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter 
shield as long as the frontoparietal, which is single ; four supra- 
oculars, second largest ; eight supraciliaries ; interparietal rather 
large, parietals forming a sutui'e behind it; enlarged nuchals one 
pair, or none ; fifth or sixth upper labial below the centre of the 
eye. Ear-opening oval, as large as the eye-opening ; no auricular 
lobules. 26 to 30 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; 
laterals smallest. A pair of large proeanals. The adpressed limbs 
fail to meet. Digits subc3'lindrical ; subdigilal lamellae smooth, 
15 to 17 under the fourth toe. Tail about once and a half the 
length of head and body. Olive-brown above, each scale with a 
small dark brown spot ; a more or less distinct dark brown lateral 
baud, light-edged above ; lips brown-spotted ; lower surfaces whitish. 

niilliiii. luillim. 

Total length 115 Pore limb 12 

Head 10 Hind limb 16 

^Yidth of head .... 7 Tail (reproduced) . . 60 

Body 45 



8. LYGOSOMA. 2G5 



Central America. 



a. Ad. Atitlan. M. Bocourt [P.]. 

h-c. Ad. k hgr. Kio Mota{,nia. O. Salvin, Esq. [C.]. 

53, Lygosoma macrotympanuin. 

Mocoa macrotynipanuui, SfoJiczka, Joitrn. As. Soc. Benq. xlii. 1873, 
p. 16G. 

Body moderately slender. Snout rather attenuated and prolonged. 
Lower eyelid Avith an undivided transparent disk. Xostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal in contact with the 
rostral, posteriorly just touching the frontal ; four supraoculars ; 
frontoparietal single ; interparietal distinct ; parietals forming a 
suture beliind the interparietal ; four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper 
labial under the orbit. Ear-opening very large, rounded, with a 
perfectly smooth edge all round. 22 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsals slightly larger than laterals. A pair of 
moderately enlarged praeanals. Limbs proportionately developed, 
with the toes very slender. Head above brown, paler on the snout ; 
three longitudinal white bands along the bodj-, separated by two 
somewhat broader brown bands; the median dorsal white band 
becomes obsolete at the root of the tail ; labials and sides of head 
brownish, spotted with white ; limbs above "with very close longi- 
tudinal brown lines, digits powdered with pure white ; lower portion 
of the sides and lower surfaces livid carneous, tinged with bright 
orange on the lower belly and on the tail. 

Total length 100 miUim., of which the tail measures nearly 60. 

South Andaman. 

54. Lygosoma macrotis. 

Euprepes macrotis, Steincl. Novara, licpt. p. 48. 
Mocoa macrotis, Theoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Incl. p. 60. 

Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. JSTo supra- 
nasals ; rostral large, posterior border convex and forming a curved 
suture with the frontonasal, which is in contact posteriorly with the 
anterior angle of the frontal; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct. Ear-opening very large, circular, without projecting 
lobules. 31 smooth scales round the body. A pair of large 
praeanals. Brown above, with a deep black lateral band ; belly 
yellowish white. 

Kicobars. 

55. Lygosoma africanum. (Plate XIX. fig. 1.) 

Mocoa africana, Gray, Cat. p. 83. 
Lygosoma (Mocoa) africanum, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 162, 
Mocoa africana, Greeff, Sitzb. Ges. Kat. Marburg, 1884, p. 48 ; 
Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lish. 1886, no. 42. 

Habit laccrtiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and a half in the distance 



266 



SCINCIDiE 



between axilla and groin. Snout short, rather pointed. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nosti-il pierced in the 
nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming with 
the rostral a suture the width of which equals tlie width of the 
frontal, and a narrow one with the latter shield ; frontal a little 
shorter than frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second 
largest ; six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, a little longer 
than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 
parietals ; fifth upjjer labial entering the orbit. Ear-oi)ening verj- 
small, roundish. 24 (or 2()) smootli scales round the middle of the 
body, subequal. Pricanals not enlarged. The adpressed limbs fail 
to meet. Digits subcylindrical. Subdigital lamellae smooth, 15 
under the fourth toe. " Brown, darker spotted (perhaps discoloured) ; 
lips and throat brown-spotted ; beneath silvery." 

millim. millim. 

Total length 65 Fore limb 9 

Head 9 Hind limb 12 

Width of head 5 Tail (reproduced) . . 26 

Body 30 

West Africa (Ilha Principe and I. das Kolas, Gulf of Guinea). 

o. Ad. W. Africa. (TjT)e.) 

56. Lygosoma reichenovii. 

Lygosoma (Mocoa) reiclienowii, Peters, Mon. Berl, Ac. 1874, p. 160. 

Habit lacertiform, slender ; snout pointed. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal longer than broad, forming a broad suture 
with the rostral and a narrow one with the frontal ; four sujjra- 
oculars ; eight supraciliaries : frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct ; fourth upper labial largest and below the eye. Ear- 
opening small, vertically oval. 22 smooth scales round the body. 
The adpressed limbs overlap. Tail twice as long as head and body. 
Olive-brown above ; a black, light-edged round spot on each 
parietal ; two series of spots, running along the two median dorsal 
series of scales, unite on the base of the tail ; a black lateral band, 
passing through the eye, broadest on the neck, narrowest on the 
body ; below this band, on the sides of the body, parallel longi- 
tudinal dark lines ; lower surfaces golden, with more or less distinct 
rows of black dots. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 135 Fore limb 12 

Head 10 Hind limb 16 

Body 35 Tail 90 

Camaroons. 



8. LTG080MA. 267 

57. Lygosoma mustelinum. (Pl.vte XIX. fig. 2.) 

Mocoa mustoliua, O'ShniK/hn. Ann. i.^ Mar/. N. H. (4) xiii. 1874, 

p. 299, and (5) iv. 1879," p. 800. 
Lygosoma (Mocoa) lacrvnians, Peters S,- Doria, Ann. Mus. Qenova, 

xiii. 1878, p. 348. 

( ) sondcri, Peters, Sifzh. Gcs. Nat. Freunde, 1878, 

p. 191 *. 

( ) orichalceum, Bnettg. Uer. Off'enh. Ver. Naturk. xvii.- 

xviii. 1878, p. 2, pi. i. fig. 1 *. 

Habit lacertiform, body elongate. The distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is c(jntaincd once and two thirds to 
twice in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril 
pierced in the nasal, which is quite lateral ; no supranasal ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, forming a very broad suture with the 
rostral, and a narrower one with the frontal ; latter shield as long 
as or a little shorter than frontoparietals and interparietal together, 
in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; six or seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals normally 
distinct (united in one of the specimens), as long as or a little 
longer than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind 
the interparietal, bordered by a pair of temporals and a pair of 
nuchals ; fourth upper labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear- 
opening oval, not larger than the transparent palpebral disk. 
22 or 24 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest. 
Prseanals not or but feebly enlarged. The adpressed limbs fail to 
meet. Digits cylindrical ; subdigital lamella3 smooth, 16 to 19 
under the fourth toe. Tail twice as long as head and body. Pale 
brown or yellowish brown above, golden on the sides and on the 
tail ; each dorsal scale with three or more brown lines ; sides 
usually with interrupted brown longitudinal lines ; a white, brown- 
edged spot or short streak below the posterior border of the eye ; 
lips brown-dotted ; lower surfaces yellowish white, sides of throat 
and belly with fine brown lines or series of dots ; two longitudinal 
lines of confluent brown dots under the tail. 

millina. raillim. 

Total length 135 Fore limb 11 

Head 10 Hind limb 16 

Width of head .... 6 Tail 90 

Body 35 

Southern Australia. 

a-b. Ad. New South Wales. G. KrefFt, Esq. I /'p„„-„ n 

c. Ad. Sydnev. Dr. A. Giiuther [P.]. f '^^>P^^->' 

d. Ad. ? 



Types examined. 



268 sciNciD^. 

58. Lygosoma challengeri. (Plate XIX. fig, 3.) 

Habit lacertiform. The distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one fourth or once and one 
fifth in the distance between axilJa and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower e3-elid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
in the nasal, which is quite lateral ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a very broad suture with the rostral and 
a narrower one with tlie frontal ; the width of the suture between 
rostral and frontonasal equals the width of the frontal ; latter shield 
as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with 
the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, a little longer than 
the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 
parietals ; fourth upper labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear- 
opening oval, a little larger than the transparent palpebral disk. 
26 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest. 
Prteanals not or scarcely enlarged. The hind limb reaches the 
wrist. Digits cylindrical ; subdigital lamelloe smooth, 24 under the 
fourth toe. Tail about once and a half the length of head and body. 
Coppery brown above, with black and yellowish spots ; a small 
yellowish-white spot at the base of the thigh ; yellowish white 
inferiorly, spotted with brown. 

raillim. millim. 

Total length 124 Fore limb 15 

Head 12 Hind limb 20 

^Yidth of head .... 8 TaU 75 

Body 37 

Queensland. 

a-b. Ad. & hgr. Queensland. H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 

59. Lygosoma cupreiun. (Plate XX. fig. 2.) 

Mocoa cuprea, Grai/, Cat. p. 83. 
AblepLarus cupreus, Grai/, Ann. JW If. ii. 1839, p. 335. 

Habit lacertiform, rather stout; the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb is contained once and three fifths in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the 
nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a 
suture with the rostral, and in contact with the anterior angle of 
the frontal ; latter shield shorter than frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the first supraocular ; three 
supraoculars, first larger than the two others together ; seven or 
eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and intei'parietal distinct, 
latter smallest ; parietals forming a short suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; three pairs of nuchals ; fifth or sixth upper labial entering 
the orbit. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the eye -opening, without 






8. LreosoMA. 269 

projecting lobiiles. 36 smooth scales round the middle of the body; 
dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Pricanals scarcely enlarged. 
The adpressed limbs hardly meet. Digits rather short and thick, 
cylindrical ; subdigital lamclhe smooth, IG under the fourth toe. 
" Golden green, mottled with brown, with a narrow palo sinuous 
streak on each side of the back." 

millim. milliiu. 

Total length 132 Fore limb 19 

Head 15 Hind limb 2.5 

Width of head 10 Tail (reproduced) . . 62 

Body 55 

Hah. ? 

a. Ad. ? (Type.) 

60. Lygosoma lichenigerum. (Plate XX. fig. 1.) 

Mocoa lichenigera, O'Shauyhn. Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (4) xiii. 1874, 
p. 298. 

Habit lacertiform, rather stout ; the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half to once 
and two thirds in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal; no supranasal; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral and with the 
frontal ; latter shield as long as frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars ; seven supraeiliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; a pair of nuchals ; fifth upper labial below the centre of 
the eye. Ear-opening oval, nearly as large as the eye-opening, 
without projecting lobules. 42 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body, median dorsals a little larger than the otliers. Xo en- 
larged prteanals. The adpressed limbs hardly meet. Digits rather 
short and thick, cj'lindrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 17 or 18 
under the fourth toe. Pale bronzy olive or golden above, dotted 
with dark brown ; an undulated dark brown dorso-lateral line ; 
sides variegated with brown ; lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 127 Fore limb 19 

Head 16 Hind limb 25 

Width of head .... 11 Tail (reproduced) . , 53 

Body 58 

Lord Howe Island, Australia. 

a. Ad. Lord Howe Island. J. Macgillivray, Esq. [C.]. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Probably same locahty. H.M.S. ' Herald.' 



270 sciNcn)^. 

61. Lygosoma nigrofasciolatum. 

Lygosoma (Mocoa) nigrofusciolatuiu, Peters, Mon. Bed. Ac. 18(39, 
p. 4-"}5 ; Iioca(/c, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. viii. 1881, p. 131. 

arborum, Bavay^ Cat. Rept. JV. Caled. p. 19. 

deplaDchei(no«i^ay«?/), Bocage,Jorn. iSc. Lisb. iv. 1873, p. 229. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between tlie end of the suout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one third to once and tliree tifths 
in the distance between axiUa and groin. Snout rather long, obtusely 
pointed. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril 
pierced between a nasal and a postnasal, bordered inferiorly by the 
first labial ; no supranasal ; frontonasal nearly as long as broad, 
narrowly in contact with the rostral and with the frontal; latter 
shield as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; nine supra- 
ciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct ; interparietal distinct, as long as 
or a little shorter than the latter ; parietal s forming a suture behind 
the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border 
the parietals ; sixth upper labial largest and below the eye. Ear- 
opening oval, a little smaller than the eye-opening, with one or two 
small obtuse projecting lobules. 36 to 88 scales round the middle 
of the body, subequal, smooth, or dorsals feebly striated. IS'o 
enlarged prseanals. The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow. 
Digits elo2igate, subcylindrical, compressed distally ; subdigital 
lamellse smooth, 29 or 30 under the fourth toe. Tail once and three 
fourths the length of head and body. Olive or greyish above, with 
more or less distinct undulated transverse series of small black and 
light spots on the back ; a longitudinal black streak between the 
shoulders ; a black band from eye to ear ; upper lip and lower 
surfaces greenish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 273 Fore limb 33 

Head 23 Hind limb 44 

Width of head .... 14 Tail 175 

Body 75 

New Caledonia. 

a. Ad. Isle of Pines. J. Macgillivray, Esq. [C.]. 

b-c. Ad. & hgr. Noumea. E. L. Layard, Esq. [P"!]. 

62. Lygosoma telfairii. 

Leiolepisma bellii, Gra>/, Vat. p. 84. 
Scincus telfairii, Desj'anl. Ann. Sc. Xat. xxii. 1831, p. 293. 
Tiliqua bellii, Grai/, Griff. A. K. ix-. Si/n. p. 70. 
Leiolepisma telfairii, Dum. 8f Bihr. v. p. 742, pi. 1. 

Habit lacertiform, rather stout ; the distance between the cud of 
the suout and the fore limb is contained once and one flftli to once 
and three fifths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided semitransparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal a 



8. LTGOSOMA. 271 

little broader tlian long, forming a narrow suture with the rostral 
and with the frontal ; latter shield us long as frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the two or three anterior 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars, first and fourth longest, second and 
third e(i[ual ; six to eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal, posterior border straight, at right angles with the outer 
borders ; usually a pair of enlarged nuchals : fifth uppei' labial below 
the centre of the e5'e. 48 to ")2 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body ; laterals smallest. Prtcanals not enlarged. The adpressed 
limbs overlap. Digits slightly compressed ; subdigital lamelUc 
smooth, 23 to 29 under the fourth toe. Tail about once and two 
thirds the length of head and body. Greyish or brownish olive 
above, with small darker and lighter spots or variegations ; yellowish 
white iuferiorly, throat and sides of belly spotted or marljled with 
grey. 

luilliiii. niillim. 

Total length ... . :59() Fore liml) 4(5 

Head 37 Hind limb 65 

Width of head 32 Tail (reproduced) . . 220 

Body 133 

Small islands near Mauritius. 

a. Several spec. : Round Island. Sir H. Barkly [P.]. 
ad., hgr., & yg. 

b. Ad. Mauritius. Dr. Johnson [P.]. 

c-d Ad. ? Dr. J. E.Gray [P.]. (Types 

of Tiliqua bellii.) 

63. Lygosoma grande. (Plate XX. fig. 3.) 

Mocoa grandis, Graij^ Cat. p. 272. 
Mocoa? laxa, Hutton, Trcms. N. Zeal. List. iv. 1872, p. 109. 
Lygosonia (Mocoa) uigriplantare, Peters, Mon. Bed. Ac. 1873, p. 744. 

Habit lacertiform; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and two thirds 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, 
in contact with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield 
as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven or 
eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, a little longer than 
the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 
parietals ; sixth upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear- 
opening oval, a little smaller than the eye-opening, with a few 
projecting granules anteriorlj-. 40 to 50 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body : laterals smallest. Prseanals scarcely enlarged « 
The hind limb reaches the wrist in the adult, nearly to the axilla in 
the young. Digits moderately elongate, subcylindrical ; subdigital 



272 BCINCID^. 

lamellte smooth, 28 or 29 under the fourth toe. Tail ahout once 
aud a half the len<;;th of head and bod)'. Black above, spotted all 
over with pale olive, or olive dotted with black ; lower surfaces 
greenish or pale olive. 

milliiu. luillim. 

Total length (tail re- Body 8-1- 

produced) 215 Fore limb 30 

Head 20 Hind limb 42 

Width of head .... 14 

IS'ew Zealand. 

a. Ad. N. Zealand, South Island. (Type.) 

h. Yg. N. Zealand. Welliugton Museum. (As 

typical of Mocoa laxa.) 

64. Lygosoma moco. 

Hinulia ornata, part., Gray, Cat. p. 77. 
Mocoa zelandica, Gray, I. c. p. 82. 

owenii, Gray, I. c. p. 272. 

Lygosoma moco, Dum. Sf Bihr. v. p. 718. 

Tiliqua zelandica, Gray, in Dieffenb. N. Zeal. ii. p. 202. 

Mocoa zelandica, Gray, Zool. Ereh. ^- Terr., Hept. p. 8, pi. vii. fig. 4 ; 

Hutton, Trans. N. Zeal. Inst. iv. 1872, p. IfciS. 
Hinulia ornata. Gray, I. c. pi. xi. fig. 1. 
Oligosonia zelandicum, Girard, U.S. Eayhr. Exped., Herp. p. 246, 

pi. xxvii. figs. 9-16. 
Euprepes moco, Steind. Xovara, Rcpt. p. 47. 
Hinulia variegata, Huller, Trans. N. Zeal. Inst. iii. 1871, p. 5, pi. ii. 

fig. 3. 
Mocoa striata, Bidler, /. c. p. 6, fig. 2. 
zealaudica, part., Giinth. Zool. Ereh. ^- Terr., Itept. p. 13. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and a half to once and three fourths 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- <?^'~^ 
parent disk, Nostril pierced in the centre of the 
nasal ; no supranasal ; rostral nearly twice as broad 
as deep ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a 
siiture with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter 
shield a little shorter than frontoparietals aud inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the two anterior I^ront and upper 

supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six '^f^^ of snout, to 

^ -T • o . • , 1 n- i- J show the form of 

or seven supracilianes ; frontoparietals distinct, a ^.j^g ^.^g^^^^j gj^jgj^ 

little longer than the interparietal ; parietals in 

contact behind the interparietal, bordered by a pair of nuchals 

and a pair of temporals ; two to five pairs of nuchals ; usually, 

fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening 

roundish or oval, much larger than the transparent palpebral disk ; 

usually with one or two projecting granules or small lobules. 

28 to 32 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 

largest. Prasanal scales not or scarcely enlarged. The adpressed 

limbs meet or fail to meet. Digits moderately long, subcylindrical; 

subdigital lamellae smooth, 20 to '2.'6 under the fourth toe. Tail once 




8. LYGOSOMA. 



273 



and ono fourth to ouce and two thirds as lonp: as liead and body. 
Brown or olive above, with a more or less regular, black-edged, light 
dorso-lateral streak ; back uniform, or spotted with blackish and 
yellowish, or with three dark brown black-edged longitudinal lines ; 
usually a yellowish, l)lack-edgcd streak on the upper li]) to the car, 
another from the ear to the groin, a third on the anterior face of the 
fore limb, and a fourth on the hinder side of the hind limb ; lower 
surfaces yellowish, greyish, or pale olive, uniform or black-spotted. 







millim. 


millim. 




Total length . . 


.... 176 


Fore limb 18 




Head 

AYidth of head 


.... 13 
9 


Hind limb 26 




Tail 102 




Body 


.... Gl 






New Zealand. 






a. 


Ad. 


Cook's Straits. 


Sir R. Owen [P.]. (Type of 
Tiliqua zelandica.) 


b- 


c. Ad. & hgr. 


Wellington. 


H.M.8. ' Challenger.' 


(h 


c. Ad. 


N. Zealand. 


Capt. Drurv 1 P.]. 


f- 


<-/. Ad. 


N. Zealand. 


Lord Derby [P.J. 


h~ 


-V. Ad. 


N. Zealand. 


E. S. Eni.sdon, Esq. [P.]. 


I: 


Ad. 


N. Zealand. 


Smithsonian Institution [P.]. 
J. Macgillivray, Esq. [C.]. 


1. 


Ad. 


N. Zealand. 


m 


, n-o. Ad. 


N. Zealand. 




P- 


Ad. 


P 


Trustees of the College of 
Surgeons [P.]. (Type of 
Mocoa oioenii.) 


9- 


-r. Ad. & hgr. 


? 





65. Lygosoma lineo-ocellatum. 

Lygosoma lineo-ocellata, A. Dam. Cat. Milh. Rept. 

Mon. Berl. Ac. 1873, p. 74o. 
Mocoa zealandica, part., Giinth. Zool. Ereh. Sj- Terr., 

Yery closely allied to L. moco. Larger, stouter. 
Eostral slightly broader than deep, more produced 
superiorly. 32 to 36 scales round the body. Colora- 
tion very similar to that of CJialcides ocelJatus. Back 
pale brown or greyish olive, with small black spots 
or ocelli with white centre ; a more or less marked 
whitish dorso-lateral band, beginning on the nape ; 
sides variegated with blackish, or blackish dotted with 
white ; lower surfaces greyish, throat and breast 
black-spotted. 

millim. 

Total length 205 

Head 17 

Width of head 13 

Body , 73 

New Zealand. 



Fore limb . 
Hind limb. 
Tail 



p. 169 ; Peters, 
Rept. p. 13. 



Front and upper 
views of snout, to 
show the form of 
the rostral shield. 

millim. 

2o 

.... 32 
.... 115 



a-d. Ad. & hgr. 
e. Ad. 

VOL. III. 



N. Zealand. 
N. Zealand. 



E. S. EUisdon, Esq. [P.]. 

X 



274 SCINCID^. 

66. Lygosoma infrapunctatum. (Plate XXI. fig. 1.) 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and three fifths in the distance between 
axilla and groin. iSnout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an 
undivided transparent disk. Xostril pierced in the nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture -with the 
rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield as long as frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contact with the two anterior supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; seven supraeiliaries ; 
frontoparietals distinct, longer than the interparietal ; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal, bordered by a pair of 
nuchals and a pair of temporals ; two pairs of nuchals behind the 
anterior pair ; sixth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening 
roundish, as large as the eye-opening, with three short obtuse 
lobules on its anterior border. 34 scales round the middle of the 
body ; laterals smallest, dorsals feebly striated. Pneanals scarcely 
enlarged. The adpressed limbs just meet. Digits slightly com- 
pressed ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 23 under the fourth toe. OUve 
above, with numerous small dark brown spots ; a reddish-brown 
undulated lateral band : lower surfaces pale olive, dotted with dark 
brown. 

millim. milliiu. 

Total length 163 Fore limb 22 

Head 16 Hind limb 30 

Width of head 11 Tail (reproduced) . . 82 

Body 65 

Australia. 

a. Ad. Australia. G. Kreffl, Esq. 

67. Lygosoma smithii. 

Mocoa suiilbii, Gray, Cat. p. 82. 
Lygosomella testuosa, Girard, U.S. E.rplor. Exped., Ilerp. p. 251, 

pi. xxvii. figs. 1-8. 
Euprepes smithii, Steind. Novara, Rept. p. 47. 
Mocoa zealandica, part., Giinth. Zoul. Ercb. 4" Terr.., Rept. p. 13. 
Norbea isolata, Hutton, Trans. N. ZeaJ. Inst. iv. 1872, p. 170. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one third to once and three 
fourths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, 
obtusely pointed. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in a nasal, which is often divided by an 
oblique suture ; no supranasal ; frontonasal usually not much 
broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral and Avith the 
frontal; latter shield as long as or longer than frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, second largest ; six or seven supraeiliaries ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, usually a little longer than the interparietal : 



8. LTGOSOMA. 



275 



parictals in contact behind the interparietal, bordered by a pair' of 
nuchals and a pair of temporals ; usually two or three pairs of 
nuchals behind the anterior pair ; fifth and sixth upper labials 
below the eye. Ear-opening oval, about as large as the transparent 
palpebral disk, Avithout or witli a few very minute projecting lobules 
anteriorly. 30 or 38 scales round the middle of the ])ody ; dorsals 
largest and frequently striated or feebly pluricariiiate. Tricanal 
scales not or scarcely enlarged. The adpresscd limbs may overlap 
or fail to meet. Digits moderately long, subcyliudrical ; subdigital 
laraellos smooth, IG to 2U under the fourth toe. Tail about as long 
as head and body. Brown or olive-brown above, usually with small 
black spots and a more or less distinct light dorso-lateral band, which 
is edged inferiorly by the dark brown of the upper part of the sides ; 
flanks paler, often with light dots ; lower surfaces yellowish or pale 
olive, throat usually variegated with blackish. Some specimens 
almost entirely black. 



Liillim. 

Total length 116 

Head 13 

Width of head 9 

Body 43 



millim. 

Fore limb 15 

Hind limb 22 

Tail 60 



New Zealand. 

o, b. Several spec. : 

ad. & hgi". 
c. Many spec. : ad., 

hgi-., & yg. 
d.Yg. 



e-ff. Ad. 



N. Zealand. 
N. Zealand. 
White Island. 



Lieut. Alexander , 

Smith [P.]. ( .^ . 
Antarctic Expe- | ^ •'^^ "^ 

dition. ' 

Colonial Museum of New 

Zealand. (Typeof A"o;-6ea 

isolata.) 






68. Lygosoma aBneum. 

Cvclodina £euea, Girarcl, U. S. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 236, pi. xxvi. 
'figs. 9-16. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb is 

3ontained once and two thirds to twice in the distance between 

ixilla and groin. Snout very short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an 

andivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the centre of the 

lasal ; no suprauasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a 

luture with the rostral and with the frontal ; praif rentals small ; 

"rontal a little shorter than frontoparietals and interparietal together, 

n contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 

even supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, as long as or a little 

onger than the interparietal ; parietals in contact behind the inter- 

>arietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 

larietals. Ear-opening roundish, hardly as large as the transparent 

alpebral disk. 26 or 28 scales round the body ; dorsals largest 

nd more or less distinctly striated. Praeanal scales not or scarcely 

nlarged. Limbs short, widely separated when adprtssed. Digits 

i2 



276 SCIN'CTD^. 

cylindrical ; subdigital lamellse smooth, 16 to 18 under the fourth 
toe. Brown above with a few darker dots ; a dark brown irregular 
dorso-lateral streak, edged above with yellowish ; flanks with light, 
dark-edged spots ; lips mottled with dark brown ; throat spotted 
with dark brown. 



millim. 
From snout to vent . 5!J 

Head 11 

Width of head 7-5 


millim 

Fore limb 12 

Hind limb 17 


New Zealand. 




a-h. Ad. N. Zealand. 
c, d. Ad. N. Zealand. 


J. Macgillivrav, Esq. [ 



69. Lygosoma entrecasteauxii. 

Mocoa entrecasteauxii, Gray, Cat. p. 82. 
Lygosoma entrecasteauxii, Dam. '^- Bib)-, v. p. 717. 
Mocoa pseudocariuata, O' Shaughn. Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (4) xiii. 1874, 

p. 300. 
pseudotropis, Giinth. Zool. Ereh. Sf Terr., Rept. p. 13. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and two fifths to once and three 
fourths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with a very large transparent disk, the eye 
being nearly entirely distinct when the lid is closed. jVostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a suture with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield as long as 
or a little shorter than frontoparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, 
longer than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; two or three pairs of nuchals ; fifth, rarely sixth, upper 
labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear-opening roundish, smaller 
than the transparent palpebral disk, without distinct lobules. 28 
to 32 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest and usually 
more or less distinctly striated or obtuselj' pluricarinate. Praeanals 
not or scarcely enlarged. The adpressed limbs usually meet or 
overlap. Digits cylindrical ; subdigital lamella3 smooth, 17 to 20 
under the fourth toe. Tail once and one third to once and two 
thirds the length of head and body. Olive above, with three black 
longitudinal bands, laterals broadest and edged above and below by 
a light streak ; lower surfaces greyish or greenish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 124 Fore hmb 14 

Head 10 Hind limb 18 

Width of head 7 Tail 73 

Body 41 

Tasmania. 



8. LIGOSOMA. 277 

a. Ad. Tasmania. Dr. Eobertson [P.]. 

b-d. Ad. Tasmania. Dr. Milligan [P.]. 

e f. Ad. & yg., Tasmania. K. Gunn, Esq. [P.]. (Types 
bad state. of Mvcoa pstiidocarhiuta.) 

g. Several spec. Antarctic Expedition, Lords of tlie Admiralty [P.]. 

h. Several spec. ? J. Gould, Esq. [C.]. 

i-l. Ad. & yg. ? Lord Derby [P.J. 

70. Lygosoina tricolor. 

Lygosoma tricolor, Bavai/, Cat. Jiept. N. Ceiled, p. 17. 
Lioscincus steindacbnerii, Bvcacje, Jorn. tic. Lish. iv. 1873, p. 228, and 
viii. 1881, p. 130. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb nearly equals that between axilla and groin. Snout 
short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. 
Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; a small postnasal 
shield between the frontonasal, the pncfrontal, the nasal, and the 
loreal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a broad suture with 
the rostral and a narrow one with the frontal ; latter shield as long 
as the frontoparietal, in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars ; nine supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single ; inter- 
parietal distinct ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fourth 
to sixth upper labials below the eye, from which they are separated 
by a series of small scales. Ear-opening a little smaller than the 
eye-opening, without projecting lobules. 40 scales round the middle 
of the body : laterals smallest, dorsals with three to five feeble keels 
(probably less distinct in the adult). Prseanals not enlarged. The 
hind limb reaches the axilla. Digits subcylindrieal ; subdigital 
lamellae smooth, 35 under the fourth toe. Tail once and a half the 
length of head and body. Eeddish biown above, variegated with 
darker and lighter ; sides blackish brown, white-dotted ; throat and 
sides of belly marbled with black. 

milliiu. millim. 

Total length 105 Fore limb 14 

Head 12 Hind limb 21 

Width of head 7 Tail 62 

Body 31 

New Caledonia. 
a. Hgr. N. Caledonia. E. L. Layard, Esq. [P.]. 

71. Lygosoma variahile*. 

Tropidolepisma variabilis, Bavay, Cat. Bepl. A'. Ceded, p. 26. 
Sauroscincus bracounieri, Peters, Sitzh. Ges. Aat. Trtiinde, 1879, 
p. 149. 

* Described from the type specimen of Sauroscincus braconni&ri in the Berlin 
Museum. 



278 SCINCIDJ^. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one fourth in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse ; loreal region nearly 
vertical. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril 
pierced between a nasal, a postnasal, and the first labial ; no supra- 
nasal ; upper head-shields slightly striated ; frontonasal much 
broader than long, forming a narrow suture with the rostral ; prsc- 
frontals forming a median suture ; frontal a little smaller tlian the 
frontoparietal, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars, second largest ; seven supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietal single ; interparietal distinct, smaller, separating the parie- 
tals ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; 
sixth upper labial largest and below the eye. Ear-opening oval, a 
little smaller than the eye-opening, with a series of smaD granules 
anteriorly, 34 scales round the middle of the body, subequal ; 
dorsals and laterals strongly tricarinate. 'Eo enlarged prseanals. 
The hind limb reaches halfway between the arm and the ear. 
Digits elongate, subcylindrical ; subdigital lamelloe smooth, 36 under 
the fourth toe. Tail twice as long as head and body ; caudal scales 
bicarinate. Blackish brown above, with two yellowish streaks on 
each side, the upper commencing from the nostril and following the 
canthus rostralis and the supraciliary border, the lower bordering 
the upper lip and passing through the ear ; lower surfaces greenish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail Body 42 

injured) 145 Fore limb 19 

Head 14 Hind limb 33 

Width of head 9 

New Caledonia. 



72. Lygosoma austro-caledonicum. 

Lygosoma austro-caledonica, Baray, Cat. Bept. N. Ceded, p. 21. 
Euprepes haplorliinus, Giinth. Ann. i^- Mur/. X. IT. (4) x. 1872, p. 419, 
and in Brenchley, ' Cttra^oa,' liept. p. 397, pi. xxii. fig. B. 

Habit lacertiform, rather elongate ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half to once 
and two thirds in the distance between axilla and groin. Head 
small ; snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; 
frontonasal a little broader than long, forming a suture with the 
rostral and a broader one with the frontal ; praefrontals small and 
widely separated ; frontal as long as or slightly longer than the 
frontoparietal, in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single ; 
interparietal distinct ; parietals forming a median suture ; a pair of 
nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; four upper 
labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening oval, as large as the 



8. LYQOSOMA. 279 

eye-opening, with two or three very small, scarcely projecting, 
obtuse lobules on the anterior border. 28 to 30 scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsals tri- or quadricarinate ; lateral scales 
slightly smaller than dorsals. Pra;aiials not enlarged. The ad- 
pressed limbs meet or slightly overlap. Digits subcylindrical ; sub- 
digital lamellae smooth, 28 to 30 under the fourth toe. Tail about 
once and a half the length of head and body. Olive or brown 
above, uniform, or with darker dots and one or two darker bands 
along the back ; a broad dark brown band along each side of the 
head, neck, and body ; usually a whitish streak fi'om the ear to the 
groin ; upper surface of tail usually with angular dark markings 
pointing backwards ; lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. railHm. 

Total length 132 Fore limb 12 

Head 11 Hind limb 20 

Width of head ..... 7 Tail 81 

Body 40 

New Caledonia. 

a-h. Ad. & hgi'. Noumea. E. L. Layard, Esq. [P.]. 

c-(j. Ad. N. Caledonia. E. L. I-ayard, Esq. [P.]. 

h-i. Ad. N. Caledonia?*. J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.]. 

(TjqDes of Etiprepes haplorhinus.) 

73. Lygosoma trilineatum. (Plate XXI. fig. 2.) 

Mocoa ti'ilineata, part., Grat/, Cat. p. 81. 
Tiliqua trilineata, Grai/, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 291. 
Lygosoma duperreyi, JDum. (^- Bibr. v. p. 715 ; A. Dum. Cat. Meth. 

Rept. p. 167. 
Euprepes dupen-eyi, Steind. Kovara, Rept. p. 47. 

Habit lacertiform, body much elongate ; the distance between 
the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half 
to twice and a half in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. 
Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal forming a 
suture with the rostral, the width of which suture is considerably 
less than the width of the frontal, and a narrower one with the 
frontal ; latter shield as long as or shorter than the frontoparietal, 
in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest : five or six supraciliaries : frontoparietal single ; a 
very small inter[3arietal, behind which the parietals form a suture : 
a pair of nuehals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fifth 
upper labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear-opening oval, 
about as large as the transparent palpebral disk, without or with 

* I have strong reason to believe that the locality ' Fiji ' appended to the 
type specimens of Euprepes haplorhinus, Mocoa mieropus, Himdia tetragonurus, 
and Nannoscinciis fv.scus is erroneous, and that the specimens were procured in 
I^^ew Caledonia. 



280 sciNcro.^:. 

one or two obtuse lobules. 2G or 28 scales round the middle of the 
body; dorsals largest and sometimes feebly striated. Pra^anals not 
or scarcely enbirgcd. The adpressed limbs usually fail to meet. 
Digits cylindrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 1 9 to 23 under the 
fourth toe. Tail once and one third to once and three fourths the 
length of head and body. Eronzy olive above, with a black, light- 
edged lateral band ; frequently, the light lateral streaks are again 
edged with black and a vertebral black streak is present; lower 
surfaces greyish or greenish white. 

ruillim. milliin. 

Total length 173 Fore limb 15 

Head . . 12 Hind limb 23 

Width of head .... 8 TaU 110 

Body 51 

Southern Australia, Tasmania. 

a-e. Ad. & hgr. N. S. Wales. G. Krefft, Esq. 

/. Ad. Sydney. 

g-Ti. Ad. Tasmania. R. Gunn, Esq. [P.]. 

l-m. Ad. Tasmania. Dr. Milligan [P.]. 

n-r. Ad. & hgr. Tasmania. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

6-?<. Ad. W.Australia. J. Gould, Esq. [0.1.) ^m x 

V. Ad. W. Australia. ' H L J [(Types.) 

w. Ad. Albany, S.W. Aus- H. Ling Ptotb, Esq. [P.]. 

tralia. 
x-z. Ad. Swan Kiver. 

74. Lygosoma metallicum. (Plate XXII. fig. 1.) 

Mocoa ocellata, part., Gray, Cat. p. 82. 
Mocoa metaUica, O'Shavglm. Ann. i!y Mag. N. H. (4) xiii. 1874, 
p. 299. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and two fifths to once and two 
thirds in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Kostiil 
pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, 
forming a suture with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield 
shorter than frontoparietfil and interparietal together, in contact 
with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second 
largest ; six or seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single (in one 
specimen divided) ; interparietal distinct ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal : a pair of nuchals and a pair of tempoi-als 
border the parietals ; fifth upper labial largest and entering the 
orbit. Ear-opening roundish, as large as or a little larger than the 
transparent palpebral disk, without distinct lobules. 24 to 28 
Bcalcs round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest and usually 
more or less distinctly striated or pluricarinate. Praeanals not or 
scarcely eidargcd. O'lie adpressed limbs meet or sliglitly overlap. 
Digits cylindrical : subdigital lamellae smooth, 18 to 22 under the 



8. LVGOSOMA. 



281 



fourth toe. Tail about once and a half the lenp:th of head and body. 
Bronzy olive above, with small dark brown spots, sometimes witli a 
dark brown vertebral streak ; sides dark brown, light-dotted, often 
■with a more or less distinct liglit streak from ear to groin ; lower 
surfaces greenish or greyish, uniform or with darker dots. 



millim. 

Total length 133 

Head 11 

Wi(Uh of head 8 

Eodv 42 



Tasmania ; 


Kangaroo Island : Loya 


a. Ad. 
b~d, e-h. Ad. 
i-k. Hgr. 
I. Hgr. 
m. Hgr. 
n. Ad. 


Tasmania. 
Tasmania. 
Kangaroo Island. 
Loyahy Islands. 
Tana, New Ilebiides 




o-p. Ad. & hgr 
g. Ad. 




•? 



millim. 

Fore limb 14 

Hind limb 10 

Tail SO 

Loyalty Islands ; New Hebrides. 

R Gunn, Esq. [P.]. ( .^ . 
Dr. Milligan [P.]. ) '^^•^P^^-'' 



Sir G. Grey [P.], 

W. W. Perrv, Esq. [P.]. 

Lord Derby [P.]. (( )ne of the 

tvpes of Mocoa ocellata.) 
H.M.S. ' Herald.' 
Sir A. Smith [P.]. 



75. Lygosoma guichenoti. 

Mocoa guichenoti, Grai/., Cut. p. 80. 

trilineata, part., Gray, I. c. p. 81. 

Lygosoma guichenuti, Dutn. 4' Bibr. v. p. 713. 

— — (Mocoa) guttulatum, Peters, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, 1881, 

p. 83. 
( ) platynotum, Peters, I. c. p. 84. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one third to once and two thirds 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Xostril pierced 
in the nasal, which is quite lateral ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
forming a broad suture with the rostral, the width of which suture 
equals the width of the frontal, and a narrow one with the frontal ; 
latter shield narrower and not longer than the frontoparietal, in 
contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single ; 
a small interparietal, behind which the parietals form a suture ; a 
pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fifth 
upper labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear-opening oval, about 
as large as the transparent palpebral disk, without projecting 
lobules. 26 to 30 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 
largest and sometimes feebly striated. Prseanals not or scarcely 
enlarged. The adpressed limbs overlap, meet, or fail to meet. 
Digits cylindrical ; subdigital lamellte smooth, 20 to 26 under the 
fourth toe. Tail about once and two thirds the length of head and 
body. Bronzy olive or brownish above, with or without small 



282 



SCINCID^. 



darker and lighter spots ; vertebral region sometimes darker ; a 
dark brown lateral band, edged above and below by a light streak ; 
greenish white infeiiorlj', sometimes witli blackish dots. 



iiiillim. 

Total length U7 

Head 1) 

Width of head 

Body . . 31 

South Australia. 



a. Ad. 
h-e. Ad. 

k. Ad. 



Ad. 



millim. 

Fore limb 11 

Hind limb 15 

Tail 57 



Sydney. _ 
Swan River. 
S. Australia. 
Australia. 



G. Krefi't, Esq. 
Paris Museum. 



76. Lygosoma pretiosum. (Plate XXII. fig. 2.) 

Mocoa pretiosa, G'Shmif/hn. Ann. (§• Mag. N. H. (4) xiii. 1874, p. 298. 
microlepidota, O'Shaughn. I. c. p. 290. 

Habit lacertiform. The distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained jonce and two fifths in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield a little shorter than 
frontoparietal and interparietal together, in contact with the two 
anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest : seven or 
eight supraciliarics ; frontoparietal single ; a small interparietal ; 
parietals formiug a suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of 
nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fifth upper 
labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear-opening oval, larger than 
the transparent palpebral disk. 34 to 38 scales round the middle 
of the body : dorsals largest, striated or feebly pluricarinate. Prae- 
anals not enlarged. The adpressed limbs meet or overlap. Digits 
cylindrical ; subdigital lamella) smooth, 20 to 22 under the fourth 
toe. Tail a little longer than head and body. Olive above, with 
small darker and lighter spots ; a blackish lateral band ; a blackish 
vertebral streak may be present ; lower surfaces greenish ; lips and 
throat black-dotted. 



milliiu. 

Total length 119 

Head 11 

Width of head .... 8 
Bodv 43 



millim. 

Fore limb 10 

Hind limb 22 

Tail 65 



Tasmania. 

a. Ad. 
h. Ad. 



Tasmania. 
Tasmania. 



R. Gunn, Esq. [P.]. (Type.) 
G. Kr.-tft, Esq "" '_ ~ 
Mocoa microlepidota.) 



[P.] (Type of 



8. LYGOSOMA. 283 

77. Lygosoma ocellatum. 

jMocoa occllata, ]mit., (irai/, Cut. p. S'2. 
Mocoa ocelliita, Gray, Zonl. Ereh. &,- Terr., licpt. p. S, pi. \ ii. tin-. .",. 
Lyprosoma liieruulvphicinn, A. Dum. Cat. MetJi. liept. p. 115(5; 

Iloinhr. 4'- Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud {Astrolabe et Zi-lee), Jic/d. jil. v. 

«-. 1. 

Habit lacortiform ; the distauce between the end of the snout 
and the tore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and 
three fifths in tlie distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril 
pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, 
forming a suture with the rostral, and usually in contact with the 
anterior angle of the frontal : latter shield as long as and narrower 
than the frontoparietal, in contact with the two anterior supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; seven or eight supraci- 
liaries ; frontoparietal single ; a small interparietal, behind which 
the parietals form a suture ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of tem- 
porals border the parietals; sixth and seventh, or seventh and 
eighth, upper labials below the eye. Ear-opening oval, nearly as 
large as the eye-opening, with a few projecting granules or small 
lobules anteriorly. 50 to 54: scales round the middle of the body ; 
dorsals largest and sometimes feebly striated. Marginal pr»anals 
slightly enlarged. The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow. 
Digits cylindrical ; subdigital lamellte smooth, 20 to 24 under the 
fourth toe. Tail a little longer than head and body. Pale olive 
above, reticulated with black ; sides darker, usually with more or 
less distinct pale olive, black-edged ocelli ; greenish or grey infe- 
riorly, sometimes with darker longitudinal lines between the series 
of scales. 

millim. uiillim. 

Total length 143 Fore limb 19 

Head l'~) Hind limb 25 

Width of head .... 10 Tail 80 

Body 48 

Tasmania. 



fl-e. Ad. 
cI. Ad. 

e-i. Ad. Tasmania. Dr. Milligan [P.]. 

k. Usr. 




J. Gould, Esq. [C.].( (T X 
Lord Derby [P.]. i ^-^^^P*^'^-^ 



78. Lygosoma fuscura. 

Heteropus fuscus, Gray, Cat. p. 107. 
Heteropus fuscus, Dum. <^- Bihr. v. p. 7-'39 ; Peters ^~ Doria, Ann. 

Mus. Genova, xiii. 1878, p. o-59. 
leiicotsenia, Bleeher, Katurl:. Tijd^chr. Nederl. Ind. xxii. 1860, 

p. 38. 
schlegelii, Peters. Mon. Berl. Ac. 18G4, p. i"37 ; Doria, Ann. Mns, 

Genova, vi. 1874, p. -341, 



284 sciNCiD^. 

Heteropus sclimeltzii, Peters, Man. Bed. Ac. 1867, p. 23. 

tricarinatiis, Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 133; Doric, I. c. 

p. 340 ; Sauvage, Bull. Soc. P/iilom. (7) ii. 1877, p. 35. 

longipes, Macletnj, Broc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii. 1877, p. GG, 

variegatus, Mac/eai/, I. c. 

quinquecarinatus, Macleay, I. c. p. G7. 

sexdentatus, Macleay, I. c. 

cheverti, Macleay, I. c. 

luctuosus, Peters S,- Doria, I. c. p. 364. 

maculatus, De Vis, Proc. Boy. Soc. Queensl. i. 1885, p. 169. 

rubricatus, De Vis, I. c. p. 170. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one eighth to once and one 
third in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Is^ostril 
pierced in the nasal ; no supraiiasal ; frontonasal broader than long, 
broadly in contact with the rostral, and usually also with the frontal ; 
latter shield as long as or a little shorter than the frontoparietal, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 
seven to nine supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single, followed by a 
small interparietal ; parietals forming a median suture ; a pair of 
nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; four, rarely 
five, labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening oval, as large 
as or a little larger than the transparent palpebral disk ; auricular 
lobules present, very variable in size and in number, sometimes ob- 
tuse and reduced to one or two, sometimes acute and inserted all 
round the ear-opening ; usually two or three on the anterior border 
only. 32 to 38 scales round the body ; dorsals and laterals more 
or less distinctly tri- or quinquecarinate, sometimes almost perfectly 
smooth ; laterals a little smaller than dorsals. Proeanal scales 
slightly enlarged. The hind limb usually reaches the axilla, some- 
times not quite so far, sometimes a little beyond. Fingers four, 
toes five ; subdigital lamella' smooth, 28 to 33 under the fourth toe. 
Tail once and a half to once and three fourths the length of head 
and body. Brown or olive above, uniform or spotted with blackish 
or greenish, or with a black, light-edged lateral band ; sometimes a 
black vertebral line ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish. 





millim. 




millim 


Total length . . . 


. . . 184 


Fore limb .... 


22 


Head 


. .. 16 


Hind limb .... 


. . . . 36 


Width of head . 


. .. 11 


Tail 


. ... 117 


Body 


. .. 51 







Moluccas, New Guinea, Northern Queensland. 



a. Several 


3pec. : 


Amboina. 


H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 


ad. & vg 








h. Ad. 




Amboina. 




c. Ad. 




Ceram. 


Dr. Bleaker. (Type of He 
teropus kucotcenia.) 


d. Ad. 




Mysol. 





8. LYGOSOMA. 285 

e-i. Ad. & yg. Wild I., Admiralty H.M.S. 'Challenger.' 

Islands. 
k-m. Ad. Islands of Torres Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

Straits. 
n, o-q. Several spec. : Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfiirlane [C.]. 

ad. & yg. 

70. Lygosoma rhomboidale. 

Heteropus rhomboidalis, Peters, Mon. Bcrl. Ac. 1869, p. 446. 

? Heteropus rostralis, De Vis, Proc. lioij. Soc. Queensl. i. 188'J, p. 171. 

Closely allied to L. fascum, but the interparietal fused with the 
frontoparietal. Prajf'rontals separated ; one or two obtuse lobules 
on the anterior border of the ear. 32 scales round the middle of 
the body ; dorsals indistinctly tricarinatc. The hind limb reaches 
the axilla. 2o lamellae under the fourth toe. Coppery brown 
above, some of the scales edged with black ; a rather indistinct 
paler line on each side, beginning above the ear, edged below by a 
blackish band; pale olive inferiorly ; throat and lips blue. 

milliui. millim. 

Total length 107 Fore limb 17 

Head 11 Hind limb 24 

Z^ Width of head 8 Tail 00 

Body 3G 

Queensland. 

a. Ad. Port Mackay. Museum GodeSroy. (One 

of the types.) 

80. Lygosoma beccarii. 

Heteropus beccarii, Peters Sf Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, xiii. 1878, 
p. 361. 

Allied to L. fuscum. Praefrontals separated ; frontal as long as 
frontoparietal and interparietal together ; eight supraciliaries ; four 
labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening larger than the 
transparent palpebral disk, bordered all round and partly covered 
by long and acute lobules, those on the anterior border the largest. 
38 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals and laterals strongly 
tricarinate. The hind limb reaches the shoulder. 30 lamellae under 
the fourth toe. Bronzy olive above, black-spotted ; a blackish band, 
dotted with greenish, on the side of the neck and of the anterior 
half of the body ; the scales on the side of the head black-edged ; 
lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 193 Fore limb 27 

Head 18 Hind limb 42 

Width of head .... 12 Tail 120 

Body 55 

Ki Islands. 
a. Ad. Ke Daulau. H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 



286 scmcTD^. 



81. Lygosoma albertisii. 
1- Heteropus bicarinatus, Madeay, Proc. Linn. S>jc. X. S. Wales, ii. 

i>7r, p. tj8. 

Heteropus albertisii, Peters ic Doria, Ann. Mm. Gwiora, xiii. I>r8, . 
p. 3t)2. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fifth to once and one third 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse. 
Lower evelid with an undivided transparent disk. Xostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no sxipranasal : frontonasal broader than long, broadly 
in contact with the rostral, in contact with the frontal : latter 
shield as long as or a little shorter than the frontoparietal, in con- 
tact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; five 
or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single, followed bv a small in- 
terparietal ; parietals forming a median suture : a pair of nuchals 
and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; four upper labials 
anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening oval, about as large as the 
transparent palpebral disk, bordered all round by long and acute 
lobules, those on the anterior border the largest. 3U to 32 scales 
round the middle of the body ; dorsals and laterals sharply bicari- 
nate : anterior nuchals tri- or quinquecarinate ; lateral scales smaller 
than dorsals. Pjreeanal scales not or scarcely enlarged. The hind 
limb reaches the axilla. Fingers four, toes five : subdigital lamellae 
smooth, 2S to 32 under the fourth toe. Tail once and three fourths 
to twice the length of head and body. Ulive or brownish above, 
uniform or with three lighter longitudinal streaks ; lower surfaces 
yellowish or greenish white. 

mi'llim. millim. 

Total length 125 Fore limb 15 

Head 10 Hind limb 21 

Width of head 7 Tail 82 

Body 33 



Southern New Guinea and islands of Torres Straits. 

a. Ad. Fly River. Rev. S. Macfarlane 

b-d^ e-i. Ad. Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane 



m. 



82. Lygosoma peromi. 

Heteropus per nii, Graij. Cat. p. lOS. 
Heteropus peromi, JDum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 700. 

? Myophila vivax, De Vis. Proc. Roy. Sue. QueensL i. 18v34, p. 77. 
? Heteropus lateralis, De Vis, t. c. 1885, p. 168. 
? Heteropus blackmanni, De Vis, I. c. 

Habit lacertiform : the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and one 
third in the distance between asiUa and groin. Snout short, ob- 
tuse. Lower eyelid with a very large transparent disk, the eye 



8. LTGOSOMA. 287 

being entirely visible when the lid is drawn up. Xostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a broad suture with the rostral, in contact with the anterior angle 
of the frontal ; latter shield nearly as long as tlie frontoparietal, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 
five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single, followed by a small 
interparietal ; parietals forming a median suture ; a pair of nuchals 
and a ])air of temporals border the parietals ; four labials anterior to 
the suboeular. Ear-opening oval, much smaller than the trans- 
parent palpebral disk, with one or two short obtuse lobules ante- 
riorly. 30 scales round the middle of tlie body ; dorsals and laterals 
sharply bicarinate, anterior nuchals tri- or quinquecarinate. Prse- 
anals not enlarged. The hind limb reaches the elbow. Fingers 
four, toes five ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 23 to 25 under the 
fourth toe. Olive above, with or without small lighter dots and 
two light lateral lines, the lower beginning below the eye and 
passing through the ear ; a whitish spot or streak on the hinder side 
of the base of the thigh ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent. 37 Fore hmb 13 

Head !J Hind limb 18 

Width of head 6 

Queensland. 

a. Ad. Kockhampton. Museum Godeffroy. 

b. Ad. North-Australiau Expedition. Dr. J. R. Elsey [P.]. 

83, Lygosoma pectorale. 
Heteropus pectoralis, De Vis, Proc. Roy. Soc. QueensL i. 1885, p. 169. 

Palpebral disk large. Xo supranasal ; prasfrontals approximate. 
Ear-opening with one small or a few minute free scales on the 
edge. 32 scales round the body ; dorsals sharply tricarinate ; a few 
rows of nuchal scales quadiicarinate. Fingers four, toes five. 
Olive-grey above, each scale narrowly black-edged all round ; a 
bright red lateral stripe on the edge of the back : lower surface of 
fore limb, side of chest, and flanks red ; a large patch on chest and 
upper part of abdomen cream-colour or orange ; upper surface of 
head pale golden green spotted with black ; throat and side of head 
pale blue, brightly varied with a broad black hinder edge to each 
scale. 





millim. 




millim. 


Head 


. . 12 


Fore limb .... 


... 14 


Width of head . . 


8-5 


Hind limb .... 


. . . . 20 


Body 


.. 52 







Port Curtis, Queensland. 



288 scixciD.E. 

84. Lygosoina tetradactylum. (Plate XXII. fig. 3.) 

Mocoa tetradactyla, O'Shcmghn. Ann. ^- Mag. N. H. (o) iv. 1879, 
p. 300. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the forelirab is contained once and one third in the distance between 
axilla and groin. tSnout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an un- 
divided transparent disk. Xostril pierced in the nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; frontonasal broader than long, broadly in contact with the 
rostral ; pricfrontals, inner angles touching ; frontal much shorter 
and narrower than the frontoparietal, in contact with the first and 
second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietal single, followed by a minute interparietal ; parietals forming 
a median suture : a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border 
the parietals ; four labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening 
oval, smaller than the transparent palpebral disk, with a short ob- 
tuse lobule anteriorly. 34 scales round the middle of the body, all 
perfectly smooth ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Pra^anal scales 
not enlarged. The hind limb reaches the wrist. Fingers four, toes 
five ; subdigital lamellcTe smooth, 20 under the fourth toe. Tail a 
little longer than head and body. Olive-brown above ; head with 
a few black specks ; five fine, interrupted black lines along the 
middle of the back, the median extending all along the tail ; a dorso- 
lateral series of black dots, separated from the median dorsal lines 
by a band of the pale ground-colour ; sides immaculate, with two 
yellow longitudinal bands, the lower of which extends from axiUa 
to groin ; lower surfaces greenish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 117 Fore limb 16 

Head 14 Hind limb 22 

Width of head .... 10 Tail 62 

Body 41 

Queensland ? 

a. Ad. ? G. Krefft, Esq. (Type.) 



85. Lygosoma mundum. 

Mocoa melanopogon, Gray, Cat. p. 81. 

Carlia melanopogon, Gray, I. c. p. 271. 
Carlia melanopogon, Gray, Zool. Ereh. ^- Terr., Bept. pi. vii. fig. 1. 
Heteropus mundus, De Vis, Proc. JRoy. Soc. Queensl. i. 1885, p. 172. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and a 
half in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid with a very large transparent disk. Xostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a broad sutiire with the rostral, in contact with the anterior angle 
of the frontal ; latter shield as long as or shorter than the fi'onto- 



8. LTGOSOMA. 289 

parietal, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars : five or six supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single, fol- 
lowed by a small interparietal ; parietals forming a median suture ; 
a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; four 
labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening oval, smaller than 
the transparent palpebral disk, with a few small obtuse lobules. 
30 scales round the middle of the body, all smooth, or dorsals and 
laterals feebly tricarinate. Pra3anals not enlarged. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow. Fingers four, toes five : subdigital 1 imcUaj 
smooth, 25 to 30 under the fourth toe. Olive above, with or with- 
out lighter black-edged dots ; a white streak along the upper lip to 
the ear, and another from the ear to the shoulder, somstiraes con- 
tinued along the side of the body ; a whitish spot on the hinder 
side of the base of the thigh ; lower surfaces greenish white ; throat 
bluish in the male, spotted or longitudinally streaked with black. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 100 Fore limb 13 

Head 11 Hind limb 19 

Width of head .... 7 Tail 56 

Body 33 

Queensland. 

a. Ad. Port Essington. Mr. Gilbert [C.]. (Type of 

Carlia melanopoyon.) 

b. Ad. Peak DoAvns. Museum Godelfroy. 
c-e. Ad. North-Australian Expedition. Dr. J. R. Elsey [P.]. 

Lygisauriis foliorum. He Vis, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. i. 1884, 
p. 77, from Brisbane, is probably a Lyr/osoma allied to the pre- 
ceding. It is founded on a specimen measuring 7| lines from snout 
to vent. 

86. Lygosoma novae-guineae. 

Lygosoma (Carlia) novse-guineee, Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 132. 
Carlia macfarlani, Gimth. Ann. ^- Mag. N. 11. (4) xix. 1877, p. 413. 
Heteropus (Carlia) melanopogou, Peters ^ Doria, Ann. Mus, Genova, 
xiii. 1878, p. 364. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and a half in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid with a very large transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the 
nasal ; no supranasal : frontonasal broader than long, forming a 
broad suture with the rostral and a narrow one with the frontal ; 
latter shield a little shorter than the frontoparietal, in contact with 
the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven or eight 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single ; interparietal distinct ; parietals 
forming a median suture ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals 
border the parietals ; three, rarely four, upper labials anterior to 
the subocular. Ear-opening roundish, much smaller than the trans- 

VOL. III. u 



290 BCINCIDJS. 

parent palpebral disk, with subtriangular lobules all round. 24 to 
20 scales round the middle of the body, all smooth. Praeanals not 
enlarged. The hind limb roaches the wrist. Fingers four, toes 
five ; subdigital lamelltc smooth, 22 to 25 under the fourth toe. 
Tail about once and a half the length of head and body. Brown 
above ; sides with a darker l)and edged with yellowish, most distinct 
in the young, sometimes disajjpearing in the adult ; lower surfaces 
whitish, uniform or brown-dotted, 

millim. millim. 

Total length 81 Fore limb 10 

Head 8 Hind limb 13 

Width of head .... 5 Tail 48 . 

Body 25 

New Guinea and islands of Torres Straits. 

a-d. Ad. & yg. Islands of Torres Straits. liev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

(Types of Carlia macfarlani.) 
d-f. Ad. Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

I/. Ad. Katow, S. New Guinea. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 

87. Lygosoma cyanurum. 

Mabouya cyauura, Grai/, Cat. p. 06. 
Sciucus cyanurus, Lesson, Toy. Coqui/k', Zool. ii. p. 49, ])1. iv. fig. 2. 
Tiliqua cyanura, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 18.:i8, p. 289. 
Eumeces lessonii, Ihim. i§l- Bibi: v. p. G-"J4. 
Emoa cyanura, Girard, JJ. S. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 270. 
Euprepes cyanurus, Steindachn. Novara, Rept. p. 44. 
Mabouia baudinii {7ion D. ^- B.), Gitnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 296. 
Euprepes (Mabuya) kordoanus, Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 133; 

Peters 8f Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, xiii. 1878, p. 3.57. 
Euprepis (Mabuya) beccarii, Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, vi. 1874, 

p. .338, pi. xi. %. D. 
Euprepes (Mabuya) cyauvuus, Doria, I. c. p. 338 ; Peters <§• Doria, I. c. 

p. 356. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once to once and one third in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, pointed. Lower eye- 
lid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced between 
three small shields — a nasal, a postnasal, and a supranasal : fronto- 
nasal broader than long, broadly in contact with the rostral, and 
usually also with the frontal : latter a little shorter than the fronto- 
parietal, in contact with the first and second suj)raoculars ; four 
supraoculars ; seven or eight supraciliaries : fronloparietals and 
interparietal fused to a single large shield : parietals forming 
a suture behind the latter ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of 
temporals border the parietals : four labials anterior to the large 
subocular. Ear-opening oval, about as large as the transparent 
palpebral disk, with two or three very short obtuse lobules ante- 
riorly. 26 to 32 scales round the middle of the body, aU smooth; 
dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Proeanal scales not or scarcely 



8. troosoMA. 



291 



enlarged. The hind limb reaches the elbow or the shoulder. 
Digits moderately elongate, flattened except at the end, which is 
siibcylindrical ; subdigital lamella; ver}' fine, smooth, 40 to (JO 
under the fourth toe. Tail about once and two thirds to once and 
three fourths the length of head and body, lirown, olive, or blackish 
above, usually with three or five golden or greenish longitudinal 
streaks ; the vertebral is but rarely absent ; tail i'requeutl}' azure- 
blue ; lower surfaces whitish. 



inillim. 

Total length 148 

Head 12 

Width of head .... 7 
Body 41 

Moluccas, Papuasia, Polynesia. 



millim. 

Fore limb 10 

Hind limb 21 

Tail 95 



a-c. Ad. 
(I. Ad. 

e. Ad. 

f. Ad. 
>. Ad. 

'h-l. Ad. c*c hgr. 

m-n. Ad. 

o-p. Ad. 

q, r-t. Ad. 

M. Several spec. 

v-ic. Ad. 

x. Ad. 

y. Several spec. 

z. Ad. 
a. Ad. 

jS. Several spec. 
y-h. Ad. 
.-f. Ilgr. 
Tj. Manv spec. 
e-i. Ad. 
K-\. Ad. 

}i-o. Ad, 

TT-p. Ad. 

0-. Many spec. 
r. Several spec. 
V. Several spec. 

0. Several spec. 
X- Several spec. 

^\r. Ad. 

CO. Ad. 

aa. Several spec. 

hh. Ad. 



Moluccas. 

Teruate. 

Mysol. 

Timor Laut. 

New Guinea. 

Admiralty Islands. 

Wild 1., Admiralty Islands. 

Duke of York Island. 

Treasury I., Solomon Islands. 

Shortland I., Solomon Islands. 

Santa Anna I., Solomon Is. 

San Christoval. 

Havannah Harbour, Sandwich 

Island, New Hebrides. 
Tanua Island, New Hebrides. 
Tauna Island, New Hebrides. 

Api, New Hebrides. 
Erromango. 
Aneiteum. 
Fiji Islands. 
Ovalau, Fiji. 
Levuka, Fiji. 

Island of Onio, Fiji. 
Fiji Islands. 
Tongatabu. 
Tougatabu. 
Tongatabu. 

Savage Island. 
Savage Island, 

Samoa. 
Earotonga. 
Cook's Islands. 
Tahiti. 



H.M.S. 'Challenger.' 

H. 0. Forbes, Esq. [C] 
Paris Museum. 
H.M.S. < Herakl.' 
II.M.S. 'Challenger.' 
Rev. G. Brown [CI. 

P. 
P. 



H. B. Guppy, Esq. 
H. B. Guppy, Esq. 
H. B. Guppy, Esq. 
Museum of Economic 

Geology. 
Dr. Corrie [P.], 

Dr, Con-ie [P.], 

W. Wvkebam Perry, 

Esq.^[P.]. 
H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 

J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.] 
H.M.S. ' Herald.' 
J.Macgillivray,Esq.[C.] 
Dr. Coppinger [C], 

H.M.S. ' Alert.' 
F. M.Ra)Tier,Esq. [C 
E.A.Liardet,Esq. [P.V 
J. Brenchley, Esq. [I*. 
H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 
Dr. Coppinger [C], 

H.M.S. ' Alert.' 
J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.], 
W. Wvkekam Perry, 

Esq. '[P.]. 
Smithsoniaulnstit. [P.] , 
Sir J. Lubbock [P.]. 
Otago Museum. 

v2 



292 sciNCiD-a:. 



88. Lygosoma mivarti. (Plate XXIII. fig. 1.) 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once to once and one fourth in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, pointed. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
between three small shields — a nasal, a postnasal, and a supranasal : 
frontonasal broader than long, broadly in contact with the rostral 
and with the frontal : latter nearly as long as but smaller than the 
frontoparietal, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars ; seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal fused into a single large sliield ; parietals forming a long 
suture behind the latter ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals 
border the parietals ; five (exceptionally four) labials anterior 
to the large subocular. Ear-opening oval, about as large as the 
transparent palpebral disk, with two or three very short obtuse 
lobules anteriorly. 34 to 3S scales round the middle of the body, 
all smooth ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Praeanal scales not 
or scarcely enlarged. The hind limb reaches the axilla or a little 
beyond the shoulder. Digits moderately elongate, subcylindrical ; 
subdigital lamellae smooth, 40 under the fourth toe. Tail about 
once and three fourths the length of head and body. Brownish or 
olive above, with small black spots, sometimes forming a band on 
each side of the vertebral zone ; a light dorso-lateral band ; sides 
deep black, with a white streak extending from the upper lip to the 
groin, passing through the ear ; a white oblique streak on the arm : 
lower surfaces greenish white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 130 Fore limb 18 

Head 13 Hind limb 26 

Width of head 8 TaU 82 

Body 35 

Admiralty Islands. 

a. Several spec. Wild Island. H.M.S. * Challenger.' 

K"amed in honour of Dr. St. George Mivart, F.R.S. 

89. Lygosoma cyanogaster. 

Mabouya carteretii, Grai/, Cat. p. 95. 
Scincus cyanogaster, Lesson, Voy. Coqu'dle, Zool. ii. p. 47, pi. iii. 

fig. .3. 
Eumeces carteretii, Dum. ^- Bihr. v. p. 651. 
Emoa cartereti, Girard, U.S. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 263. 
Euprepes (Mabuya) carteretii, Meyer , Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 13.3; 

I)ona, Ann. Mus. Genova, vi. 1874, p. 339 ; Peters 4* Doria, Ann. 

Mus. Genova, xiii. 1878, p. 358. 
? Euprepis simillimus, Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii. 1877, 

p. 09. 

Habit lacertiform, the distance between the end of the snout 



8. LTGOSOMA. 293 

and the fore limb is contained once and one third to once and a half 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout long, obtuse. 
Lower ejelid Avith an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
between three small shields — a nasal, a postnasal, and a supra- 
nasal ; frontonasal as long as broad or a little broader than long, in. 
contact with the rostral and sometimes also with the frontal ; prae- 
frontals forming a very short median suture if any ; frontal as long 
as the frontoparietal, or the frontoparietal and interparietal together, 
in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supra- 
oculars ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals fused into a 
single large shield ; interparietal distinct, small ; parietals forming 
a suture behind the latter shield ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of 
temporals border the parietals ; five labials anterior to the large sub- 
ocular. Ear-opening roundish or oval, not or scarcely larger than 
the transparent palpebral disk, with two or three short obtuse 
lobules anteriorly. 24: to 26 scales round the middle of the body, 
all smooth ; dorsals largest, especially the two vertebral series, 
laterals smallest. Marginal prseanals not or very slightly enlarged. 
The hind limb reaches the elbow or the axilla. Digits moderately 
elongate, flattened except at the end, which is strongly compressed; 
Bubdigital lamellie very fine, smooth, 70 to 90 under the fourth toe. 
Tail about twice as long as head and body, often a little over. 
Bronzy olive or brown above, uniform or with small darker and 
lighter spots ; frequently a black lateral band, commencing from 
the nostril, passing through the eye, and lost on the side of the 
body ; this band usually bordered above and below by a series of 
whitish spots ; lower surfaces usually bluish green, sometimes 
yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 275 Fore limb 29 

Head 21 Hind limb 40 

Width of head 12 Tail 190 

Body 64 

Moluccas, Papuasia, New Ireland, Solomon Islands, New Hebrides. 



a. Yg. Gilolo. _ Dr. Platen [C.]. 

^ "' " ' n( 
n< 
C 

m 



b-c. Ad. Fly River. New Guinea. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.l 



rf. Ad. Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C 

e. Ad. Duke of York Island. Rev. G. Brown [C." 

f-h, i. Ad. Treasury I., Solomon Is. H. B. Guppy, Esq. 

h. Ad. Santa Anna I., Solomon Is. H. B. Guppy, Esq 

l-ji. Ad. & hgr. Sandwich I., N. Hebrides. Dr. Corrie [P.]. 

q-t. Ad. Erromango. 



90. Lygosoma samoense. 

Eumeces samoensis, A. Dum. Cat. Meth. Hept. p. 157 ; Homhr. 8f 
Jacq. Vmf. Pole Sud (Astrolabe et Zelee), Hept., p. 10, pi. v. fig. 2. 

Euprepes concolor, A. Dum. I. c. p. 162 ; Hombr. Si Jacq. I. c. p. 12, 
pi. i. fig. 3. 

Emoa samoensis, Girard, U.S. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 265. 



294 scrNCiDiE. 

Euprepes samoensis, Steindachn. Novara, Sept. p. 44. 

(Euprepes) resplendens, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1877, p. 416. 

Habit lacertiform : the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limh is contained once to once and one third in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout usually long and pointed, much 
depressed. Lower e3clid with an undivided transparejit disk. 
Nostril pierced between three small shields — a nasal, a postnasal, 
and a supranasal ; frontonasal as long as broad, forming a broad 
suture with the rostral ; pra3frontals usiially forming a median 
suture ; frontal about as long as but a little narrower than the 
frontoparietal, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals 
fused into a single large shield ; interparietal distinct, small ; parietals 
forming a median suture behind the latter shield ; a pair of nuchals 
and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; sixth or seventh, or 
seventh and eighth, labials below the eye. Ear-opening moderately 
large, oval, larger than the transparent palpebral disk, with a few 
very small obtuse lobules anteriorly. 30 to 34, rarely 36, scales 
round the middle of the body, all smooth or dorsals feebly quinque- 
carinate : dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Marginal praeanals 
slightly enlarged. The hiud limb reaches the axilla or not quite so 
far. Digits elongate, slender, somewhat flattened at the base, 
strongly compressed at the end : subdigital lamellae smooth, 50 to 
64 under the fourth toe. Tail once and a half to once and three 
fourths the length of head and body. Coloration very variable. 
Upper surfaces brown, olive, or grass-green, uniform or with large 
or small blackish spots or cross bands : sometimes an ill-defined 
dark lateral band ; some specimens with light longitudinal shafts 
on the back ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish, uniform or dotted 
with brown. 

millim. milliru. 

Total length 288 Pore limb 41 

Head 2Q Hind limb 55 

Width of head ... 16 Tail 170 

Body 92 

New Hebrides, Eiji, Friendly, and Samoa Islands. 

a-c. Ad. Valaa I., Banks's Islands. 

d. Ilgv. Sandwich I., N. Hebrides. Dr. Corrie [C.]. 

e-g. Ad. & hgr. Erromango. 

/i. Hgr. Fiji Islands. G. Krefft, Esq.[P.]. 

i-l. Ad. & hgr. Fiji Islands. Godeffroy Museum. 

m-ff Ad. & hgr. Fiji Islands. E. A. Liardet, Esq. [P.]. 

r. Ad. Fiji Islands. Museum of Economic 

Geology. 

,s-i', M. Ad. Kandavu, Fiji. H.M.S. '^Challenger.' 

». Hgr. Levuka, Fiji'. H.M.S. 'Alert.' 

10. Hgr. Ovalau, Fiji. J. Maegillivray, Esq. 

[C.]. 

.r-a. Ad. Tongatabu. J. Dreuchley, Esq. [P.l. 

|8. Ad. Samoa Islands. Rev. J. PoweU [P.J. 



8, LYGOSOMA. 295 



9 1 . Lygosoma callistictum. 

Euprepes (Tiliqua) callistictus, P<'ti'?-s i)- Doriu, Ann. Mu.'). Genova, 
xiii. 1878, p. ^55. 

Allied to L. atrocostatum and L. bcnidinii. Suprauasals widely 
separated ; frontonasal in contact with the frontal ; frontoparietals 
and interparietal fused into a single largo shield ; five labials anterior 
to the large subocular. Ear-opening oval, without lobules. 28 
scales round the body ; dorsals bicarinate. The hind limb reaches 
the axilla. 38 lamellae under the fourth too. Brown above ; a 
fulvous streak along the middle of the head and nape; sides of neck 
spotted with fulvous ; lower surfaces greenish. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent. 50 Fore limb 17 

Head 13 Hind limb 19 

Soron, N.W. New Guinea. 

92. Lygosoma atrocostatum. 

Mocoa cumingii, Grai/, Cat. p. 81. 
Mabouya atrocostatus, (xray, I. c. p. 9o. 
Scincus atrocostatus, iei'so?*, Voy. Coqiiille, Zool. ii. p. 50, pi. iv. fig. 3. 
Eumeces freycinetii, Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 648. 
Euprepes bitseniatus, refers, Mon. Bcrl. Ac. 1864, p. .53 *. 

(Mabuya) cumingii, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 20. 

(Mabuiaj microstictus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 373*. 

? Mabouia marmorata, Macleay, Proc, Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii. 1877, 

p. 6o. 
? Mabouia irrorata, Macleay, I. c. p. 66. 
Euprepes (Mabuya) ati'ocostatus, Peters (§• Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, 

xiii. 1878, p. 358. 
Eumeces serratus, Fischer, Ahh. Naturio. Ver. Hamburg, ix, 1886, 

p. — , pi. ii. fig. 3. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one fifth to once and one 
third in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout rather 
elongate, obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril pierced between three shields — a nasal, a 
postnasal, and a supranasal : frontonasal usually a little broader 
than long, in contact with the rostral and usually also with the 
frontal ; latter smaller than the frontoparietal, in contact with the 
first and second supraoculars : four supraoculars ; seven or eight 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals united into a single large shield ; ' 
interparietal distinct, small : parietals forming a short suture behind 
the latter shield ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of large temporals 
border the parietals : four or five labials anterior to the large 



Types examined. 



296 SCINCID-E. 

subocular. Ear-opening oval, as large as or a little larger than the 
transparent palpebral disk, usually with one or two small projecting 
lobules anteriorly. 37 to 40 scales round the middle of the body, all 
smooth ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Marginal praanals 
slightly enlarged. The hind limb reaches the elbow or the axilla. 
Digits moderately elongate, somewhat flattened except at the end ; 
subdigital lamella) smooth, 35 to 38 under the fourth toe. Tail 
about once and two thirds the length of head and body. Greyish 
or brownish olive above, with small darker and lighter spots ; a 
more or less distinct blackish lateral band or series of spots on each 
side ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail re- Body 72 

produced) 20G Fore limb 34 

Head 24 Hind limb 48 

Width of head 16 

Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, Papuasia, Cape York, Caroline and 
Santa Cruz Islands. 
a. Ad. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]._ 

(Typft of Mocoa cumingti.) 
h-d. Ad. Dinagat Island. A. Everett, Esq. [C.]. 

e \d. Flv liiver, New Guinea. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

y-; Xd. -— ? Sir E. Belcher [P.]. 

93. Lygosoma baudinii. 

Mabouja baudiuii, Gray, Cat. p. 95. 
Euprepes physics, Gray, I. c. p. 115. 
Eumeces baudinii, Dum. ^- Bihr. v. p. 653. 
Euprepes phydca^, Dim. 8f Hihr. p. 688 ; Doria, Ami. 3Ius. Genova, 

vi. 1874, p. 3:37. 
Emoa baudiui, Girard, U.S. Exphr. Exped., Hcrp. p. 263. 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) baudinii, Peters 8) Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, xiii, 
1878, p. 353. . ^ ... 

Eumeces beccarii (ii07i Doria), Sauvage, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) iii. 
1878, p. 53. 
Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and one sixth to once and one 
third in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, 
obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. 
Nostrirpiercedbetweeu three shields — a nasal, a postnasal, and a supra- 
nasal: frontonasal much broader than long, forming a broad suture 
with the rostral and a narrower one with the frontal ; latter nearly 
as long as and narrower than the parietal, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven or eight supra- 
ciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal fused to a single large 
shield ; parietals forming a long suture behind the latter ; a pair of 
nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; four labials 
anterior to the large subocular. Ear-opening oval, a little larger 
than the transparent palpebral disk. 36 or 38 (to 40) scales round 



8. LYGOSOMA. 297 

the middle of the body, all smooth, or dorsals more or less distinctly 
bi- or tricarinate ; dorsals largust, laterals sruallost. Marginal praj- 
anals not or but slightly enlarged. The hind limb does not quite 
reach the elbow. Digits rather short, somewhat flattened except at 
the end ; subdigital lamella) smooth, 30 to 34 (to 38) under the 
fourth too. Olive-browu above, with strong metallic gloss ; sides 
black, spotted with whitish. 

niillini. millim. 

Total length 106 Fore limb 15 

Head 14 Hind Hmb 21 

Width of head 9 Tail (reproduced) . . 54 

Body 38 

Celebes, Moluccas, Papuasia. 

a. Ad. Mansinam. Marquis G. Doria [P.l. 

b. Ad. Mafor. Marquis G. Doria [P.J. 

94. Lygosoina singaporense. 

Eumeces (Mabouya) siugaporensis, Steindachn. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixii. 
i. 1870, p. 341, pi. iv. fig. 2. 

Habit lacertiform. Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Supranasals present, separated by the 
frontonasal ; pra'frontals forming a median suture ; frontal as long 
as frontoparietal ; four or five supraoculars ; eight supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietal single (?) ; interparietal distinct ; a pair of nuchals ; 
sixth upper labial largest and bordering the eye. Ear-opening 
moderate, roundish, without lobules. 34 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body. Marginal praeanals slightly enlarged. The hind 
limb reaches nearly the axilla. Yellowish grey above ; some of the 
scales of the flanks much lighter. 
Singapore. 

95. Lygosoma nigrum. 

Eumeces niger, Hombr. ^- Jacq. Vo>j. au Pule Sud (Astrolabe et 

Zelee), Kept. p. 11, pi. iv. fig. 2. 
Emoa nigrita, Girard, U. S. Krphr. Exped., Herp. p. 268. 
Euprepes (Mabuya) niger, Peters, Mo7i. Berl. Ac. 1868, p. 449. 
? Euprepis longicaudis, Mucleay, Proc. Linn. &oc. N. S. W. ii. 1877, 

p. 68. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once to once and one fourth in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout long, obtusely acuminate. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
between three shields — a nasal, a postnasal, and asupranasal; fronto- 
nasal as long as broad, or a little broader than long, forming a broad 
suture -with the rostral, and usually a narrow one with the frontal ; 
latter shield as long as and a little narrower than the frontoparietal, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 
seven or eight supraciliaries j frontoparietals fused into a single large 



298 



SCTNCrD^. 



shield ; interparietal usually distinct, small, sometimes entirely 
absent ; parictals forming a median suture ; a pair of nuchals and a 
pair of temporals border the parietals ; sixth and seventh, or fifth 
and sixth, labials below the eye. Ear-opening rather large, oval, 
much larger than the transparent palpebral disk ; no auricular 
lobules. 36 to 40 scales round the middle of the body, all smooth, 
or dorsals feebly quintiuecarinatc ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. 
Marginal pra^anals slightly enlarged. The hind limb reaches the 
axiUa or the shoulder. Digits elongate, compressed ; subdigital 
lamellae smooth, 32 to 40 under the fourth toe. Tail once and a half 
to once and three fourths tlie length of head and body. Dark brown 
above, with darker and lighter dots, or with a black lateral band ; 
upper parts frequently uniform black ; lower surfaces usually yel- 
lowish, rarely brown. 



millim. 

Total length 298 

Head 32 

Width of head 22 

Body 96 



millim. 

Fore limb 42 

Hind limb 64 

Tail 170 



Caroline Islands, New Ireland, Solomon, Banks's, Fiji, and Samoa 
Islands. 



a. Yg. 

b. Ad. 

c. Ad. 

d. e. Several spec. : 
ad. & yg. 

f-g. Ad. & yg. 

h~i. Ad. & hgr. 
h-l. Hgr. 
m, n. Ad. 
o. Ad. 
p-q. Ad. 



Ruk Island, Carolines. 
Biike of York Island. 
Contrariete Island, 
Solomon Islands. 
Treasury Island, 

Solomon Islands. 
Santa Anna, 

Solomon Islands. 
Vanua Lava Island. 
Fiji Islands. 
Levuka, Fiji. 
Viti Levu. 
Samoa Islands. 



Museum Godeffroy. 
Rev. G. Brown [CI. 
J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.]. 

H. B. Guppy, Esq. [P.]. 

H. B. Guppy, Esq. [P.]. 

J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.]. 
E. A. Liardet, Esq. [P.]. 
H.M.S. ' Challenger.^ 
Museum Godeffi-oy. 



96. Lygosoma adspersum. 

Emoa atrocostata {non Less.), Girard, U. 8. Explor. Expect, Herp. 
p. 264. 

Eumeces (Mabouya) adspersus, Steindachn. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, bsii. i. 
1870, p. 340, pi. iv. fig. 1. 

Euprepes (Mabuia) parvisquameus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, 
p. 160. 

Mabouia lawesii, Giinlh. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 297, pi. xlv. fig. a. 

Eumeces microlepis (now D. SfB.), Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Ham- 
burg, ix. 1886, p. — , pi. ii. fig. 4. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained once and one fourth to once and one 
third in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderately 
elongate, obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid with an undivided 



8. LTG080MA. 299 

transparent disk. Nostril pierced between three shields — a nasal, 
a postnasal, and a supranasal ; frontonasal as long as or a little 
broader than long, in contact with the rostral and (usually) with the 
frontal ; latter smaller than the frontoparietal, in contact with the 
first and second suproculars ; four supraoculars ; seven or eii;-ht 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals united into a single largo shield ; 
interparietal distinct, small ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
latter shield ; a \r<nr of nuchals and a pair of tcni])oral8 border the 
parietals ; five labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening oval, 
a little larger than the transparent palpebral disk, without (or with 
very small) lobules. 58 to (J4 scales round the middle of the body, 
all smooth : dorsals largest, ilarginal praianals a little enlarged. 
The hind limb reaches the elbow. Digits moderately elongate, a 
little flattened except at the end ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 30 to 
33 under the fourth toe. Olive above, with small dark brown spots ; 
a dark brown band on the sides, which are white-spotted ; limbs 
with light dots ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

A variety from Savage Island (M. hiwesii) is olive-brown above, 
with scattered blackish dots and yellowish-white spots, each of the 
latter occupying one scale only ; no lateral baud ; lower surfaces 
yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 233 Fore limb 30 

Head 23 Hind limb 42 

Width of head .... 14 Tail 140 

Body 70 

Samoa and Fiji Islands ; Savage Island. 

a. Ad. Samoa. Godeffroy Museum. 

b-c. Ad. Savage Island. Dr. A. Giinther [P.]. (T}'pes of 

^ Mabouia hiwesii.) 

97. Lygosoma parietale. 

Euprepes (INIabuya) parietalis, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 572, 
and Ann. 3Ius. Genova, iii. 1872, p. 31, pi. iv. fig. 1. 

Habit lacertiform. Snout moderate, obtusely pointed. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Supranasals present, 
very small; frontonasal broadly in contact with the rostral; 
praefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal small, scarcely larger 
than one of the prajfrontals, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; frontoparietals fused into a single 
large shield ; interparietal distinct, very small ; a pair of nuclials ; 
five labials anterior to the large subocular. Ear-opening moderate, 
roundish. 36 scales round the body, all smooth. The hind limb 
reaches the axilla. Olive above, with small blackish spots ; the sides 
of the back lighter, greenish grey ; sides of the body with an 
kregular black, light-spotted band, beginning from the eye ; lower 
surfaces yellowish green. 



300 ' SCINCID^. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 125 Fore limb 18 

Head 12 Hind limb 24 

Body 26 Tail 77 

Sarawak, Borneo. 



98. Lygosoma jerdonianum. 

Mabouva jerdoniana, Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxix. 1870, 
p. 172 ; Thcob. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 60. 

Habit laccrtiform ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained about once and one fourth in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid 
■with an undivided transparent disk. Supranasal present ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, forming a broad suture with the rostral ; 
prcefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal rather small ; seven 
supraoculars ; ten supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single ; interparietal 
distinct ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 
parietals ; sixth Tipper labial largest, below the eye. Ear-opening 
moderately large, roundish, without lobules. 37 smooth scales 
round the middle of the body ; laterals a little smaller than dorsals 
and ventrals. Marginal prasauals scarcely enlarged. The hind limb 
reaches nearly the axilla. Digits moderate, subdigital lamellae 
smooth. Tail nearly once and one third the length of head and 
body. Iridescent brown above, most of the scales with a large 
pale spot, and an indistinct pale band running from the nape on 
each side of the back, and disappearing on the tail; below uniform 
yellowish white, leaden grey on the tail. 
From snout to vent 80 millim. 
Pulo Tickos, Pinang. 



99. Lygosoma brevieeps. 

Euprepes (Mabuia) brevieeps, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1873, p. 604. 

Habit lacertiform. Snout short. Lower eyelid with an undi- 
vided transparent disk. Supranasals present, very small, separated 
by the frontonasal, which is sometimes in contact with the frontal ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct ; five supraoculars ; eight 
supraciliaries ; fifth upper labial largest and below the eye. Ear- 
opening moderate, vertically elongate, without or with two small 
lobules anteriorly. 56 or 57 smooth scales round the body ; ventrals 
largest. The hind limb does not reach the axilla. Olive above, 
with two longitudinal series of black ocelli, with white centres ; on 
each side of the back a less distinct series of similar spots ; some- 
times an irregular dark lateral band ; lower surfaces yellowish or 
greenish, throat with longitudinal dark lines between the series of 
scales. 



8. LYG0S03IA. 301 

millim. milliin. 

From snout to vent . 57 Fore limb 15 

Head (to ear) 13 Hind limb 21 

Gaboon, Camaroons. 



100. Lygosoma microlepis. 

Otnsaurus microlepis, Gray, Cat. p. 93. 
Eumeces microlepis, Dam. ^- Bibr. v. p. GoD. 

Habit stout. Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Nostril pierced in a small nasal ; supranasals present, in contact 
bebind tbe rostral ; frontonasal broader tban long, in contact with 
the frontal ; five supraoculars, second largest ; eight supraciliaries ; 
a single large frontoparietal ; interparietal distinct, small ; parietuls 
forming a suture behind the interparietal. Ear-opening rather 
largo, oval, with a few extremely small lobules on its anterior 
border. 65 to 67 smooth scales round the body. Prteanals scarcely 
enlarged. Limbs strong ; the hind limb measures two thirds the 
distance between axilla and groin. Digits thick, moderately elon- 
gate ; 35 lamelloj under the fourth toe. Tail thick, longer than head 
and body. Upper surfaces variegated with brown and rufous ; 
lower surfaces reddish white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 322 Body 130 

Head 42 Fore limb 54 

Tongatabu. 

101. Lygosoma garnieri. 

Eumeces garnieri, Bavay, Cat. Rept. N. Caled. p. 15. 

? Eumeces bocourti, Brucchi, Bull. Soc. Philom. (6) xii. 1876, p, 95. 

Body elongate, limbs moderate : the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse ; loreal 
region nearly vertical. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril between nasal, 
postnasal, and supranasal ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal rather small, broader than long, in contact with the 
frontal ; latter a little longer than the frontoparietal, in contact with 
the first and second supraoculars; four supraoculars, second largest, 
fourth smallest ; seven supraciliaries, first largest : frontoparietals 
fused into a single large shield ; interparietal distinct, small ; parietals 
forming a short suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and 
a pair of temporals border the parietals ; sixth upper labial largest 
and entering the orbit. Ear-opening as large as the eye-opening, 
the anterior border denticulated, 32 (or 34) scales round the middle 
of the body, subequal, smooth. The hind limb reaches the wrist. 
Digits moderate, compressed ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 25 under 



302 SCtNCIDJE. 

the fourth toe. Tail thick and long. Greenish ahove, with brown 
cross bands ; a dark band from the eye to above the shoulder ; lower 
surfaces yellowish, brown- spotted. 

millim. milliin. 

Total length (tail in- Body 156 

jured) 493 Fore limb 54 

Head .'. 37 Hind limb 78 

Width of head 27 

New Caledonia. 

a. Ad. N. Caledonia. 



102. Lygosoma albofasciolatum. (Plate XXIV.) 

Eumeces albofasciolatus, Giinth. Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. (4) x. 1872, 
p. 370. 

Body elongate, limbs short ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and two thirds or once 
and three fourths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril between the nasal and 
a small supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, broadly in con- 
tact with the rostral and with the frontal ; praefrontals small ; 
frontal as long as the frontoparietals and parietals together, in con- 
tact with the first and second supraoculars ; five supraoculars, fifth 
very small ; eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct, latter smallest ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 
parietals ; sixth labial largest, below the eye, from which it is 
separated by a series of small scales. Ear-opening oval, smaller 
than the eye-opening, with a series of short lobules anteriorly. 34 
to 36 scales round the middle of the body, all smooth ; dorsals 
slightly largest. Prajanals not enlarged. The limbs fail to meet 
when adpressed. Digits short, compressed ; subdigital lamellae 
smooth, 21 under the fourth toe. Dark brown above, with strong 
opaline gloss, with more or less distinct yellowish-brown cross 
bands ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

luillim. millim. 

Total length 315 Fore limb 38 

Head 30 Hind limb 50 

Width of head .... 21 Tail (reproduced) . . 155 

Body 130 

North Australia, New Ireland. 

a. Ad. N.Australia. G. Kretft, Esq. [P.]. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Duke of York Island. Rev. G. Brown [C.]. 



8. LTGOSOMA. 303 

103. Lygosoma rufescens. 

Eumeces uppcllii, di-aij. Cat. p. 'd'.\. 
Scincus auratus, part., Seluu-id. Jlisi. Ampk. ii. p. 181. 
Lacerta rufescens, part., S/iaw, Zool. iii. p. :385. 
Scinciis rut'e,<cens, Merr. Tent. p. 71. 
Euprepis nifesceus, IVici/m. Arch. f. Nat. 18;j7, p. I'-i'J ; Peters, .l/o//. 

L'erl Ac. 1804, p. 41)." 
Euraoces oppellii, Dxni. l^- Bihr. v. p. G5G. 

Maboiiia niacrura, Giinth. Ann. *.*>• May. N. H. (3) x.x. 1867, p. 48. 
Euprepes opellii, Steind. Novara, llept. p. 44. 
Euineces uiiiformis, Meyer, Mon. L'erl. Ac. 1874, p. 133; Peters ^• 

Doria, Ann. Mus. Genova, xiii. 1878, p. 350. 

brunneus, Macleay, Froc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii. 1877, p. 05. 

Mabouia uuiformis, Macleay, I. c. 

Eiimeces rufescens, Doria, Ann. Mus. Geneva, vi. 1874, p. 334 j 

Peters ^" Doria, /. c. ^. 350. 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) ciugailatus, Peters ^- Doria, I. c. p. 352. 

Body elongate, limbs short ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and two thirds to twice 
in the distance between axilla and groin in the adult, once and one 
third to once and a half in the very young. Hnout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid usually scaly, sometimes with an undivided opaque 
disk. Nostril between the nasal and a small supranasal ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, broadly in contact with the rostral and 
with the frontal ; pr?et'rontals small ; frontal usually as long as or a 
little shorter than the frontoparietals and parietals together, some- 
times a little longer, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars ; five supraoculars, fifth very small ; eight or nine supra- 
ciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct ; interparietal distinct, 
larger than the frontoparietals ; parietals forming a suture behind 
the interparietal ; a pair of uuchals and a pair of temporals border 
the parietals ; fifth labial largest, below the eye, from which it is 
separated by a series of small scales. Ear-opening oval, smaller 
than the eye-opening, with a series of short lobules anteriorly. 28 
to 30 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals, especially the 
two verteliral series, largest ; scales usually all smooth ; in some 
young specimens the dorsals quinquecarinate. Prasanals not en- 
larged. The adpressed limbs fail to meet in the adult, just meet in 
the very young. Digits short, compressed ; subdigital lamellae 
smooth, 16 to 19 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, about once and 
a half the length of head and body. Brown above, with strong 
opaline gloss, with or without more or less distinct dark transverse 
bands ; young blackish brown, with yellowish transverse lines on 
the body and tail ; lips frequently with more or less distinct black 
vertical bars, most distinct in the young, in which they are con- 
tinued as V-shaped bands on the throat; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 358 Fore limb 31 

Head 31 Hind Umb 41 

Width of head 20 Tail 2] 5 

Body 112 



304 eciNCiD^. 

Moluccas, Papuasia, Cape York. 

a. Ad. Ternate. 

b. Ad. Amboiaa. 

c. Ad. New Guinea, Leyden Museum. 

d-i. Hgr. & yg. Fly River. Rev. S. Mactarlane [C. 

k. Ad. Islands of Torres Straits. Rev. S. Macfarlane | C. 

Ir-p, q-s, t. Ad. & Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C. 

hgr. 
u. Ad. Cape York. Hr. Diimel [C.]. (Type 

of Mabouia macrura.) 



104. Lygcsoma durum. 

Tiliqua dura, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philnd. 1862, p. 190, 
? Cophosciucus simuUns, Vaillant, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) viii. 1884, 
p. 170, and Dull. Soc. Zool. France, 1834, p. 349, pi. xii. fig. 3. 

Body stout, tetragonal. Lower eyelid scaly. Snout narrow, 
with vertical sides. Upper head-shields longitudinally rugose. A 
pair of supranasals, in contact mesially ; pnefrontals in contact with 
the supraoculars ; frontonasal in contact with the frontal, which is 
elongate ; four supraoculars ; frontoparietals and interparietal dis- 
tinct; a pair of nuchals ; temporal region covered with large keeled 
scales ; fourth labial below middle of orbit. The ear-opening appears 
as a small slit behind the free border of one of the posterior tem- 
poral scales. 30 scales round the body ; laterals unicarinate, the 
keels directed obliquely upwards and backwards ; dorsals very 
strongly tricarinate. Pour large marginal praeauals. The hind 
limb reaches the elbow. Above dark rusty, the head and a broad 
interscapular cross band, also a median dorsal series of spots, and 
five or six rather large dorso-lateral spots, chestnut ; beneath and 
upper lip rusty yellow. 

From snout to vent 50 millim. 

West Africa. 



105. Lygosoma fernandi, 

Tiliqua fernandi, fh'uy, Cat. p. 110. 
Tiliqua fernandi, Burton, Proc. Zool, Soc. 183G, p. 62 ; Peters, Mon. 

Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 372. 
Plestiodon harlaui, Halloic. Proc. Ac. Philad. ii. 1845, p. 170. 
Euprepis striata, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. vii. 1854, p. 98, and Tr. 

Amer. Philos. Soc. (2) xi. 1857, p. 74, pi. iii. fig. 1; A. Bum. 

Arch. Mus. x. pi. xv. fig. 1. 
barlani, Hallow. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. (2) xi. p. 75, pi. iii. 

fig. 2. 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) elegans, Fischer, Oster-Progr. Ak. Gymn. Hamb. 

1883, p. 3, pi. — . figs. 12-15. 

leoninus, Fischer, Abh. Naturia. Ver. Hamb. vili. 1884, p. 7. 

TiHqua nigiipes, F. Miiller, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel, vii. 1885, p. 704, 

Body elongate, cyclotetragonal, limbs moderate ; the distance 
between the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained about 



8. LTGOSOMA. 305 

once and a half in the distance between axilla and 2;roin. Snout 
short, rounded ; no canthus rostralis. Lower eyelid seal}'. 8upra- 
nasals present, in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal much 
broader than long, largely in contact with tlie frontal ; prtefrontals 
small ; frontal about as long as frontoparietals and parietals togetlier, 
in contact with the first and second, or first, second, and third 
supraoculars ; five supraoculars, fifth very small ; eight or nine 
supraciliaries, first and last largest; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct, subequal, or interparietal smallest ; parietals not or but 
very slightly in contact behind the interparietal ; uo nuclials ; fifth 
and sixth labials below the eye, fifth largest. Ear-opening mode- 
rately large, oval, smaller than the eye-opening, without lobules. 
32 to 3tJ scales round the middle of the body, subequal ; dorsals 
strongly, laterals feebly tri- or quimiuecarinate. Prseanals not en- 
larged. The adprcssed limbs meet or fail to meet. Digits short, 
compressed ; fourth toe a little longer than third ; subdigital lamella) 
feebly uuicarinate, 14 to 18 under the fourth toe. Tail tliick, 
little longer than head and body. Brownish above, the dorsal 
scales black-edged; or blackish brown, each dorsal with a yellowish 
spot; sides frequently with vertical dark brown bars; lower sur- 
faces yellowish white, throat and sometimes also belly with longi- 
tudinal brown streaks. 

millira. millim. 

Total length 340 Fore limb 41 

Head 36 Hind limb 51 

Width of head .... 28 Tail 180 

Body 124 

West Africa. 

h, c. Ad. Fernando Po. 

d. Ad. Camaroous. D. G. Rutherford Esq. [C.]. 

e. Ad. Old Calabar. Dr. J. A. Smith [P.]. 

f. Hg-r. Old Calabar. 

g. Ad. Gaboon. 



106. Lygosoma Iseviceps. 

Euprepes (Tiliqua) Iteviceps, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 371, 
pi. -. fig. 3. 

Allied to L. fernandi. Supranasal imperfectly separated from 
the nasal, forming a suture with its fellow behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal much broader than long, in contact with the frontal, 
which is long ; four supraoculars ; six or seven supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct ; fifth upper labial largest, sepa- 
rated from the orbit by a series of small scales. Ear-opening small, 
round, with a triangular projecting scale in front. 28 scales round 
the body ; dorsals sharply tricarinate, laterals almost smooth. The 
hind limb measures hardly more than three fifths the distance 
between axiUa and groin. Yellowish grey above, irregularly dotted 

VOL. III. X 



306 sciNCiD-s:. 

with darker and scantily with lighter ; lower surfaces j'ellowish 

white. 

millim. milliiii. 

Total length 77 Fore limb 12 

Head 11 Hind limb 18 

Body 39 

Brava, East Africa. 

107. Lygosoma modestum. (Plate XXIII. fig. 2.) 
Sepacontias modeatus, Giinth. Ami. §- Mm/. N. H. (5) vi. 1880, p. 235. 

Body much elongate, subcylindrical ; limbs weak ; the distance 
between the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice 
and one third to twice and one half in the distance between axilla 
and groin. Lower eyelid scaly. 8nout short, much depressed, 
rounded : no canthus rostralis. Nasal large, forming a suture with 
its fellow behind the rostral ; no supranasal, but a suture extends 
from the nostril to the loreal ; frontonasal much broader than long, 
forming a broad suture with the frontal ; praefrontals small, widely 
separated ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and parietals together, 
in contact with the first and second supraoculars : four supraoculars ; 
six or seven supraciliaries, first and last largest ; frontoparietals 
and interparietal distinct, subequal, or interparietal smallest ; no 
nuchals : fourth and fifth labials below the eye, fourth lai-gest. 
Ear-opening very small, oval, oblique. 26 scales round the middle 
of the body, smooth, equal. Praeanals not enlarged. The fore 
lim)), when stretched forwards, hardly readies the ear ; the length 
of the hind limb is contained twice and two thirds to three times 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Digits short, compressed; 
fourth toe considerably longer than third : subdigital lamella; feebly 
unicarinate, 12 or 13 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, slightly longer 
than head and body. Brown above ; lateral scales with a central 
whitish spot or shaft ; lower surfaces yellowish white, tail brown- 
dotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail in- Body 72 

I'ured) 115 Fore limb 11 

Head 13 Hind limb 17 

Width of head 9 

East Africa. 

a-c. Ad. & hgr. Mpwapwa, 200 miles in H. W. Bates, Esq. [C.]. 
interior of E. Africa. (Types.) 

108. Lygosoma guineense, 

Eiiprepes (Tiliqua) giiiueensis, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1879, p. 773, 
pi. — . fig. 1. 

Body elongate, limbs moderate. Lower eyelid scaly. iSupra- 



8. LTGOSOMA. 307 

nasals distinct, in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal mucli 
broader than long, broadly in contact with the frontal ; pra^frontals 
small ; frontal longer than frontoparietals and parictals together, 
in contact with the three anterior supraoculars ; five supraoculars, 
fifth very small ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, equal ; 
parietals forming a short suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of 
nuchals; fifth upper labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear- 
opening moderately large, roundish, without or with a single slightly 
projecting scale. 28 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 
tri- or quinquccarinate. The hind limb reaches halfway between 
axilla and groin. Erown above, each scale with a black basal dot ; 
sides blackish above, spotted with white on the head and neck ; lower 
surfaces yellowish. 

inillim. millim. 

From snout to vent. . 69 Fore limb 10 

Head 13 Hind limb 17 

Accra, Guinea. 



109. Lygosoma simdevallii. 

Eumeces (Riopa) sundevallii, Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept., App. p, 11. 

afev, Peiers, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1854, p. 619. 

reticulatus, Teters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1862, p. 23. 

Mochlus punctatus, Gilnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 308, and Zool. 

Rec. 1864, p. 111. 

afer, Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. i. 1867, p. 222, pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Eumeces perdicilor, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1868, p. 317. 

(Seuira) dumerili, Steindachn. Sitzb. Ak. JVien, Ixii. i. 1870, 

p. 341, pi. iii. f. o. 

sundevallii, Peters, Reise n. Mossamb. iii. p. 75, pi. xi. tig. 2. 

Eiiprepes chapen, Vaillant, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) viii. 1884, p. 169, 

and Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1884, p. 346, pi. xii. fig. 2. 

Body much elongate, subcylindrical ; limbs weak ; the distance 
between the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice 
to twice and a half in the distance between axilla and groin. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Snout short, much depressed, rounded ; no 
can thus rostralis. Suprauasals present, in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal much broader than long, largely in contact with the 
frontal ; praefrontals small ; frontal about as long as frontoparietals 
and parietals together, in contact with the first and second, 
or first, second, and third supraoculars : five supraoculars, fifth 
very small ; six to eight supraciliaries, first and last largest ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal, or inter- 
parietal smallest ; no nuchals ; fourth and fifth labials below 
the eye, fourth largest. Ear-opening very small, roundish. 26 to 
28 scales round the middle of the body, subequal, all smooth, or 
dorsals more or less distinctly tri- or quinquecarinate. Praeanals 
not enlarged. Limbs widely separated when adpressed. Digits 
short, compressed ; third and fourth toes subequal, or fourth a little 
longer: subdigital lamellae feebly unicarinatc, 11 to 14 under the 

x2 



308 scixciD^. 

fourth toe. Tail thick, shorter than head and body. Brown or 
rufous above, uniform, or each scale with a blackish dot or longitu- 
dinal streak, or with scattered pale round spots ; sides usually 
darker, with whitish brown-edged ocelli ; lower surfaces yellowish 
white, uniform or brown- dotted. 

millim. milliin. 

Total length 156 Fore limb 14 

Head 17 Hind limb 22 

Width of head 13 Tail (reproduced) . . 48 

Body 91 

Tropical and South Africa. 

a. Hgr. Natal. Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Type.) 

6. Ad. Mozambique. Prof. Peters [P.]. (As typical of 

Eumeces afer.) 

c. Ad. Zambezi Exped, Sir J. Kirk [C.]. (Type of 

Mochlus piinctatus.) 

d. Ad., dry. Zangomero in Khutu, Capt, Speke [l*-]- 

E. Africa. 

e. Hgr. Lake Nyassa. J. B. Thelwall, Esq. [C.]. 
/. Hgr. Zanzibar. Sir J. Kirk [C.J. 

g. Hgr. Coast of Zanzibar. 

k-i. Ad. E. Africa. Sir J. Kirk [C.]. 

k. Ad. Lado, Soudan. Emin Bey [C.]. 

/. Hgr. B^nguela. Prof. B. du Bocage [P.]. 

m. Hgr. W. Africa. Mr. Eraser [C.]. 

110. Lygosoma 'bowrmgii. (Plate XXIII. fig. 3.) 

Eumeces bowringii, Giinth. Eept. Brit. Ind. p. 91. 

Euprepes (Riopa) pimctatostriatus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 31. 

Body elongate, limbs rather short ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Supranasals present, in contact behind the rostral * ; 
frontonasal much broader than long, forming a broad suture with 
the frontal ; praefrontals small ; frontal as long as frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven supraciliaries, first and last 
largest ; frontoparietals distinct ; interparietal distinct, smaller than 
frontoparietals ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fifth 
upper labial largest and bordering the orbit. Ear-opening small, 
round. 28 scales round the middle of the body, subequal ; dorsals 
indistinctly tricarinate. Marginal prasanals a little enlarged. The 
adpressed limbs fail to meet ; the hind limb equals about three 
fifths the distance between axilla and groin. Digits moderate, 
compressed ; fourth toe a little longer than third ; subdigital 

* The type of E. punctatostriatus differs only in having the extremity of the 
rostral in contact with the frontonasal. 



8. LYGOSOMA, 309 

lamellae feebly unicarinato, 14 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, a 
little longer than head and body. Yellowish brown above, each 
dorsal scale with a brown spot ibruiing more or less continuous 
lonf^'itudinal lines ; a dark brown dorso-latcral band ; sides with 
dark brown and whitish spots. 

millini. inilliiii. 

Total length U5 Fore limb 7*5 

Head 9 Hind limb 13 

Width of head .... 5o Tail 54 

Body 32 

Hongkong, Singapore. 

a. Ad. ? Hongkong. Sir J. Bowring [P.]. (Type.) 



111. Lygosoma albopunctatum. 

Riopa albopunctata, Grat/, Ann. c^- Maff. N. H. xviii. 1846, p. 430 ; 

Jerdon, Joiirn. As. Soc. Benxj. xxii. 1853, p. 477 ; Stoliczka, Journ, 

As. Sue. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 132, pi. v. fig. 6 ; Tlieob. Cat. Rept. Brit. 

Ind. p. t)2. 
Eumec-es puiictatus, Cantor, Cat. Mai. Bept. p. 45. 
albopunctatus, Gi'tntk. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 22 ; Anders. Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1871, p. 158. 
Eumeces (Riopa) fiscberii, Boconrt, Ann. Sc. Nat. (6) vii. 1878, 

art. 16. 
Eiopa fiscberii, Boconrt, 3Iiss. Sc. 3Iex., Rept. p. 416, pi. xxii. f. 

fig. 1. 

Body elongate, limbs weak ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained twice to twice and one third 
in the distance between axilla and groin, iSnout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Supranasals present, in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal much broader than long, in contact with the 
frontal ; pra^frontals small ; frontal as long as the frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven or eight supraciliaries, first 
and last largest ; frontoparietals distinct, larger than the inter- 
parietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; nuchals 
frequently indistinct ; fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. 
Ear-opening small, oval, with one or two small lobules anteriorly. 
26 or 28 scales round the middle of the body, all smooth, subequal. 
Marginal prseanals scarcely enlarged. The fore limb stretched 
forwards reaches the ear or a little beyond ; the length of the hind 
limb is contained twice and a half to three times in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Fourth toe longer than third ; subdigital 
lamella? feebly unicarinate, 12 to 15 under the fourth toe. Tail 
thick, a little longer than head and body. Pale brown or rufous 
above, sides closely dotted with black ; each dorsal and nuchal scale 
■with a more or less distinct dark brown dot, forming longitudinal 
series ; sides of neck and anterior part of body white-spotted ; lower 
surfaces yellowish white. 



310 SCINCID^. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 134 Fore limb 10 

Head 11 Hind limb 14 

Width of head .... 7*5 Tail (reproduced) . . 68 

Body 55 

Southern and Central India, Bengal, Assam, Burma, Malay 
Peninsula. 

a-(L Ad.jhgr., &yg., Madias. T. C. Jerdon Esq. [P.]. 

dry. _ (Types.) 

e. Ad, Denkanicottah hills. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

/, (/-7)i. Ad. & hgr. Godavery valley. W. T. Blautbrd, Esq. [P.]. 

n. Ad. Bengal. W. 0. Masters, Esq. [P.]. 

o-q. Ad. & hgr. Pinang. Dr. Cantor. 



112. Lygosoma punctatum. 

Mabouya elegans, Grai/, Cat. p. 05. 
Eiopa hai'dwicliii, Gray, I. c. p. 90. 
Lacerta punctata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 309. 
Stellio punctatus, Laur. Syn. Bept. p. 58. 
Lacerta intei-punctata, Gmel. S. N. p. 1075. 
Scincns puuctatus, Schieid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 197. 

biliueatus, Dand. Hept. iv. p. 250. 

Eumeces punctatus, Wieym. Herp, Me.r. p. 30 ; Peters, Si/zb. Ges. 

Natnrf. Fr. 1879, p. 35. 
punctatiis, part., Dum. ^- Bihr. v. p. 034 ; Gravenh. N. Acta 

Ac. Cces.-Lcop. xxiii. i. 1851, p. 359, pi. xxx\iii. 
Riopa hardwickii, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beny. xxii. 1853, p. 478 ; 

Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beny. xli. 1872, p. 132, pi. v. fig. 5 ; 

Theob. Cat. Sept. Brit. Ind. p. 03. 
Eumeces hardwickii, Giinth. Bept. Brit. Ind. p. 92. 
Euprepes punctatus, Steindachn. Novura, Bept. p. 44. 

Body elongate, limbs weak ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained twice to twice and a half in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Suprauasals distinct, in 
contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal much broader than long, 
forming a suture with the frontal ; prsefrontals small ; frontal about 
as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; usually 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, usually a little larger 
than interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 
parietals ; fifth upper labial below the eye. Ear-opening small, 
oval, with one or two small lobules anteriorly. 24 or 26 scales 
round the middle of the body, all smooth, subequal. Marginal 
pra^anals not or scarcely enlarged. The fore limb, when stretched 
forwards, reaches a little beyond the ear ; the length of the hind 
limb is more than one thii'd of the distance between axilla and groin. 
Digits feebly compressed ; fourth toe longer than third ; subdigital 



8. LTOOSOMA. 



:ui 



lamellse feebly unicarinate, 11 to 14 under the fourth toe. Tail 
thick, as long as, or a little longer than, head and body. Brown or 
ohve above, each scale with a dark brown spot ; these spots some- 
times confluent into longitudinal lines ; a more or less marked 
yellowish streak or band on' each side, beginning on the caiithus 
rostralis ; sides sometimes blackish brown, white-dotted ; lower 
surfaces yellowish white, uniform, or each scale with a black central 
dot : tail reddish in the young. 

millini. 

Fore limb 13 

Hind limb 20 

Tail (reproduced) . . 50 





millim. 


Total length . . 


.... 137 


Head 


.... 15 


Width of head 


.... 11 


Body 


.... 72 


India, Ceylon. 




a. Yg., very bad 


India. 


state. 




h. Yg. 


India. 


e. Y^. 


Patna. 


d. Yg. 


Belgaum. 


«-/■• Yg. 


Matberau. 


9. Yg. 


tirodaverv valley 


h. Hgr. 


Madras. ' 


I. Several spec. : 


Madras. 


hgi-. & yg. 




k. Yg. 


S. Canara. 


l-m. Ad. & hgr. 


Nilgherries. 


n-o. Yg. 


Nilambar. 


p-7\ Ad. & hgr. 


Golcoudah hills. 


s~u. Ad. & hgr. 


Jeypore hills. 


V. Several spec. : 


Sevagherry hills. 


ad., hgr., & yg. 




to. Ad. 


Anamallays. 


x-y. Hgr. 


Tinuevellv. 


z, a. Many spec. : 


S. India. " 


ad., hgr., & yg. 




/3. Ad. 


Ceylon. 


y-e. Ad. & hgr. 


Ceylon. 



Gen.Hardwicke[P.]. (Type 

of Riopa hardivickii.) 
J. Wright, Esq. [P.J. (Type 

of Mahouya elegam.) 
W. C. Masters, Esq. [P.]. 
Dr. Leith [P.]. 
Dr. Leith [P.]. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq, [P.], 
— Boileau, Esq. [P.]. 
T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 

Col. Beddome [C], 



Col. Beddome 
Col. Beddome 
Col. Beddome 
Col. Beddome 



Col. Beddome [C.l, 
Col. Beddome [C.t 
Col. Beddome [C.]. 

Col. Beddome [C.]. 
W. Ferguson, Esq. [P.]. 



113. Lygosoma guentheri. 

Riopa punctata, Gray, Cat. p. 90. 
? Seps sciucoides, Cuo. R. A. 2nd ed. ii. p. 04. 
Riopa punctata, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. o32 ; Stoliczka, Joiirn. 

As. Soc. Beng. xh. 1872, p. 133 ; Tlieoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. 

p. 64. 
Eumeces punctatus, part., Dum. S)- Bihr. v. p. 634. 

punctatus, Giinth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 93. 

gueutheri, Peters, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, 1879, p. 36. 

Body much elongate, limbs weak ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained about three times in. the 



312 SCINCID^. 

distance between axilla and groin. Snont short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Buprauasals present, 
in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal much broader than long, 
forming a suture with the frontal ; proefrontals small and widely 
separated ; frontal usually as long as or a little longer than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the 
first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; six to eight 
supraciliaries, first and last largest ; frontoparietals distinct, 
usually larger than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals 
border the parietals ; usually, fifth upper labial below the eye. 
Ear-opening small, roiindish or oval. 24 or 26 scales round the 
middle of the body, all smooth, subequal. Marginal prceanals not 
or scarcely enlarged. The fore limb, when stretched forwards, 
reaches the ear or not quite so far ; the length of the hind limb is 
contained four times or a little more in the distance between axilla 
and groin. Digits feebly compressed ; fourth toe longer than third ; 
subdigital lameUi3e feebly unicarinate, 13 or 14 under the fourth 
toe. Tail thick, considerably longer than head and body. Brownish 
or yellowish olive above, each scale with a black spot : these spots 
sometimes confluent into longitudinal lines : sometimes a more or 
less distinct light dorso-lateral band : the black spots usually larger 
on the sides, and sometimes intermixed with white ones ; lower 
surfaces yellowish white, usually with a black dot on each scale. 

milHin. millim. 

Total length 250 Fore limb 12 

Head 15 Hind limb 17 

'Width of head .... 10 Tail 145 

Body 90 

Central and Southern India. 

a. Ad. Hyderabad. Dr. Hamilton [P.]. 

b-c. Ad. Bombay. Dr. Leitb [P.]. 

d-e. Ad. Matheran. Dr. Leith [P.l. 

/. Ad. Belgaum. Dr. Leith [P.]. 

g-i. Ad. & yg. S. Canara Ghats. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

k. Ad. S. India. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

/. Ad. India. W. Elhott, Esq. [P.]. 

m. Ad. India. A, Everett, Esq. [P.J. 

n. Ad. India. 

114. Lygosoma cyanellum. 

Eiopa anguina, part., Theohald, Journ. Linn. Soc. x. 18G8, p. 27; 

Anders. Proc. Zool. Svc. 1^71, p. 159. 
cyanella, Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xh. 1872, p. 130, 

pi. v. fig. 3 ; Thcoh. Cat. JRept. Brit. Ind. p. (35. 

Yery closely allied to L. anc/ttimtm., but tbe limbs a little longer. 
The fore limb reaches slightly beyond the ear, and the length of the 



8. ITGOSOMA. 313 

hind limb is contained thrice and one third in the distance between 
axilla and groin. Fourth toe slightly longer than third. The 
frontal a little longer and forming a very short suture with the 
frontonasal. " Colour above olive-brown, with an iridescent blue 
tinge, purer brownish on the tail, pale brownish olive at the sides of 
the body ; each scale, above and at the side, is indistinctly mottled 
with dark, and there are generally a few white spots on the side of 
the neck and about the shoulder : a narrow white, slightly black- 
margined band rises from behind the orbit and continues on each 
side of the back ; it becomes indistinct in the middle of the body, 
but is again slightly more conspicuous above the hip, gradually 
disappearing on the tail, which is indistinctly speckled with dark 
brown at the sides." 





millim. 




millim. 


Total length 


. 89 


Fore limb .... 


7-5 


Head 


8 


Hind limb .... 


... 10 


Width of head . . . 


5 


Tail 


... 36 


Body 


. 45 






Pegu, Burma. 









a. Ad. ? Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

115. Lygosoma anguinum. 

Riopa anguina, part., TJuuhald, Journ. Linn. Soc. x. 1868, p. 27 j 

Anders. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 159. 
anouina, Stoltczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli; 1872, p. 130, pi. v. 

fig. 4^ Theoh. Cat. Jiept. Brit. Ind. p. 64. 

Body much elongate, limbs very weak ; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice and a half to 
three times in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Supra- 
nasals distinct, in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal about 
twice as broad as long, forming a suture with the frontal ; prae- 
frontals small and widely separated ; frontal a little shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven supraciliaries, 
first and last largest ; frontoparietals distinct, a little larger than the 
interparietal ; parietals foiTning a suture behind the latter shield ; 
a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fifth 
upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening small, 
roundish. 22 scales round the middle of the body, all smooth, sub- 
equal. Marginal prteanals scarcely enlarged. The fore limb, when 
stretched forwards, does not reach the ear ; the length of the hind 
limb is contained four to five times in the distance between axilla 
and groin. Digits very short ; third and fourth toes equal. Uni- 
form olive-brown or rufous above, lighter inferiorly. 



314 



SCINCID-S. 



millim. 

Total length 102 

Head 8 

Width of head .... 5 

Body 51 

Pegu, Burma. 

a-b, c-e. Ad. & ligi". Pegu. 



millim. 

Fore limb 5"5 

Hind limb 8 

Tail 43 



W. Theobald, Esq. [C.]. 



116. Lygosoma calamus. (Plate XXV. fig. 1.) 

Body much elongate, limbs short ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained three times in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Supranasals distinct, in 
contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal about twice as broad as long, 
forming a narrow suture wdth the frontal ; latter small, hardly as 
long as, and narrower than, the frontoparietal^ in contact with the 
first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven supracilia- 
ries, first and last largest ; frontoparietals fused into a single large 
shield ; interparietal distinct, rather large ; parietal forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals 
border the parietals ; fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. 
Ear-opening small, roundish. 22 scales* round the middle of the 
body, equal, perfectly smooth. Marginal praeanals scarcely enlarged. 
The fore limb when stretched forwards hardly reaches the ear ; the 
hind limb measures about one fourth the distance between axilla 
and groin. Digits feebly compressed ; fourth toe very slightly 
longer than third ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 11 under the fourth 
toe. Yellowish brown above ; a dark brown lateral band, edged 
above by a yellowish line ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 75 Fore limb 5-5 

Head 7 Hind limb 8*5 

Width of head 4 Tail (reproduced) . . 28 

Body 40 

Burma. 

a. Ad. Minhla. Marquis G. Doria [P.]. 



117. Lygosoma lineolatum. 

Riopa lineolata, Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bentj. xxxix. 1870, p. 175, 
pi. X. fig. 2 ; Tlieoh. Cat. liept. Brit. Ind. p. 63. 

Body much elongate, limbs short ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained about twice and a half 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Suprauasals distinct, iu contact behind the 



8. LYGOSOMA. 315 

rostral; frontonasal very broad, forming a narrow suture witli the 
frontal ; latter shield as long as the frontoparietal and interparietal 
together; live supraoculars, last very small : frontoparietals fused into 
a single shield ; interparietal rather small and triangular ; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal. Ear-opening moderate, 
rounded, simple. 24 or 25 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body. rra?anals very slightly enlarged. The length of the hind 
limb equals the distance between the axilla and the eye. Fourth 
toe very slightly longer than third. Tail about once and one third 
the length of head and body. Greenish iridescent brown above, 
with an almost continuous series of small dark brown dots on each 
side of the back, beginning at the nape and margined above and 
below by a pale line ; the centres of all the scales above and on the 
sides are paler than at the edges, and form straight longitudinal 
lines ; below whitish, with a viuaceoiis tinge, and distinctly reddish 
on the tail. 

From snout to vent 38 millim., tail 50. 

Martaban, Burma. 



118. Lygosoma vosmaeri. (Plate XXV. fig. 2.) 

Hagria vosmaerii. Gray, Cat. p. 97. 
Hagria vosmaerii, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 18;i9, p. 333; Gindh. Rept. 

Brit. Ind. p. 04 ; Theob. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 67. 
Campsodactylus lamaiTei, Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 762. 

Body much elongate ; limbs very short, the anterior pentadactyle, 
the posterior tetradactyle. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Supranasals present, in contact be- 
hind the rostral ; pnefrontals small, widely separated ; four supra- 
oculars ; frontoparietal single ; interparietal distinct. Ear-opening 
very small. 22 smooth scales round the body. Praeanals not en- 
larged. Third and fourth toes equal ; subdigital lamellae smooth. 
Upper and lower surfaces with alternating brown and yellowish 
longitudinal lines, corresponding to the series of scales. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 101 Fore Hmb 5 

Head 7 Hind limb 8 

Body 52 Tail (reproduced) . . 42 

Bengal. 

The unique specimen upon which this species is based is perhaps 
nothing more than an anomalous form of the following species, with 
five fingers instead of four. Should this prove to be the case, the 
name vosmaeri will have to sink in the synonymy of L. Uneatum, 



316 SCINCIDJE. 

119. lygosoma lineatum. (Plate XXY. fig. 3.) 

Chiamela lineata, Gray, Cat. p. 97. 
Chiamcla lineata, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. 333 ; Giinth. JRept. 
Brit. Ind. p. 95 ; Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. JBeng. xli. 1872, p. 135; 
Thvoh. Cat. liept. Brit. Ind. p. G6. 

Body much elongate ; limbs very short, tctradactyle ; the distance 
between the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained thrice 
and a half to four times in the distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Supranasals present, in contact behind the rostral ; fronto- 
nasal much broader than long, forming a broad suture with the 
frontal ; pntfrontals small, widely separated ; frontal shorter than 
the interparietal, in contact with the tirst and second supraoculars ; 
four supraoculars ; six or seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals fused 
into a single large shield ; interparietal distinct, not much shorter 
than the frontal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interpa- 
rietal ; no nuchals; fourth and fifth upper labials below the eye. 
Ear- opening very small. 22 smooth, subequal scales round the 
middle of the body. Pra^anals not enlaiged. Third and fourth toes 
equal ; subdigital lamelte smooth. Yellowish brown, each scale 
with a dark brown spot forming longitudinal lines, which are less 
marked below than above. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 130 Fore limb 4-5 

Head 6-5 Hind limb (j 

Eody 50-5 Tail 73 

Deccan. 

a. Hgr. India. (Tvpe.) 

b-c. Ad. Bel^aum. Dr. Leith [P.]. 

d. Hgr. Matheran. Dr. Leith [P.]. 



120. Lygosoma anchietse. 
Eumecia anchietse, Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. iii. 1870, p. 67, pi. i. 

Body much elongate, cyclotetragonal ; limbs minute, anterior 
didactyle, posterior tridactyie. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided transparent disk. Supranasals present, in con- 
tact behind the rostral ; prtcfrontals forming a median suture ; 
frontal elongated ; four supraoculars ; five supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct ; parietals forming a suture be- 
hind the interparietal ; no nuchals (?) ; fifth upper labial below the 
centre of the eye. Ear-opening large, oval, partly concealed under 
the two large pointed scales of its anterior border. 24 smooth 
scales round the middle of the body. Fore limb half the size of the 
posterior, the two fingers equal ; the two outer toes equal. Tail 
long. Eufous-olive above, with two reddish-brown longitudinal 



8. LTGOSOMA. 317 

bands varied with trapezoid black, white-edged spots ; these black 
spots become conllueat on the tail; a smaller, similar band alon* 
the flanks ; a black, whito-edgod X-shaped mark on the head. 

inillim. millim. 

Total length (tail in- Body IG 

jiired) 30 Fore limb 6 

Head 15 Hind limb 12 

Huilla, Mossamedes. 



121. Lygosoma ornatum. (Plate XXVI. fig. 1.) 

Ilinulia ornala, part., Gray, Cat. p. 77. 
Tiliqua oruata, Gray, in Dieffenb. N. Zeal. ii. p. 202. 
Euprepes ornatiis, Steind. Novara, Rept. p. 49. 

Habit lacertiform, rather stont ; the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb is contained once and two fifths to once 
and two thii'ds in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; 
no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield as long as fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two ante- 
rior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six to eight 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, longer than the interparietal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; one or two pairs 
of nuchals ; fourth or fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. 
Ear-opening oval, a little smaller than the eye-opening, without 
projecting lobules, 28 or 30 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body ; laterals smallest. No enlarged pr^eanals. The adpressed 
limbs fail to meet, or just meet. Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital 
lamelloe smooth, 18 to 22 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, little 
longer than head and body. Yellowish or reddish brown above, 
each scale with several fine darker lines ; sides with dark brown 
and yellowish markings ; a yellowish, dark-edged spot below the 
eye ; lower surfaces yellowish, uniform or spotted with brown. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 129 Fore limb 16 

Head 13 Hind limb 20 

Width of head 10 Tail (reproduced) . . 60 

Body 51 

New Zealand. 

a-6. Ad. & hgr. N.Zealand. Sir R. Owen [P.]. (Types.) 

c, d. Ad. & yg. N. Zealand. Dr. Sinclair [P.J. 

e-f. Hgr. N. Zealand. Sir G. Grey [P.]. 

g^h. Ad. & yg. N. Zealand. Zoological Society. 



318 SCINCIDiE. 

122. Lygosoma deplanchii. 

Lygosorua deplanchii, Bavny, Cut. liept. N. CaUd. p. 23. 
Ilinulia tetragoniirus, Gitnth. Ann. c^ Mag. N. II. (4) x. 1872, p. 420, 
and in Brenchley, ^Curaqoa,'' p. 40^), pi. xxiv. fig. B. 

Habit laccrtiform, limbs rather weak ; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and a half in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuselj' 
pointed. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced between a nasal and a 
postnasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal large, broader than long, form- 
ing a broad suture with the rostral and a narrow one with the frontal ; 
latter shield much shorter than frontoparietal and interparietal 
together, in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supra- 
oculars, fourth largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietal 
single ; interparietal distinct, large ; parietals forming a suture be- 
hind the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals 
border the parietals ; fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. 
Ear-opening rather small, roundish ; no auricular denticulatiou. 
2^ smooth scales round the middle of the body ; laterals smallest. 
No enlarged praeanals. The limbs fail to meet when adpressed. 
Digits rather short, cylindrical ; subdigital lamellaj smooth, 30 to 33 
under the fourth toe. Tail thick, shorter than head and body. 
Eeddish brown above, spotted with darker and lighter ; a dark 
streak from nostril to eye ; lips dark-spotted ; lower surfaces pale 
brownish. 

ruillim. millim. 

Total length 78 Fore limb 10 

Head 10 Hind limb 14 

Width of head 6 Tail 33 

Body 35 

Xew Caledonia. 

a-b. Ad. jS^ew Caledonia. M. A. Bavay [P.]. (Types.) 

c. Ad. New Caledonia. .1. I?renchley, Esq. [P.]. 

(Type of Ilinulia tetrayonurus.) 



123. Lygosoma chinense. 

Ateuchosaurus chinensis. Oral/, Cat. p. 107. 
Euprepes chinensis, Gilnth. Iiej)t. Brit. Ind. p. 78. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained once and a half in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse : lower eyelid scaly. 
Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader 
than long, forming a suture with the rostral and a broader one with 
the frontal : latter shield longer than frontoparietals and inter- 
paiietal together : four supraoculars ; nine (?) supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct; three labials anterior to the 
subocular. Ear-opening roundish, smaller than the eye-opening, 



8. LTSOSOMA. 319 

without lobules. 28 scales round the body ; dorsals finely striated 
and bicannate. Pra^anals not enlarged. The adpressed limbs 
meet. Subdigital lamella? smooth, 17 under the fourth toe. Tail 
a little longer than head and body. " Brown, head paler." 

luillim. millim. 

Total length 76 Fore limb 7 

Head 7 Hind limb 11 

Width of head .... 5 Tail 41 

Body 28 

Southern China. 

a. Bad state. China. J. Keeves, Esq. [P.]. (Type.) 

124. Lygosoma pellopleurum. 
Lygosauras pellopleurus, Hal/oiv. Proc Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 496. 

Body elongate : general form similar to that of L. laterale. Snout 
rather pointed. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced in the nasal ; 
no supranasal : frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal : four supraoculars : frontoparietals 
and interparietal distinct. Ear-opening pyriforra, without pro- 
jecting scales on its borders. 24 scales round the body ; dorsals 
tricarinate. Limbs slender ; inner toe quite short, fourth longest. 
Tail cyclotctragonal at the base, longer than head and body. Light 
brown above, with four longitudinal rows of minute black spots, 
extending a considerable distance upon the tail ; a lateral dark band, 
commencing behind the eye : lower surfaces white ; tail brown- 
spotted inferiorly. 

Total length 90 millim., tail 50. 

Oho Sima, Loo Choo Islands. 



125. Lygosoma taprobanense. 

Eumeces taprobanensis, Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. ii. p. 21. 

taprobanensis, part., Giinth. Sept. Brit. Ind. p. 89, pi. xiii. 

fig. B. 
Hinulia taprobanensis, part., Theoh. Cat. Sept. Brit. Ind. p. 56. 

Body rather elongate, limbs short ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained about once and a half 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout very short, 
obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced in a 
single nasal : no supranasal : frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a broad suture with the rostral, and usually in contact posteriorly 
with the anterior angle of the frontal : latter shield considerably 
longer than the frontoparietals, in contact with the two anterior 
supraoculars: four supraoculars : eight or nine supraciliaries; fronto- 
parietals distinct, about as large as the interparietal ; parietals 



320 scixciD-^. 

forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; usually, 
fifth labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening small, sub- 
oval, with two or three very smaU, more or less indistinct, projecting 
lobules anteriorly, 24 or 26 smooth equal scales round the middle 
of the bod)'. Prtcanals not enlarged. The adpressed limbs fail to 
meet. Digits short, cylindrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth or 
tubercular, 13 to 19 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, once and a 
half the length of head and body. Yellowish or reddish brown 
above, usually with a paler brown dorso-lateral band and longitu- 
dinal series of blackish dots ; sides dark brown or blackish, white- 
dotted ; lower surfaces yellowish ; throat, in males, bluish grey, 
with or without white dots. 

millira. millim. 

Total length Ill Fore limb 15 

Head 13 Hind limb 21 

Width of head .... 8-5 Tail 83 

Body 45 

Ceylon. 

a. Ad. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. (One of the types.) 

b-d. Ad. Ceylon. 

e-i. Ad. & hgr. Centr. Ceylon. G. H. K. Thwaites, Esq. [P.]. 



126. Lygosoma fallax. 

Lygosoma fallax, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1860, p. 184. 
Euraeces taprobanensis, part., G'dnth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 89. 
Hinulia taprobauensis, part., Theoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 56. 

Body rather elongate, limbs short : the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained about once and a half in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout very short, obtusely 
acuminate. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; 
no supranasal ; frontonasal much broader than long, forming a 
broad suture with the rostral ; praefrontals usually forming a median 
suture ; frontal as long as or shorter than the frontoparietal, in con- 
tact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars : eight or 
nine supraciliaries ; frontoparietals united into a single shield, much 
longer than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; no nuchals : usually, fifth labial below the centre of 
the eye. Ear-opening small, roundish, with two very small pro- 
jecting lobules anteriorly. 26 smooth, equal scales round the middle 
of the body. Praeanals not enlarged. The adpressed limbs fail to 
meet, or just meet. Digits short, cylindrical : subdigital lamellae 
smooth or tubercular, 16 to 18 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, 
once and one third to once and two thirds the length of head and 
body. Pale reddish brown above, uniform or with darker dots, and 
with a more or less distinct darker and a lighter dorso-lateral band ; 
lower surfaces yellowish. Throat and sides of head and neck, in 
males, bluish black, dotted with white. 



8. LYGOSOMA. 321 

millira. imllim. 

Total length 110 Fore limb 10 

Head 11 Hind limb 15 

Width of head .... 7 Tail 68 

Body 31 

Ceylon. 

a-e,f. Ad. Ceylon. 

g. Ad. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaaxt. 



127. Lygosoma teinminckii. 

Lygosoma ? temiuinckii, dray, Cat. p. 85. 
Lygosoma temminckii, JDum. ^'- Bibr. v. p. 7:27. 

Body much elongate, limbs weak ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and tlie fore limb is contained once and two thirds in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, forming a broad suture with the rostral 
and a very narrow one with the frontal ; latter shield shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; ten supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in length ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no enlarged 
nuchals; third to fifth upper labials below the eje, from which they 
are separated by a scries of scales. Ear-opening roundish, mode- 
rately large, smaller than the eye-opening. 32 smooth scales round 
the middle of the body ; ventrals largest. A pair of very slightly 
enlarged praeanals. The length of the hind limb equals the distance 
between the centre of the eye and the fore limb ; fourth toe not longer 
than third, with 10 smooth lamellae interiorly. Tail thick, nearly 
once and a half the length of head and body. Brown above, with a 
dark dorso-lateral streak : yellowish inferiorly, tail brown-spotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 128 Fore limb 10 

Head 11 Hind limb 14 

Width of head .... 7 Tail 74 

Body 43 

Java. 
a. Ad. Java. 

128. Lygosoma brancMale. (Plate XXVI. fig. 2.) 
Hinulia branchialis, Gunth. Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. (3) xx. 1867, p. 47. 

Body elongate, limbs short ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained once and three fourths to twice 
in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 

VOL. III. Y 



322 SCINCIDiE. 

Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal, which forms 
a suture with its fellow : a vertical groove behind the nostril ; 
frontonasal small, broader than long, largely in contact with the 
frontal, which is as long as the frontoparietals and parietals together 
and in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supra- 
oculars, first and fourth smallest ; five or six supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, latter at least twice as long as the 
former and entirely separating the parietals ; two or three pairs of 
nuchals : fifth or sixth upper labial below the centre of the eye, 
sixth or seventh largest. Ear-opening small, subtriangular, with 
a rather indistinct lobule anteriorly. 24 or 26 smooth scales round 
the middle of the body ; laterals a little smaller than ventrals, the 
two vertebral series largest. Praeanals not or scarcely enlarged. 
Limbs widely separated when adpressed. Digits short, very slightly 
compressed ; third and fourth toes equal ; subdigital lamella) tuber- 
cularly keeled, 11 or 12 under the fourth toe. Tail shorter than head 
and body. Brown above, uniform or with a black spot on the centre 
of every other scale ; three large black vertical spots on each side of 
the neck ; series of black dots descend from the sides of the head to 
the throat : lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 132 Fore limb 15 

Head 16 Hind limb 17 

Width of head .... 11 Tail 55 

Body 61 

North-western Australia. 

a-b, c. Ad. Champiou Bay. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. (Types.) 

(l-e. Ad. W. Australia. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. 

129, Lygosoma casuarinse. 

Oaiolepida casuarinae, Gray, Cat. p. 87. 
Cyclodiis casuarinae, Dum. ^ Bihi-. v. p. 749 ; Bell, Zool. Beagle, 
Rept. pi. XV. fig-. 3. 

(Homolepida) nigricans, Peters, Mem. Berl. Ac. 1874, p. 621 *. 

Lygosoma (Lygosoma) miilleri {non SchJcg.'), Peters, Sitzb. Oes. Nat. 
"Freunde, 1878, p. 191. 

Body much elongate ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb is contained twice to twice and a half in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a rather large nasal, which is 
usually in contact with its fellow : frontonasal small, broader than 
long ; praefrontals usually forming a median suture : frontal nearly 
as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with 
the first and second supraoculars ; three supraoculars, second largest : 
six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, much shorter than the 



* Type examiued. 



8, LYGOSOMA. 323 

interparietal, which entiroly separates the parietals ; hitter narrow : 
three or four pairs of michals ; fifth and sixth upi)er hibials beh)w 
the ej'e. Ear-opening roundisii, much smaller than the eye-opening. 
22 or 24 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; laterals 
smallest. No enlarged prncanals. Limbs short : the length of tlie 
hind lirab ecpials or slightly exceeds (he distance between the centre 
of the eye and the fore limb ; fourth toe not longer llian third, with 
13 or 14 smooth lamelhe interiorly. Tail a little longer than head 
and body. Upper surfaces varying from pale olive to blackish, 
uniform or with some or all of the scales edged with black ; lower 
surfaces pale olive, usually largely spotted or marbled with black. 

millim. inillirn. 

Total length 30.') Fore limb 2] 

Head 24 Hind limb 30 

Width of head .... 17 Tail 1G5 

Body 116 

South-east Australia and Tasmania. 

(I. Ad. Sydney. 

b. Ad. Tasmania. C. Darwin, Esq. [P.]. 

c-(l. Ad. Tasmania. Antarctic Expedition. 

e-f. Ad. Tasmania. J. Gould, Esq. [C.]. 

ff-m. Ad., bgr., & yg. Tasmania. Dr. Milligan [P.]. 

)i~q. Ad. & hgr. Tasmania. R. Gunn, Esq. [P.]. 

13u. Lygosoma australe. 

Lygosoma australis, Gray, Cat. p. 85. 
Lygosoma australis, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. o?>2, and Zool. 

Ereh. ^- Terr., Rept. pi. vi. fig. 3 ; Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1874, 

p. .374, pi. — . fig. 7._ 
Hinulia gi-acilipes, Steind. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixii. 1870, i. p. -342, pi. v. 

Body much elongate, limbs very weak : the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice to twice and 
two thirds in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyeKd scaly. Nostril pierced in the nasal : no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a narrow suture 
with the rostral : prasfrontals meeting with their inner angles, or 
narrowly separated ; frontal longer than the frontoparietals, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 
seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, smaller than 
the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal : two or three pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering 
the orbit. Ear-opening roundish, a little smaller than the eye- 
opening. 18 or 20 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; 
dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged prseanals. The length of the 
hind limb equals the distance between the centre of the eye and the 
fore limb ; fourth toe longer than third, with 21 smooth lameUse 
inferiorly. Tail thick. Pale brown above, with black spots more 
or less confluent into longitudinal lines ; sides closely black-spotted ; 
lower surfaces yellowish. 

x2 



32-1 SCINCID^. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 150 Fore limb 10 

Head 11 Hind limb 15 

Width of head .... 7 Tail (reproduced) . . 70 

Body 69 

Southern Australia. 

a. Ad. Swan River. 

b-c. Ad. & hgr. Khig George's Sound. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

131. Lygosoma punctulatum. 

Lygosoma punctulatum, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 646, and 
1873, p. 374, pi. — . fig. 5 ; Peters ^- Doria, Ann. Mas. Genova, 
xiii. 1878, p. 347. 

heterodactylum, Giinth. Joicrn. Mus. Godeffroy, xii. 1876, 

p. 45. 

Body much elongate, limbs very weak ; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice to twice and 
two fifths in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with tbe frontal ; latter shield shorter than fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the first and 
second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals distinct, not quite as long as the interparietal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; usually one to 
three pair of nuchals ; fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. 
Ear-opening round, smaller than the eye-opening, but much larger 
than the nostril. 18 or 20 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body ; dorsals largest. A pair of large prseanals. The length of the 
hind limb equals the distance between the posterior border of the 
orbit and the fore limb ; fourth toe longer than third, with 12 to 14 
smooth lamellje inferiorly. Tail thick, about once and two thirds 
the length of head and body. Pale brown above, with small dariier 
dots, larger and more abundant on the sides ; lower surfaces yel- 
lowish, with brown dots. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 145 Fore limb 7 

Head 10 Hind limb 12 

Width of head 6 TaU 90 

Body 45 

Queensland. 



Ad. Peak Downs. Museum Godeffroy. (Type of 

Lygosoma heterodactylum *.) 



a 

b-e. A d. & hgr. Eockhampton 



* Tbe diflFerence in the proportions of tbe toes, upon which stress is laid in 
the description, is due to mutilation. 



8. LYGOSOMA. 325 

132. Lygosoma crassicauda. 

Lygosoma crassicaudum, A. Dum. Cat. Meth. Itept. p. 172 ; Ilnmhr. 

Sf Jacq. Voij. Pole Sud (Astrolabe et Zslee), liept. pi. iv. lig. 1. 
Hoiubronia crassicauda, (firard, U. S. Kvplor. Exped., Her p. p. 240. 
Mocoa crassicauda, G'anth. Zool. Ereh. ^- Terr., Itept. p. 12. 
Lygos'jiua oruatum, Madeaij, Proc. Linn. Soc. iV. !S. W, ii. 1877, 

p. G4. 

Body nmch elongate, limbs vcrj- weak ; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice to twice and 
a half in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout obtusely 
conical. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than lung, forming a narrow suture 
with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, second largest ; six or 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, usually shorter than 
the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; usually four pairs of nuchals ; fourth or fifth upper labial 
below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening round, small, considerably 
larger than the nostril. 22 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body ; dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged prteanals. The length of 
the hind limb equals the distance between the centre of the eye and 
the fore limb ; fourth toe longer than third, with 15 to 18 smooth 
lamellfe inferiorly. Tail thick, nearly twice as long as head and 
body. Pale brown or golden above, with a black streak or two 
series of black dots along the vertebral line ; sides dark brown or 
blackish, sharply limited above, with or without whitish spots ; 
lower surfaces yellowish or pale brown, uniform or spotted with black. 

millim. 

Total length 126 

Head 8 

Width of head 5 

Body 38 

New Guinea, islands of Torres Straits, Queensland. 

a-e. Ad. & hgr. Fly River. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C] 

/, g-k. Ad. Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C] 

I. Ad. CornwaUis Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C] 





milli 


Fore limb .... 


6 


Hind limb .... 


9 


Tail 


... 80 



133. Lygosoma pumilum. (Plate XXVI. fig. 3.) 

Body much elongate, limbs very weak ; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice or twice and 
one third in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout obtusely 
conical. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the nasal : no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield not larger than the 
interparietal, in contact with the first and seoond supraoculars ; four 
supraoculars ; seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, smaller 



326 sciNCiu^. 

than the interparietal ; parietals forming- a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; four pairs of nuchals ; fiftli upp(T labial below the centre 
of the eye. Ear-opening minute, punctiform, scarcely larger than 
the nostril. 20 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 
largest. A pair of enlarged pra-anals. The length of the hind limb 
equals the distance between the centre of the eye and the fore limb ; 
fourth toe longer than third, with 17 or 18 smooth lamellae in- 
feriorly. Tail thick, about once and a half the length of head and 
body. Yellowish brown above, with brown dots, the largest of 
which form two series along the median dorsal scales : dark dots 
smaller and crowded on the sides ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. miUim. 

Total length Ill Fore limb 6-5 

Head 8 Hind limb 10 

Width of head .... 5 Tail 66 

Body 37 

Cape York. 

a. Ad. Cape York. Hr. Darnel [C.]. 

b. Ad. Cape York. 



134. Lygosoma peronii. 

Tetradactylus decresiensis, Gray, Cat. p. 86. 
Seps peronii, Fitziny. N. Class. Sept. p. 53 ; dfray, Grijf. A. E. ix. 

Syn. p. 72. 
Tetradactylus decresiensis, Cuv. R. A. 2nd ed. ii. p. 64 ; Bum. <^ 

Bibr. V. p. 764 ; Gray, Zool. Ereh. ^ Terr., Rept. pi. vi. fig. 4 

(and details of head, tig. 1). 
Hemiergis decresiensis, part., Steind. Novura, Rept. p. 50. 

Body much elongate : limbs very weak, tetradactyle ; the distance 
between the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice 
to twice and two thirds in the distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no suprauasal ; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a narrow suture with the rostral and 
"with the frontal ; latter shield scarcely longer than the interparietal, 
in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supra- 
oculars, second largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals 
distinct, nearly as long as the interparietal ; parietals forming a 
suture behind the interparietal : two or three pairs of nuchals ; 
fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye, from which it is 
separated by a series of suboculars. Ear covered with scales, 
indicated by a depression. 18 or 20 smooth scales round the middle 
of the body ; dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged praeanals. The 
length of the hind limb equals the distance between the centre of 
the eye and the fore limb ; third toe longest. Tail thick, once and 
a half to once and two thirds the length of head and body. Pale 
brown or golden above, with or without minute brown dots ; a 



8. LYGOSOMA. 327 

black dorso-Iateral line ; sides grey, speckled with black ; lower 
surfaces whitish, black-spotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 152 Fore limb 7 

Head 9 Hiud limb 13 

Width of head 6-5 Tail 95 

Body 48 

Southern Australia. 

a-d. Ad. & hgr. Albany, S.W. Australia. II. Lin|? Roth, Esq. [P.], 

e. Ad. Kangaroo Island. Paris Museum. 

f-y. Ad. & hgi". King George's Sound. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

h. Several spec. Australia. Dr. Fleming [P.]. 

135. Lygosoma decresiense. 

Hemiergis decresiensis, Gray, Cat. pp. 87 & 272. 
ZygTiis decresiensis, Fitzing. N. Class. Hept. p. 63. 
Tridactyhis decresiensis, Cuv. R. A. 2nd ed. p. 04 ; Gray, Griff. A. K. 

ix. Syn. p. 72. 
Hemiergis decresiensis, Dum. ^- Bihr. v. p. 766 ; Gray, Zool. Ereh. ^' 

Terr., Hept. pi. vi. fig. 6. 

decresiensis, part., Steind. Novara, Rept. p. 50. 

polylepis, Gunth. Ann. ^- May. N. H. (3j xx. 1867, p. 48. 

Body much elongate : limbs very weak, tridactyle : the distance 
between the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice 
and one fourth or twice and a half in tlie distance between axilla 
and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; 
frontonasal broader than long, forming a narrow suture with the 
ro.stral and with the frontal : latter shield not larger than the inter- 
parietal, in contact with the first and second supraoculars : four 
supraoculars, second largest ; seven or eight supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, nearly as long as the interparietal : parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no enlarged uuchals : 
fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye, from which it is 
separated by a series of suboculars. Ear covered with scales, 
indicated by a depression. 24 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body, subequal. A pair of enlarged praeanals. The length of 
the hind limb equals the distance between the centre of the eye and 
the fore limb : second toe slightly longer than third. Pale brown 
above ; iowv longitudinal series of black dots, sometimes confluent 
into lines, on the back : a black dorso-lateral line ; sides grey, 
black-dotted ; lower surfaces yellowish, throat and tail black-spotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 89 Fore limb 6-5 

Head 8 Hind limb 10 

Width of head 5 Tail (reproduced) . . 42 

Body 39 

Southern Australia. 



328 scnrciDiE. 

a. Ad. Kann^aroo Island. 

b. Ad. S. Australia. G. Krefft, Esq. (Type of 

Hemiergis pulylepis.) 

136. Lygosoma quadrilmeatum. 

Chelomeles quadrilineatus, Gray, Cat. p. 87. 
Chelomeles quadrilineatus, Dam. 6r Bibr, v. p. 774; Gray, Zool. 
JEreb: S,- Terr., Rept. pi. vi. fig. 2. 

Body much elongate ; limbs very weak, didactj-le ; the distance 
between, the end of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice 
.and one third to thrice and one fourth in the distance between 
axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an 
undivided transparent disk. jN^ostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a narrow suture 
with the rostral; praefrontals in contact or narrowly separated; 
frontal about as long as and narrower than the interparietal, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, nearly as long as the 
interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
two or three pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial below the centre 
of the eye, from which it is separated by a series of suboculars. 
Ear covered with scales, indicated by a depression. 18 smooth 
scales round the middle of the body ; laterals smallest. A pair of 
enlarged pra^anals. The length of the hind limb equals the distance 
between the commissure of the mouth and the fore limb ; second 
toe much longer than first. Tail thick, once and one third to once 
and a half the length of head and body. Pale brown or golden 
above, with black dots, which are larger and form a double series 
along the vertebral line and another one along each side of the 
back ; sides greyish, dotted with darker ; lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 136 Fore limb 6 

Head 9 Hind limb 10 

Width of head 6 Tail 78 

Body 49 

"Western Australia. 

a-h. Ad. Swan Eiver. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

e. Many spec. : ad., Houtman's Abrolhos. Mr. Gilbert [C.]. 

hgi-.,'& yg. 
d. Hgr. Champion Bay, N. W. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. 

Australia. 



137. Lygosoma infralineolatum. (Plate XXYII. fig. 1.) 

Cophoscincus infralineolatus, Gunth. Proc. Zool. Sac. 1873, p. 106. 
subvitfitus, Gibith. I. c. p. 167. 

Habit lacertiform; the distance between the end of the snout 



8. LreosoMA. 329 

and the foro limb is contained once and two fiftlis to once and a 
half in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderately 
long, pointed, much depressed. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Kostril pierced in the centre of the nasal ; no 
supranasal ; frontonasal a little broader than long, forming a suture 
with the rostral and with the frontal ; pra^frontals small and widely 
separated ; frontal a little longer than the frontoparietal, in contact 
with the two anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, first and 
fourth longest ; nine supraciliaries, first and last large ; fronto- 
parietal single ; interparietal triangular, nearly as largo as the 
frontal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; two 
or three pairs of nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials largest and 
below the eye. Ear completely concealed under the scales, but 
ndicated by a depression of the skin. 22 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body, those of the two vertebral series much broader 
than the others. A pair of enlarged pneanals. The adpressed hind 
limb reaches the wrist. Digits moderately long, strongly compressed 
distally ; subdigital lamella) smooth, 20 to 25 under the fourth toe. 
Tellowish ; four black longitudinal bauds above, the median pair 
extending to the supraoculars, the lateral to the eyes; lips, sides of 
neck, and limbs brown-speckled ; digits with brown cross bars ; 
lower surfaces with or without brown longitudinal lines running 
between the series of scales. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent . . 38 Fore limb ........ 11 

Head 9 Hind limb 14 

"Width of head 5'5 

Celebes. 

a. Ad. Sangi Island. Dr. A. B. Meyer [C.]. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Manado. (Tj^pe of Cophoscincus subvittatus.) 



138. Lygosoma qnadrivittatum. 

Lvgosoma (Cophoscincus) quadrivittatum, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 
'li67, p. 19, and 1872, p. 683. 

Habit lacertiform. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the 
centre of the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield small, acutely pointed 
posteriorly ; four supraoculars : frontoparietal single ; interparietal 
triangular; fifth upper labial largest and entering the orbit. Ear 
completely concealed under the scales, 18 to 20 smooth scales 
round the body ; dorsals largest. Two large praeanals. Yellowish 
above, with four black longitudinal bands, the median pair extending 
to the supraoculars, the lateral to the eyes ; lips, chin, temples, and 
sides of neck speckled with black ; digits with black cross bars ; 
lower surfaces vellowish white. 



330 SCINCID^. 

raillim. millim. 

Total length 80 Fore limb 7-5 

From snout to vent . . 32-5 Hind limb 10 

Mindanao and Gorontalo. 

139. Lygosoma scutirostrum. 

Lygosoma scutirostrum, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1873, p. 743, and 

1874, p. 377, pi. — . fig. 6. 
Copboscincus obscurus, G'ShauyJm. Ann. ^- Mac/. N. H. (4) xiv. 

1874, p. 3o. 

Body much elongate, limbs weak ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained once and three fifths to 
twice in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no 
supranasal : frontonasal large, forming a suture with the rostral and 
with the frontal ; no praefrontals ; frontal shorter than frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars, its anterior border obtusely angular ; four supraoculars ; 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal : 
two or three pairs of nuchals : fourth upper labial below the 
centre of the eye. Ear covered with scales, its presence indicated 
by a depression. 20 or 22 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body ; dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged prreanals. The length 
of the hind limb equals the distance between the eye and the fore 
limb. Fourth toe slightly longer than third, with 9 or 10 smooth 
lamellse interiorly. Tail thick, about once and a half the length of 
head and body. Brown above, with black dots sometimes arranged 
in lines along the series of dorsal scales ; a more or less distinct 
dark brown lateral line ; lower surfaces yellowish, lips and chin 
brown-dotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 108 Fore limb 8 

Head 9 Hind limb 12 

Width of head 6 Tail 65 

Body 34 

Queensland. 

a-b. Ad. Port Bowen. Museum Godeffi-oy. 

c. Ad. Queensland. (Tvpe of Cvphoscinct(S obscnrus.) 

d. Ad. Queensland. H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 



140. Lygosoma mariae. 

Anotis mariei, Bnvay, Cat. Ttept. N. Caled. p. 29. 

Nannoscincus fiiscu.'!, Gnnth. Ann. 4- Mcuj. N. H. (4) x. 1872. p. 421, 

and in Brenchley, ' Curaqoa,^ Rept. p. 400, pi. xxv., and Zool. Rec. 

1872, p. 68. 





millim 


Fore limb . . . . 


4 


Hind limb .... 


. . . . 7 


Tail 


. . . . 27 



8. LYOOSOMA. ;i")l 

Body much elonj^ate, limbs weak : tlie distance Ijctwcon the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained nearly twice in the 
distance between axilla and p;roin. Snout short, obtusely pointed. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a suture with the rostral and a very broad one with the frontal ; 
pra^frontals minute and widely separated ; frontal a little longer 
than the frontoparietals, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars, third largest ; six supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, a little longer than the interparietal ; parietals 
forming a suture beliind the interparietal ; a jjair of nuchals and a 
pair of temporals border the parietals ; fourth upper labial below 
the centre of the eye. Ear hidden. 22 scales round the middle of 
the body ; dorsals and laterals striated or pluricarinate, dorsals largest. 
Prteanals not enlarged. The length of the hind limb equals the 
distance between the eye and the fore limb. Fourth toe not longer 
than third, with 11 to 13 smooth lamella) interiorly. Tail a little 
shorter than head and body. Brown above, darker on the sides ; 
pale brown inferiorly. 

millim. 

Total length 58 

Head 

Width of head 4 

Body 25 

!N'ew Caledonia. 

a-b. Ad. New Caledonia. M. A. Bavay [P.]. (Types.) 

c. Ad. New Caledonia. J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.]. (Type of 

Ncmnoscinaus fuscus.) 



141. Lygosoma gracile. 

Lygosoma gracilis, Bavay, Cat. Rept. N. CaUcl. p. 24. 
Mocoa micropus, Giinth. Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. (4) x. 1872, p. 420, and 
in Brenchley, ' Curagoa,^ Rept. p. 402, pi. xxiii. 

Body much elongate, limbs weak ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained about twice in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtusely pointed. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
in the nasal; no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming 
a narrow suture with the rostral and a very broad one with the 
frontal ; pra^frontals minute and widely separated ; frontal not 
longer than the frontoparietals, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars : four supraoculars, third largest ; five supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal ; parietals forming 
a suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of 
temporals border the parietals ; fourth upper labial below the centre 
of the eye. Ear-opening minute. 20 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsals largest. Prseanals not enlarged. The 



332 



SCINCID^. 



length of the hind limb equals the distance between the centre of 
the eye and the fore limb. Fourth toe not longer than third, with 
11 or 12 smooth laraelkc inferiorly. Golden above, uniform or 
with a vertebral scries of dark brown spots ; each dorsal scale with 
minute brown lines ; sides dark brown, limited above by a black 
line, which forms an angle above, and pointing towards, the ear ; 
lower surfaces brown, spotted with yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 54 Fore limb 3-5 

Head 5 Hind limb 6 

Width of head 3-5 Tail (reproduced) . . 22 

Body 27 

New Caledonia. 

a-b. Ad. New Caledonia. M. A. Bavay [P.]. (Type?.) 

c-d. Ad. New Caledonia. J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.]. (.Types 

of Mocoa micropus.') 



142. Lygosoma aequale. 

Siaphos equalis, Gray, Cat. p. 89. 
Seps equalis, Gray, Ann. Philos. (2) x. 1825, p. 202. 
Siaphos equalis, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 72, and Zool. Ereh. Sf 
Terr., Uept. pi. vi. fig. 1 (head, fig. 4). 

Body much elongate ; limbs very small, with three very short 
digits ; the distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb 
is contained twice and three fourths to thrice and one fourth in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a rather large nasal ; no supra- 
nasal ; frontonasal large, forming a narrow suture with the rostral ; 
no pr^efrontals ; frontal not larger than the interparietal, in contact 
with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars ; seven or 
eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, about as long as the 
interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
three or four pairs of nuchals ; fourth upper labial below the centre 
of the eye, from which it is separated by a series of suboculars. 
Ear completely hidden. 18 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body : dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged pra^anals. The length of 
the hind limb docs not exceed half the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb ; second toe slightly longer than third. 
Tail thick, once and one fourth or once and one third the length of 
head and body. Pale brown above, finely dotted with darker ; 
sides dark brown, limited above by a blackish line ; lower surfaces 
yellowish. 



Total length 

Head 


millim. 

.. 152 
9 


Fore limb 

Hind limb 

TaU 


millim. 

6 

7 


Width of head . . 
Bodv 


.. 7 
.. 58 


. .. 85 





8. LTG080MA. 


New South Wales 




a. Ad. 


? 


b. Ad. 


Sydney. 


c-e. Ad. 


Svdnev. 


/-i7, h. Ad. 


N. S. Wales. 


t. Ad. 


Australia, 


/;. Ad. 


Australia. 



333 



(Typo.) 

]\Iuseum Godeffroy. 
Ur. A. Giinther [P.]. 
G. KreiFt, Esq. 
Lord Derby [P.I. 
J. Stokes, Esq. [P.]. 



143. Lygosoma microtis. 

Mocoa microtis, Gray, Cat. p. 83. 
Mocoa microtis, Gray, Zool. Ereb. $f Terr., Rept, pi. Tii. fig. 2. 

Body much elongate, limbs weak. The distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained nearly twice in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout conical. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in a rather 
large nasal, the inner angle of which is in contact with its fellow ; 
frontonasal broadly in contact with the rostral ; prfefrontals small 
and widely separated ; frontal a little broader tban the supraocular 
region, as long as frontojjarietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest ; eight supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering the 
orbit. Ear-opening minute, as large as the nostril. 20 smooth 
scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest. A pair of 
enlarged praeanals. The length of the hind limb equals the distance 
between the end of the snout and the fore limb. Digits slender, 
fourth much longer thazi third, with 22 lamellae infcriorly. 
Greyish above ; two black lateral bands on each side, with a white 
one between. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 71 Fore limb 8 

Head 7 Hind limb 13 

Width of head 4 Tail (reproduced) . . 32 

Body 32 

South-west Australia. 

Ad. Swan River. (Type.) 



a. 



144. Lygosoma boiigainvillii. 

Lygosoma bougainvillii, Gray, Cat. p. 85. 
Riopa boungainvillii, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. 332. 
Lygosoma bougainvillii, JDum. ^ Bibr. v. p. 710 ; Gimth. Zool. Ereb. 

^ Terr., Rept. p. 13. 
laterale {non Say), Gilnth. Ann. 8f Mag. N. H. (3) xx. 1867, p. 46. 

Body much elongate, limbs weak ; the distance between the end 
of the snout and the fore limb is contained twice to twice and a half 



334 BCINCID^. 

in the distance between axilla and groin. Snout moderate, obtusely 
conical. Lower eyelid with au undivided transparent disk. Nostril 
pierced in a rather large nasal, which is in contact with its fellow ; 
frontonasal large, broadly in contact with the rostral; praefrontals 
small and widely separated ; frontal broader than the supraocular 
region, longer than frontoparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; four supraoculars, 
second largest, fourth very small ; six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals 
and interparietal distinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; two to four pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper 
labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening minute, not or scarcely 
larger than the nostril. 22 or 24 smooth scales round the middle 
of the body ; dorsals largest. A pair of large proeanals. The length 
of the hind limb equals the distance between the nostril and the 
fore limb ; toes slender, slightly compressed, fourth much longer than 
third ; subdigital lamellae feebly keeled, 15 to 18 under the fourth 
toe. Tail thick, slightly longer than head and body. Greyish 
above, with blackish dots or short lines along the series of scales ; a 
black lateral band, passing through the eye ; flanks white, black- 
dotted ; lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 135 Fore limb 8 

Head 9 Hind limb 14 

Width of head 6 Tail 72 

Body 54 

South Australia. 

a. Ad. S. Australia. G. Krefft, Esq. (Type of 

L. laterale.) 

b. Ad. Kangaroo Island. 

c. Ad. ? 



145. Lygosoma fragile. (Plate XXVII. fig. 2 ) 
Rhodona fragilis, (iunlh. Jown. Mus. Godeffroy, xii. 187G, p. 45. 

Body much elongate ; limbs very weak, tridactyle. Scaling as in 
L. boungainviUii, except that the frontoparietals are united into a 
single shield and the fourth labial enters the orbit. Ear just distin- 
guishable. 20 scales round the body. Hind limb as long as the 
distance between the eye and the fore limb. Toes very unequal in 
size, third longest. Olive above, with indistinct l)lack lines along 
the sei'ies of scales ; sides blackish, this colour behig sharply defined 
towards the back ; belly dotted with black. 

Prom snout to vent 48 millim., tail b2. 

Queensland. 

a-b. Bad state. Peak Downs. Museum Godeffroy. (Types.) 



8. LTGOSOMA.. 335 

1-iO. Lygosoma gerrardii. (Plate XXVII. fig. 3.) 

Rliodona punctata, var. goirardii, Oraii, Proc. Zoul. Soc. 18G4, p. 20G. 
gerrardii, Gimth. Ann. i^- May. N. H. (.J) .\x. 1807, p. 46. 

Body much elongate ; limbs very weak, anterior mono- or 
didactyle, posterior didactyle ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the fore limb is contained nearly three times in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Snout subcuneiform, with 
slightly projecting labial edge. Eye very small. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in a large 
swollen nasal, which is in contact with or narrowly separated from 
its fellow ; frontonasal much broader than long, forming a broad 
suture with the frontal ; pra3frontals small and widely separated ; 
frontal much broader than the supraocular region, in contact with 
the first and second supraoculars and with the interparietal ; supra- 
oculars three, small, second largest ; five supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals small, smaller than the interparietal ; parietals forming 
a suture behind the interparietal ; three pairs of nuchals ; fourth 
upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening scarcely distin- 
guishable. 20 smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 
largest. A pair of enlarged prceanals. Fore limb about as long as 
the snout, hind limb as long as the distance between the commissure 
of the mouth and the fore limb ; second toe more than twice as long 
as first. Tail thick, as long as head and body. Yellowish above, 
with three dark brown bands : lower surfaces white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 134 Fore limb 3-5 

Head 9 Hind limb 11 

Width of head 6 Tail 67 

Body 58 ~ 

Western Australia. 

a. Ad. Swan River. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Champion Bay, N.W. Australia. Mr. Duboulny [(',]. 



147. Lygosoma punctatovittatiim. 

Rhodona punctato^•ittata, G'unih. Ann. S,- May. N. H. (3) xx. 1867, 

p. 47. 
officeri, McCoi/, Prudr. Zool. Victoria, dec. vi. pi. li. 

Body much elongate ; limbs very weak, anterior monodactyle, 
posterior didactyle ; the distance between the end of the snout and 
the fore limb is contained more than three times in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout subcuneiform, with slightly pro- 
jecting labial edge. Eye very small. Lower eyelid with an 
undivided transparent disk. Xostril pierced in a large swollen 
nasal, which forms a suture with its fellow ; frontonasal much 
broader than long, forming a broad suture with the frontal : prae- 



336 sciNciD^. 

frontals small and widely separated : frontal much broader than 
the supraocular region, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars and with the interparietal ; supraoculars three, small, second 
largest ; six supraciliaries ; frontoparietals small, much smaller 
than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; four pairs of nuchals ; fourth upper labial entering the 
orbit. Ear-opening scarcely distinguishable. 18 smooth scales 
round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, ventrals smallest. A 
pair of enlarged pra^anals. Fore limb nearly as long as the snout ; 
hind limb as long as the distance between the ear and the fore 
limb ; second toe more than twice as long as first. Palo brown 
above, each scale with a black dot, the dots forming six or eight 
longitudinal lines ; head-shields black-edged ; lower surfaces white. 

rnillim. raillim. 

Total length 129 Fore limb 3-5 

Head 10 Hind limb 10 

Width of head .... 6-5 Tail (reproduced) . . 44 

Body 75 

Queensland, Victoria. 
a. Ad. Queensland. (Type.) 



148. Lygosoma lineopunctulatum. 

Rbodona punctata, Grat/, Cat. p. 89. 
Ehodona punctata, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 18o9. p. 335. 
Brachystopus lineopuuctulatus, Hum. 4" Bibr. \. p. 779. 
Ronia catenulata, Gray, in Grey's Trav. Austr. ii. p. 437, pi. iv. 
fig.l. 

Eody much elongate : fore limb reduced to a styliform rudiment, 
hind limb didactyle. Snout cuneiform, with projecting labial edge. 
Eye small. Eyelid with a transparent disk. Kostril pierced in a 
large nasal, which is in contact with its fellow ; frontonasal large, 
much broader than long, forming a broad suture with the frontal ; 
praefrontals small and widely separated ; frontal much broader than 
the supraocular region, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars ; supraoculars three, small, second largest ; five or six supra- 
ciliaries : frontoparietals and interparietal fused into a single large 
shield, behind which the parietals form a suture ; one or two pairs 
of nuchals; fourth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening 
scarcely distinguishable. 20 or 22 smooth scales round the middle 
of the body ; dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged pra?anals. Fore 
limb about as long as two adjacent scales ; hind limb as long as or 
shorter than the distance between the nostril and the fore limb ; 
second toe more than twice as long as first. Tail thick, shorter 
than head and body. Pale greyish or brownish above, each scale 
with a dark brown dot ; head speckled with dark brown : lower 
surfaces white. 



8. LYGOSOMA. 337 

millim. millim. 

Total length 154 Fore limb 1-5 

Head 11 Hind limb 9 

Width of head .... 6-5 Tail 62 

Body 81 

Western Australia. 

a-e. Ad. W. Australia. (Types.) 

f. Ad. Swan River. 

ff. Ad, Australia. J. S. Bowerbank, Esq. 

149. Lygosoma miopus. (Plate XXVII. fig. 4.) 
Soridia miopus, GibitJi. Ann. Sf Mag. N. II. (3) xx. 18G7, p. 49. 

Body much elongate ; fore limb represented by a minute tubercle, 
behind which is a short longitudinal groove ; hind limb monodac- 
tyle. Snout cuneiform. Eye very small. Lower eyeUd with a 
transparent disk. Xasals forming a median suture. Head-shields 
in every respect similar to those of L. Uaeopunctulalum. 20 scales 
round tbe body. Hind limb a little shorter than the distance be- 
tween the car and the fore limb. Pale olive above, with four very 
indistinct lines of minute blackish dots along the dorsal series of 
scales. 

From snout to vent 82 millim., hind limb 8. 

Korth-western Australia. 

a. Ad. Champion Bay. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. (Type.) 

150. Lygosoma bipes. 
Rhodona bipes, Fischer, Arch.f. Xat. 1882, p. 292, pi. xvi. figs. 10-15. 

Body much elongate ; fore limb absent ; hind limb didactyle. 
Snout cuneiform. Eye very small. Lower eyelid with a trans- 
parent disk. Xasals in contact behind the rostral ; no pnefrontals ; 
frontal much broader than the supraocular region ; frontoparietals 
and interparietal fused into a single large shield, behind which the 
band-like parietals form a suture ; third upper labial entering the 
orbit. Ear-opening punctiform. 18 smooth scales round the body. 
Two enlarged prseanals. Outer toe more than twice as long as 
inner. Reddish brown above, lighter inferiorly ; two series of dark 
brown dots along the middle of the back ; a broad dark brown 
lateral band. 

From snout to vent 57 millim., hind limb 10. 

Xicol Bay, Xorth-western Australia. 

151. Lygosoma prsepeditum. 

Soridia lineata, Gray, Cat. p. 90. 
Soridia lineata, Graij, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. 336, and in Grex/s 
Trav. Austral, ii. p. 438, pi. iii. fig. 2; Giinth. Ann. 8f Mag. N. H. 
(4) xii. 1873, p. 147. 
Prsepeditus lineatus, Dum. ^- Bihr. v. p. 787. 
Pholeophilus capensis, Smith, III, S, Afr., Bept, App. p. 15. 
VOL. m. z 



338 SdNCTD^. 

Body much elongate ; fore limb absent ; hind limb minute, mono- 
dactyle. Snout cuneiform, with angularly projecting labial edge. 
Eye very small. Lower eyelid with a transparent disk. Nostril 
pierced in a large nasal, which forms a suture with its fellow. 
Frontonasal broad ; no praefrontals ; a single (loreal) shield on each 
side of the head between the nostril and the eye ; frontal very 
large : two small supraoculars ; frontoparietals and interparietal 
fused into a single large shield, behind which the band-like parietals 
form a suture ; two or three pairs of nuchals ; third upper labial 
entering the orbit. Ear-opening scarcely distinguishable. 10 
smooth scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest. A pair 
of enlarged proeanals. Hind limb styliform. as long as three 
adjacent scales. Tail as thick as, and shorter than, the body. 
Brownish white, with two series of dark brown dots along the 
middle of the back and a broad dark brown lateral band. 

From snout to vent 66 millim., tail 50. 

"Western Australia. 

a. Several spec. : W. Australia. (Types.) 

ad. & hgr. 

h. Ad. W. Australia. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. 

c-<?. Ad. ? Sir A. Smith [P.]. (Types of 



e. Ad. 



Plwleophilns capcnsis.) 



152. Lygosoina muelleri *. 

Elania mulleii, Gray, Cat. p. 80. 
Scincus miilleri, Schler/. Ahhild. p. 13, pi. iii. 
Lygosoma miilleri, Dum. ^- Bihr. v. p. 740. 
(Elania) miilleri, var. jobiana, Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, 

p. 132. 
( ) miilleri, Peters ^' Doria, Ann. Mvs. Genova, xiii. 1878, 

p. 346. 
Elania miilleri, Sauvaye, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) iii. 1879, p. 56. 

Body elongate, limbs moderate : the distance between the end of 
the snout and the fore limb is contained once and three fourths or 
twice in the distance between axilla and groin. Head very small, 
much depressed : snout long, obtusely acuminate. Lower eyelid 
scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; rostral 
narrowed and produced poste)iorlY between the nasals, forming a 
narrow suture with the frontonasal, which is as long as broad or a 
little broader than long, and in contact with the frontal ; latter 
nearly as large as frontoparietals and interparietal together, nearly 
as broad as long, broader than the supraocular region, in contact 
with the first su])raciliary and the two anterior supraoculars ; iour 
supraoculars : seven or eight supraciliaries : frontoparietals and 
interparietal distinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind 



* Described from specimeus in the Berlin Museum. 



8. LTG080MA. 839 

the iuterparietal ; one or two pairs of nuohals ; fifth and sixth 
upper labials below the eye. Ear-openinji; oval, a little smalU'r than 
the eye-openinj^ ; no auricular lobules. 34 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body, the two vertebral scries very broad. A pair of 
slightly enlarged praeanals. Limbs not meeting when adpressed. 
Digits short, compressed ; subdigital laraelte smooth, frequently 
divided. Tail thick, once and three fourths the length of head and 
body. Brown above, with small darker or lighter spots ; a blackish 
lateral band, edged with yellowish, extends from the eye to the 
groin ; a blackish bar below the eye ; lower surfaces yellowish, 
throat blackish brown. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 420 Fore limb 31 

Head 23 Hind limb 47 

Width of head .... 16 Tail 270 

Body 127 

New Guinea ; Coram. 

Var. latifasciatum. 

Lygosoma (Hiniilia) latifasciata, Meyer, Mon. Bed. Ac. 1874, p. 131. 
Elania annulata, Sam-age, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) iii. 1879, p. 59. 

Eeddish brown above, with transverse blackish-brown bands, 
wider than the interspaces between them : these bands form com- 
plete rings on the tail ; head dark brown, with a yellowish spot 
between the eye and the ear. 

New Guinea. 



153. Lygosoma isodactylum. 
Eumeces isodactylus, Gunth. Rept. Brit. Inch p. 93, pi. xiii. fig. a. 

Body much elongate, limbs very weak ; the distance between the 
end of the suout and the fore limb is contained thrice and a half in 
the distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nasal rather large ; no supranasal, but a suture 
extends from the nostril to the loreal : rostral produced posteriorly 
between the nasals, forming a suture with the frontonasal ; latter 
shield much broader than long, forming a broad suture with the 
frontal : pra?frontals small, widely separated : frontal broader than 
the supraocular region, a little shorter than the frontoparietal and 
interparietal together, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars ; four supraoculars : six supraciliarics, first and last largest ; 
frontoparietals fused into a single shield ; interparietal distinct ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; 
fi.fth labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening an oblique 
slit. 32 scales round the middle of the body, subequal, perfectly 
smooth. Praeanals not enlarged. The fore limb, when stretched 
forwards, reaches the ear : the length of the hind limb is contained 

z2 



340 SCINCID^. 

five times in the distance between axilla and groin. Digits very 
short, compressed, not very unequal ; fourth toe scarcely longer 
than third ; subdigital lamclhe smooth. Tail thick, a little shorter 
than head and body. Olive above ; sides lighter, with a dark edge 
to each scale, forming oblique lines directed upwards and backwards ; 
lower surfaces yellowish, irregularly dotted with dark brown. 

niilliin. millira. 

Total length 201 Fore limb 11-5 

Head 14 Hind limb l-'yo 

Width of head .... 9 Tail 93 

Body 94 

Siam. 

a. Ad. Camboja. M. Mouhot [C.]. (Type.) 



154. Lygosoma chalcides. 

Podophis chalcides, Gray, Cat. p. 88. 
Lacerta chalcides, Litm. S. N. i. p. .369. 
Anguis quadrupes, Limi. I. c. p. 890. 
l-acerta serpens, Block, Beschdft. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, ii. 1776, 

p. 28, pi. ii. 
Scincus bracbypus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 192. 
Seps peutadactylus, Daud. Rept. iv. p. 32-5. 
Mabuya serpens, Fttzinij. N. Classif. Rept. p. 53. 
Lygosoma serpens, Gray, Zool. Jvurn. iii. 1828, p. 228. 

aurata, Gray, Grrff. A. K. ix. Syii. p. 72. 

abdomiualis, Gray, Ann. N. If. ii. 1839, p. 332. 

brachvpoda, Diiin. i^f Bihr. v. p. 721. 

chalcides, Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. p. 49. 

Eumeces chalcides, G'dnth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 90. 

Body much elongate, limbs very weak ; the distance between the 
end of the snout and the fore limb is contained four or five times in 
the distaunce between axiUa and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the centre of the nasal ; no 
supranasal; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with 
the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield small, a little broader 
than the supraocular region, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars ; four supraoculars : seven snpraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietal single, large ; interparietal distinct ; parietals forming a 
suture behind the interparietal ; first upper labial largest, fifth 
below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening punctiform, about as 
large as the nostril. 24 or 26 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body. Prseanals not or very slightly enlarged. The fore limb, 
stretched forwards, reaches about halfway from the ear ; the hind 
limb equals about the length of the shielded part of the head. 
Digits extremely short, sube(]ual. Tail thick, as long as, or a little 
shorter than, head and body. Pale brown above, with more or less 
distinct darker longitudinal lines running between the scries of 



8. LYGOSOMA. 341 

scales ; lower surfaces yellowish, uuiforni or with brown longi- 
tudinal lines. 

niillim. millini. 

Total length V,)2 Fore liml) 5 

Head 10 Hind limb 8 

Width of head 6 Tail i)Q 

Body 8G 

Java, Malay peninsula, Siam, Southern Cliina. 

a-b. Ad. Batavia. 

c. Ad. Java. 

d. Ilgr. Java. 0. Bowring, Esq. [P.], 
€. Ad. Pinang. Dr. Cantor. 

/. Ilgr. Siam. 

ff. Ad. Hongkong. Sir J. Bowring [P.]. 



155. Lygosoma reticulatum. (Plate XXVIII. fig. 1.) 

Chelomeles reticulatus, Giinth. Ann. ^- Mag. N. II. (4) xii. 1873, 
p. 146. 

Body much elongate ; limbs minute, tridactyle. Snout moderate, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Kostril pierced in the anterior part 
of the nasal ; no supranasal ; rostral produced posteriorly between 
the nasals, forming a suture with the frontonasal : latter shield 
broader than long, forming a suture with the frontal ; praefrontals 
small ; frontal nearly as broad as long, much broader than the 
supraocular region, in contact with the first supraciliary and with 
the first and second supraoculars : three supraoculars, second largest ; 
six supraciliaries, first and last largest ; frontoj)arietals distinct, 
shorter than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture behind 
the interparietal ; two to four pairs of nuchals : fourth upper labial 
below the centre of the eye. Ear completely hidden. 24 or 26 
smooth scales round the middle of the body : dorsals largest, laterals 
smallest. A pair of enlarged pra^anals. Digits tubercle-like, clawed, 
subequal. Hind limb slightly longer than fore limb. Tail thick. 
Brownish above, with two very indistinct darker cross bands on the 
neck : sides and lower surfaces whitish, punctulated with black, 
or with black lines following the edges of the scales. 

niillim. millim. 

Total length 300 Fore limb 8 

Head 16 Hind limb 9 

Width of head 9 Tail (reproduced) . . 95 

Body 179 

New South Wales. 

a. Ad. Clarence River. G. Krefft, Esq. (Type.) 

h. Ad. N. S. Wales. Dr. J. G. Fischer. 

c. Hgr. ? 



342 sciNCiD^. 

156. Lygosoma sumatrense. (Plate XXVIII. fig. 2.) 

Chelomeles sumatrensis, Giinth. Ann, ^- Mag. N. H. (4) xii. 1873, 
p. 146. 

Bodj'^ much elongate ; limbs minute, didactyle. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the anterior part of the 
nasal ; no supranasal : frontonasal more than twice as broad as long, 
forming a suture with the rostral and a very broad one with the 
frontal ; prajfrontals small and widely separated ; frontal a little 
longer than broad, broader than the supraocular region, in contact 
with the first and second supraoculars ; three or four supraoculars ; 
seven supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, sub- 
equal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; fourth 
upper labial entering the orbit, second and third much smaller than 
first or fourth. Ear completely hidden. 22 smooth scales round 
the middle of the body, equal. A pair of enlarged prasanals. Hind 
limb a little louger than fore limb ; digits tul)ercle-like, clawed, on 
the fore limb equal, on the hind limb inner inserted lower than 
outer. Tail thick. Dark brown above ; yellowish inferiorly, with 
brown dots on the sides and on the tail. 

millim. milliin. 

Total length 143 Fore limb 4-5 

Head 10 Hind limb 8-5 

Width of head .... 7 Tail (reproduced) . . 50 

Body 83 

Sumatra. 

a. Ad. Agam. Dr. Bleeker [C.]. (Tvpe.) 

h. Ad. Lolos. Hr. Carl Bock [C.]. 

157. Lygosoma verreauxii. 

Anomalopus verreauxii, A. Dum, Cat. Meth. Sept. p. 185; Giinth. 

Ann. ^- May. N. H. (3) xx. 1867, p. 47. 
Bracliynieles leuckartii, JVeinland, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. iv. 1862, 

p. 140, pi. V. fig. 3. 
Siaplios a3(|ualis, Cope, Proc. Ac. Phi/ad. 1864, p. 229. 
Anomalopus godetfroyi, Peters, 3Ion. Berl. Ac. 1867, p. 24. 
Chelomeles pseudopus, Giinth. Ann. <^- Mag. N. H. (4) xii. 1873, 

p. 145. 

Body much elongate ; limbs minute, anterior tridactyle, posterior 
undivided. Snout short, obtuse. Lowei" eyelid scaly. Nostril 
pierced in a rather large nasal ; no supranasal ; rostral produced 
posteriorly, aud forming a suture with the frontonasal ; latter shield 
much broader than long, forming a broad suture with the frontal ; 
pra^frontals small and widely separated ; frontal a little longer than 
broad, broader than the supraocular region, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars : four supraoculars, second largest : seven 
supraciliaries ; praifrontals distinct, shorter than the interparietal, 
behind which the parietals form a suture ; no enlarged nuchals : 



8. LTGOSOMA. 



343 



orbit separated fron the upper labials by a series of large suboculars. 
Ear completel}' hidden. 20 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body ; dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged pneanals. Fore limb 
longer than hind limb, divided into three minute clawed tubercles. 
Tail thick, a little longer thau head and body. Brown above, whitish 
inferiorly : a more or less distinct pale band across t he occiput ; this 
band whitish in the young. 



milliui. 

Total length 327 

Head 16 

Width of head 11 

Body 139 

Eastern Australia. 



Fore limb 
Hiud limb 
Tail .... 



millim. 
6 
4 
172 



a-b. Ad. 
c. Ad. 
d-g. Ad., 
h. Ad. 
i. Yg. 
k. Ad. 



& yg- 



CTa}Tidah, 
Brisbane. 
Queensland. 
Clarence River. 
New South Wales 



Museum Godeffi'oy. 
Museum Godeliroy. 
Col. Beddome [C.]. 
G. Kreflft, Esq. 
G. Ki-eflft, Esq. 
W. Carruthers, Esq. [P.]. 
(Type of Chelomeles pseudopus.) 



158. Lygosoma truncatum. 

Coloscincus truncatus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1876, p. 532, pi. — . 
fig. 1. 

Limbs reduced to clawless undivided rudiments. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Xostril pierced in the anterior part of 
a rather large nasal ; no supranasal : rostral produced between the 
nasals, forming a suture with the frontonasal, which also forms a 
suture with the frontal : praefrontals small ; frontal as broad as 
long, forming a suture with the first supraciliary' and with the first 
supraocular ; three supraoculars ; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the 
parietal ; a series of suboctilars. Ear hidden. 20 smooth scales 
round the body. Median praeauals slightly enlarged. Grey-brown 
above, with four longitudinal series of dark dots ; sides closely 
dotted with black. 

From snout to vent 42 millim., tail "SQ. 

Peale Island, Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

159. Lygosoma ophioscincus. 

Ophiosciucus australis, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1873, p. 747. 

Limbless. Snout short, obtuse. Eye verj' small. Lower eyelid 
scaly. Nostril pierced in the anterior part of a large nasal ; no 
supranasal ; rostral produced between the nasals, forming a suture 
with the frontonasal, which forms a broad suture with the frontal ; 
praefrontals very small and widely separated ; frontal broader than 
long, forming a suture with the first supraciliary and with the first 



344 sciNcrD^. 

supraocular ; three supraoculars, first largest ; five supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals distiuct, a little smaller than the interparietal ; 
parietals forming a suture bchiud the inter])arietal ; two pairs of 
iiuchals ; ear completely hidden. 22 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsals largest. A pair of enlarged pncanals. 
Tail thick, ending very obtusely, a little shorter than head and body, 
lirownish -white ; sides and extremity of tail interiorly blackish ; 
back with lines of blackish dots along the series of scales. 

From snout to vent 75 millim., tail 67. 

Queensland. 

a. Ad. ? Gayndah. Museum GodefFroy. 

b. Hgr. Port Boweu. Museum Godelfroy. 



9. ABLEPHARUS. 

Ah\eT[)ha.rus, Fitzhiff. Verlt. Ges. Naturf. Fr. i. 1824, p. 297; Fitzing. 

N. Classif. Fiept. p. 2G ; Wat/le?; iiyst. Amph. p. loG ; Wiiym. 

Herp. Mex. p. 11 ; Dum. S) Bibr. v. p. 806; Gray, Cat. Liz. 

p. 63 ; Sfrauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Feiersb. vi. 1868, p. 553, and 

Full. xii. p. 359. 
Lerista, Bid!, Froc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 99 ; Wicym. I. c. ; I)u7n. ^ 

Bibr. p. 823 ; Gray, I. c. p. 66. 
Cryptoblepharus, Wiegm. I. c. ; Coctcau, Etudes sur les Scincoul. p. 1 ; 

Gray, I. c. p. 64. 
Morethia, Gi-ay, I. c. p. 65. 
Menetia, Gray, I. c. 
Miculia, Gray, /. c. p. 66. 

? Blepharactisis, Halloio. Pi-oc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 484. 
Paiiaspis, Cope, Froc. Ac. Fhilad. 1868, p. 317. 
Blepharosteres, Stuliczka, Froc. As. 6'oc. Beng. 1872, p. 74. 
Phaueropis, Fischer, Arch./. Nat. 1881, p. 2.36. 

Palatine and pterygoid bones in contact mesially, the palatal notch 
not extending forwards to between the centre of the eye ; pterygoids 
toothless. Maxillary teeth conical. No movable eyelids, a trans- 
parent disk covering the eye. Ear distinct or hidden. Nostril 
pierced in the nasal ; supranasal present or absent. Limbs more 
or less developed. 

Australia, South-western Asia, South-eastern Europe, Tropical 
and South Africa ; one species irregularly distributed over the hotter 
parts of both hemispheres. 

Synojisis of the Sjyecies. 
I. Frontoparietals and interparietal united into a single shield. 

A. Fingers and toes five. 

1. Upper eyelid represented by 
three or four larger scales ; 
frontal not half the size of the 
interparietal 1. houtonii, p. 346. 



9. ABLEPHARTJS. 345 

2. Eye surrounded by a circle of uniform granules ; frontal 
more than half the size of the interparietal. 

Ear-opening oval, -svith one or several 

small projecting lobules anteriorly . . 2. lineo-ocellatiis, p. 348. 
Ear-opening roundish, without projecting 

lobules; body much depressed 3. tceniopleurus, p. 349. 

B. Fingers and toes four 4. speciosus, p. 349. 

II. Frontoparietal single, interparietal distinct. 

A. Fingers four, toes five 5. (/reiji, p. 349. 

B. Fingers and toes five. 

1. Ear perfectly distinct. 

Eye surrounded by a circle of uniform 

minute granules 0. tvciMhergn, p. 350. 

Two enlarged scales between the supra- 

ciliaries and the eye 7. hrandtn, p. 351. 

2. Ear hidden 8. gmyanus, p. 352. 

III. A pair of frontoparietals and an interparietal. 

A. Fingers and toes five. 

1. Eye entirely surrounded by a circle of small scales or 

granules. 

Praefrontals not forming a suture ; first 

supraocular smaller than second; supra- 

nasals present 9. ceneus, p. 352. 

Praefroutals not forming a suture ; first 

supraocular larger than the two others 

together 10. cabindce, p. 352. 

Prsefrontals forming a median suture ; 

first supraocular largest, but smaller 

than the two others together 11. biviitatus, p. 353. 

Prsefrontals not forming a suture ; first 

supraocular largest, but smaller than 

the two others together 12. deserti, p. 353. 

2. Eye in contact with the second 

supraciliary and the first supra- 
ocular 13. jpannonicus, p. 354. 

B. Digits less than five. 

Fingers and toes four 14. elegans, p. 355. 

Fingers and toes three 15. muelleri, p. 356. 

Fingers two, toes three 16. lineatus, p. 356. 



346 SCTNCID^. 

1. Ablepharus boutonii. 

Cr^^toblepharus boutonii, Gray, Cat. p. 64. 
Scincus boutonii, Besjard Ann. So. i\at. xxii. 1831, p. 298. 
Ablt'pharis lescheoault, Cocteau, May. de Zool. 1832, Rcpt. pi. i. 
Ablephai-us pcecilopleurus, Wieym. N. Acta Ac. Leop.-Carol. xvii. 

1835, i. p. 202, pi. viii. tig. 1 ; G'dnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, 

p. 29G. 
Cryptoblepharis peronii, Cacteau, Et. Seine, p. 1. 

lescheuaultii, C'oet. I. c. 

Cryptoblepliarus pojcilopleuru.^, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. 335, 

and Zool. Erebus i^- Terror, Rept. pi. v. fig. 2. 
Tiliqua buchauani, (iray, Ann. N. II. ii. p. 291. 
Ablepharus peronii, Dum. >Jj* Bibr. v. p. 813 : Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 

1854, p. G19 ; Bavay, Cat. Rept. N. Caled. p. 31. 
Cryptoblepharus eximius, Girard, P'oc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 195, 

and U.S. Erplor. Exped., Herp. p. 222, pi. xxvi. figs. 25-32. 

plagiocephalus, Girard, XJ. S. Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 220, 

pi. xxvi. figs. 17-24. 

? Ablepharus nigropunctatus, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 487. 
Ablepharus boutonii, Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. \i. 1868, 

p. 666, and Bull. xii. p. 368 ; G'dnth. I. c. ; Peters ^- Doria, Ann. 

Mils. Geneva, xiii. 1878, p. 339 ; Peters, Reise n. Mossamb. iii. p. 77.' 

quinquetfeniatus, Giinth. I. c, 

rutilus, Peters, Sitzb. Ges. Nat. Freunde, 1879, p. 37. 

(Cryptoblepharus) boutonii, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. 

p. 463, pi. xxii. H. fig. 1. 

( ) lescheuaultii, Bocourt, I. c. 

( ) peronii, Bocourt, I. c. 

boLitoni, var. cognatus, Boetty. Zool. Anz. 1881, p. 359, and 

Abh. Senck. Ges. xii. 1881, p. 454, pi. ii. tig. 4. 

Snout pointed, rostral not projecting. Eye entirely surrounded 
by a circle of granules ; upper eyelid represented by three or four 
larger scales, llostral largely in contact with the frontonasal ; proe- 
frontals either forming a suture or narrowly separated ; frontal 
small, in contact with the first and second supraoculars, in contact 
with or separated from the interparietal ; latter very large, formed 
by fusion with the frontoparietals : five supraoculars, second largest, 
fifth smallest ; five or six supraciliaries, second largest ; a pair of 
large nuchals. Ear-opening roundish, about as large as the pupil. 
Scales smooth or feebly striated ; dorsals largest ; the two median 
series strongly dilated transversely in specimens with fewer (20 or 
22) longitudinal series of scales. Limbs well developed, pentadac- 
tyle ; the hind limb reaches the axilla, or not so far ; digits long 
and slender, smooth inferiorly. Tail a little longer than head and 
body. 

niilliiii. milliui. 

Total length 105 Fore limb 15 

Head 10 Hind limb 19 

Width of hsad 6 Tail 62 

Body 33 

irregularly distributed over the hotter parts of both hemispheres. 



9. ABLEPHARUS. 'M7 

To the localities enumerated below may be added the following, 
whence the occurrence of the species has been recorded : — Zanzibar, 
Mozambique, Comoro Islands, Greece (?), Bon in Islands (?), Pelew 
Islands, Java, Amboina, Fiji, Samoa, and Society- Islands, New- 
Caledonia, Tasmania, Adelaide (Australia), Puna Island ((iuaya- 
quil), Pisacoraa Islands (Peru). 

A. {A. boutonii, Desj,). — 20, rarely 24 or 28, scales round the middle 

of the body. Pra^frontals separated, or formint;: a very short 
suture. Four or five upper labials antei'ior to the subocuLir. 
Olive above, spotted or marbled with black, with an ill-defiued, 
lighter lateral band. 

a. Ad. Mauritius. M. Bibron [P.]. 

b. Several spec. : Mauritius. Zoological Society, 
ad. »fc hgr. 

B. Var. iKec'dopleiirua, Wiegm. — 28, rarely 26, scales round the 

body. Four labials anterior to the subocular. Brown or olive 
above, spotted or marbled with black, with a more or less well- 
defined light lateral baud : Hmbs and sides light-dotted. 

c-g. Ad. Sandwich Islands. 

h. Ad. Savage Islands. Dr. A. Giinther [P.]. 

i. Ad. Bahia. Smithsonian Institution 

[P.]. 

C. Var. peronii, Coct. — 22 or 24, rarely 26, scales round the body. 

Four labials anterior to the subocular. Brown or olive above, 
with a usually well-defined light lateral band, edged above and 
below by a black band ; sides and limbs b'ght-dotted. 

k-m. Ad. Timor. Levden Museum. 

n. Ad. Timor Laut. H."0. Forbes, Esq. [C.]. 

o. Ad. Fly River, N. Guinea. Rev. S. Macfarlane rp.J. 

p,q. Many spec. : Murray Island. Rev. S. Macfarlane [^P.]. 

ad. & hgr. 

r-s. Ad. Islands of Torres Straits. Rev. S. Macfarlane [P.]. 

t. Many spec. : ad. W. Australia. J. Gould, Esq. [C] 

& hgr. 

u-v. Ad. W. Australia. (Types of Tiliqua buchanani.) 

to. Ad. Swan River. 

X. Hgr. Aneiteum. J. Brenchley, Esq. [P.]. 

D. Var. rutilvs, Ptrs. — Like the preceding, but only 20 scales round 

the body, 

y. Ad. Fly River, New Guinea. Rev. S. Macfarlane [C.]. 

E. Yar. metallicus. — 22 or 24 scales round the body. Four ante- 

rior labials. Yellowish or greenisli above, strongly metallic, 
with small dark brown spots forming a more or less irregular 
band on each side. 

z-y. Ad. North Australian Esped. J. R. Elsey, Esq. [P.l. 



348 scixcim;. 

F. Yar. quinquetcpniatus, Gthr. — 22 scales roiind the body. Four 

anterior labials. Elack above, with five narrow light longitu- 
dinal lines ; limbs light-dotted. 

8-e. Ad. West coast of Africa. Capt. Parry [P.]. (Types 

of A. quinquetcpniatus.) 

G. Var. cognatiis, Boettg. — 22 scales round the body. Three labials 

anterior to the subocular. Coloration as in var. peronii. 
Nossi Be, Madagascar. 



2. Ablepharus lineo-ocellatus. 

Cryptoblepharus lineo-ocellatus, Gray, Cat. p. Go. 
Morethia auomalus, Gray, I. c. 
Ablepharus Hiieo-ocellatus, Bum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 817 ; Strauch, Mel. 

Biol. Ac. St. Petersh. vi. 1868, p. 5G9, and Bull. xii. p. 371. 
Crvptoblepharus lineo-ocellatus, Gray, in Grey's Trav. Austr. ii. 

p. 427. 
Morethia anomalus, Gray, Zool, Erehus ^- Terror, Rept. p. 4, pi. v. 

Ablepharus anomalus, Strauch, I. c. pp. .5/0, .3/1. 
Morethia anomala, Giinth. Zool. Erebus ^- Terror, Rept. p. 10. 
Ablepharus (Morethia) anomalus (adelaideusis), Peters, Mon. Berl. 
Ac. 1874, p. 376. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye entirely sur- 
rounded by a circle of granules. Rostral largely in contact with the 
frontonasal, which is in contact with the frontal ; latter nearly as 
long as, but narrower than, the interparietal, which is formed by 
fusion with the frontoparietals ; four supraoculars, second and third 
largest, first and second in contact with the frontal ; six supracili- 
aries, third to fifth usually very large, sixth minute ; a pair of 
nuchals : four (or five) labials anterior to the subocular ; supra- 
nasals sometimes present. Ear-opening rather large, oval, with 
one or several projecting small lobules anteriorly. Scales subequal 
in size, 24 to 30 round the middle of the body. Limbs well deve- 
loped, pentadactyle ; the hind limb does not reach the axilla ; digits 
obtusely keeled inferiorly. Tail longer than head and body. Olive 
or brownish above, black-spotted, or with light, "black-edged ocelli ; 
a more or less strongly marked blackish lateral baud, edged below 
by a white black-edged streak which extends from the eye or the 
ear to the groin ; a white black-edged spot or streak between the 
thigh and the tail ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish w^hite. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 108 Fore limb 11 

Head 9 Hind limb 17 

Width of Lead 6 Tail 68 

Body 31 

Australia. 



9. AliLEPlIAKUS. 349 

A. (A. lineo-ocelJatus, D. & E.). — -No supranasals ; 24 or 20 scales 

round the middle of the body. A more or less distinct liji:ht 
band on each side of the back frequently present : more or less 
distinct ocelli arc usually present ou the back, and constantly 
on the base of the tail. 
a. Many spec. Swan River. 

B. Var. anomalus, Gray. — Supranasals present. 2G scales round 

the body. Coloration as in the preceding. 

b-c. Ad. W. Australia. Mr. Gilbert [C.]. 

(Types of Morethia anonuila.) 
d-f. Ad. Kangaroo Island. Zoological .Society. 

C. Yar. adelaidensis, Ptrs. — Supranasals present. 28 or 30 scales 

round the body. No ocelli on the back or tail, but black spots 
sometimes confluent into longitudinal dorsal bands. 

ff-h. Ad. S. Australia. G. Krefft, Esq. [P.]. 

i-m. Ad. Sandhurst, Victoria. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

n. Hgr. Rockharapton, Queensland. 

3. Ablepharus taeniopleurus. 

Ablepbarus (Morethia) tseuiopleurus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1874, 
p. 375. 

General proportions and head-shields as in A. Jinco-ocelJatus, 
but head, body, and tail much more depressed. Supranasals present. 
Ear-opening roundish, without projecting lobules. 26 scales round 
the body. Olive-green above ; a white lateral line, beginning on 
the canthus rostralis, edged below by a broad black band beginning 
on the loreal region ; another white streak below the black band, 
beginning on the lip and extending to the groin ; limbs and tail 
black-dotted ; lower surfaces white. 

Total length 90 millim., from snout to vent 33. 

Port Bowen, N.E. Australia. 

4. Ablepharus ? speciosus. 

Blepharactisis speciosa, Halloiv. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 484. 

Fingers and toes four. Frontal small ; frontoparietals and 
interparietal united into a single large shield. Colour dark olive 
above, with two dark lateral stripes, one on each side. 

Total length 39 millim., head and body 17. 

Nicaragua. 

5. Ablepharus greyi. 

Menetia greyii, Gray, Cat. p. 66. 
Menetia greyii, Graij, Zuol. Erebus cy Terror, Rept. pi. v. fig. 4. 

Head very small ; sjiout shorty obtuse, rostral not projecting. 



350 SCINCH)^. 

Eye incompletely smToundcd by granules. Rostral largely in contact 
with the frontonasal ; frontal very small, in contact with the fronto- 
nasal, as large as or a little larger than the interparietal, and a 
little smaller than the pra3frontals ; frontoparietal single, very 
large; interparietal distinct ; two supraoculars, anterior very large, 
band-like, longitudinal, oblique, its anterior border in contact with 
the frontal, its outer border with a nearly equally large supraciliary ; 
three labials anterior to the subocular ; a pair of nuchals. Ear 
usually very indistinct. 22 scales round the middle of the body ; 
dorsals largest. Prajanals scarcely enlarged. Limbs short, anterior 
tetradactyle, posterior pentadactyle ; they do not meet when 
adpressed. Tail a little longer than head and body. Olive or 
brownish above, uniform or with small dark brown spots ; a dark 
brown band on each side, beginning from the nostril and passing 
through the eye ; throat and belly greenish white ; limbs and tail 
frequently reddish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 74 Fore limb 7 

Head 6 Hind limb 10 

Width of head .... 4 Tail 44 

Body 24 

Western and Southern Australia. 

(Tvpes.) 

J. R. Elsey, Esq. [P.]. 

J. S. Bowerbank, Esq. 

6. Ablepharus walilbergii. 

Cryptoblepbarus wahlbergii, Smith, III. S. Afr., Rept., App. p. 10. 
Ablepharu.s nieuestriesii (?2o« Bibr.), Bicmconi, Spec. Zool. Mozamb. 

p. 62. 
wahlbergii, Peters, Man. Bcrl. Ac. 1854, p. 619 ; Strauch, Mel. 

Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. vi. 1868, p. 56o, cmd Bull. xii. p. ^0)7 •■, Peters, 

Reise n. Mossamb. iii. p. 77, pi. xi. tig. 3. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye surrounded 
(sometimes incompletely) by a circle of granules, llostral largely 
in contact with the frontonasal, which is in contact with the frontal ; 
latter smaller than the frontoparietal, which is single, in contact 
with the hrst supraocular ; interparietal distinct ; three supraoculars, 
fu'st as long as the two others together ; four or five small supra- 
ciliaries, first largest ; a pair of nuchals ; four labials anterior to the 
subocular. Ear-opening roundish, as large as or a little smaller than 
the pupil. 24 scales round the body, subequal. Two slightly enlarged 
prseanals. Limbs short, pentadactyle, widely separated when ad- 
pressed. Tail a little longer than head and body. Brown above, 
uniform or with longitudinal blackish lines on the back ; one or two 
yellowish lines on each side, the upper constant, originating on the 
canthus rostralis ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 



a. 


Many spec. 


W. Australia. 


b. 


Hgr. 


N.W. Australia. 


c. 


Ad. 


Swan River. 


d. 


Ad. 


Australia. 



9. ABLEPHAEtJS. 351 

iiiillim. luillim. 

Total length 93 Fore limb 8 

Head 8 Hind limb 11-5 

Width of head 5 Tail 53 

Body 32 

East and South-east A frica. 

a-b. Ad. Natal. Sir A. Smith [r.^. (Tvpes.) 

c. Jlgr. Lake Nyassa. B. Thelwall, Esq. [C.]. 

d. Ad. 1 5i 'tween the coast and Uii- Capt. Speke [P.J. 

yaunvezi, 5° 7' lat. S. 
f. Ad. Near Lake Tauganika. Sir .1. Kh-k [C.]. 

7. Ablepharus brandtii. 

Scincus paDiionicus (jton Fitz.), Licht. in Ecersm. Reise, p. 145, and 

Verz. Bonb. Mns. Berl. p. 103. 
Ablepharus paniionicus, Brandt, in Li'hmann's Reise n. Buchara u. 

Samarkand, pp. 16S, >33.3. 
brandtii, Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. vi. 1SG8, p. SGo, 

and Bull. .xii. p. .368 ; Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. 391, pi. xxvii. fig. 1 ; 

Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 354. 
Blepharosteres agilis, Stoliczka, Proc. As. Soc. Beny. 1872, p. 126. 
Ablepharus pusillus, BUmf. Ann. S,- May. N. H. (4) xiv. 1874, p. 33. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye surrounded by 
a circle of small scales, the two upper of ■which are much larger 
than the others. Rostral largely in contact with the frontonasal, 
which is in contact with the frontal ; latter moderately large, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars; frontoparietal single ; 
interparietal distinct ; three (or four) supraoculars, first largest ; 
five small supraciliaries, first largest ; two pairs of nuchals ; four 
labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening very small. 20 (or 
22) scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. Two 
enlarged pra:anals. Limbs short, pentadactyle, not meeting when 
adpressed. Tail longer than head and body. Olive above, with a 
dark brown lateral band edged above by a light line. 

millini. mi Him. 

Total length 76 Fore limb 6-5 

Head 6 Hind Hmb 10 

Width of head 4 Tail 46 

Body 24 

Mesopotamia, Bokhara, Samarkand, Baluchistan, Punjab, Sind. 

a. Ad. Oalyk-tau, Samarkand. St. Petershm-g Mus. [E.]. (One 

of the types.) 

b. Ad. Helmand. Dr.Aitchison[C.]. Afghan Boun- 

dary Commission. 

c. Ad. Bussura. W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.J. (One 

of the types of A. pusillm.) 



352 SCINCID,E. 

8. AWepharus grayanus. 

Blepharosteres grayanus, StoUtzka, Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1872, p. 74; 
Murraij, Zoul. Sind, p. 3o4. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Rostral largely in 
contact with the frontonasal, which is in contact with the frontal ; 
three supraoculars, followed by two small ones, obliquely descending 
on the temporal region ; frontoparietal single ; interparietal distinct ; 
four labials anterior to the subocular. Ear hidden. 18 or 20 scales 
round the middle of the body. Two enlarged prasanals. Limbs 
short, pentadactyle. Above olive-green, with a very distinct 
metallic lustre, a little darker at the sides, speckled with black, and 
gradually passing into the uniform greenish-white lower side ; a 
silvery green narrow baud from the supraciliary edge to the base of 
the tail, edged with black below ; limbs brown above, marked with 
rows of white spots ; tail with a pink tinge. 

From snout to vent 32 millim. 

Cutch, Sind. 

9. Ablepharus aeneus. 

Panaspis seneus, Cojje, Proc. Ac. Pldlcul. 18G8, p. 317. 

Snout obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye entirely surrounded 
by a circle of granules, llostral largely in contact with the fronto- 
nasal, which is in contact with the frontal ; a supranasal ; fron- 
tal moderate, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct ; four supraoculars, second 
largest ; four supraciliaries, fourth smallest ; a pair of nuchals ; four 
upper labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening roundish, 
about as large as the pupil. Scales subequal, 24 round the middle 
of the body. Prseanals scarcely enlarged. Limbs well developed, 
pentadactyle, meeting when adpressed ; digits obtusely keeled in- 
feriorly. Tail a little longer than head and body. Erown above, 
with small darker dots and a dark lateral band edged above with 
yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length (tail re- Body 25-5 

produced) 63 Fore limb 8 

Head 7-5 Hind limb 12 

Width of head 5 

Angola. 
a-h. Ad. & hgr. Angola. J. J. Monteiro, Esq. [C.]. 

10. Ablepharus cabindaB. 

Ablepharus cabinda;, Bocmje, Jam. >Sc. Lish. i. 1866, p. 64. 

Eye entirely surrounded by a circle of equal small scales. Rostral 
largely in contact with the frontonasal, which is in contact with 
the anterior angle of the frontal ; latter large ; frontoparietals and 
interparietal distinct ; three supraoculars, first larger than the two 



9. ABLEPHAETTS. 353 

others together ; four small supraciliaries ; four labials anterior to 
the subocular. Ear-opening distinct. 24 scales round the bod}-. 
Bronzy above, finely dotted with black ; four black streaks along 
the back ; sometimes two white, black-edged lines along each side, 
millini. niillini. 

Total length 85 Hind limb 11 

Head 7 Tail 48 

Fore limb 8 

Cabinda, West Africa. 

11. Ablepharus bivittatus. 

Ablepli.irus bivittatus, Gray, Cat. p. 64. 
Scincus bi-^-ittatus, Menetr. Catul. Rais. p. 64. 
Ablepharus menestriesii, Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 811. 
bivittatus, Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Pctersh. vi. 1868, p. 563, 

and Bull. xii. p. 3G6; Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. o90, pi. xxvii. 

fig. 2 ; Boettg. in Hadde, Faun. Flor. Casp.-Geb. p. 57. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye entirely 
surrounded by a circle of granules or small scales, of which the 
three on the upper border are the largest, llostral largely in contact 
with the frontonasal ; praefrontals forming a median suture which 
nearly equals the length of the frontonasal ; frontal large, as long 
as the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the 
first and second supraoculars ; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct ; three (or four) supraoculars, first largest ; five supra- 
ciliaries, first largest ; two or three pairs of nuchals ; four labials 
anterior to the subocular ; ear-opening small, suboval, with two 
minute projecting lobules anteriorly. 24 (or 22) scales round the 
body ; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Two very large prceanals. 
Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; the adprcssed limbs overlap, 
but the hind limb does not reach the axilla; digits obtusely keeled 
inferiorly. Tail a little longer than head and body. Bronzy olive 
above, with darker spots with a light central shaft ; a dark band, 
edged with a whitish streak inferiorly, on each side, beginning from 
the nostril and passing through the eye ; lower surfaces greenish 
white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 93 Pore limb 12 

Head 10 Hind limb 16 

Width of head .... 6 Tail 52 

Body 31 

Northern Persia and Transcaucasia. 

a-b. Ad. Kushkizard, between Shiraz W. T. Blanford, Esq. [C.]. 

and Isfahan. 

12. Ablepharus deserti. 

AblephaiTis deserti, Strauch, Mel. Biol. Ac. St. Peter sb. vi. 1868, 
p. 564, and Bull. xii. p. 306. 
VOL. III. 2 A 



354 BCIKCTDJE. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye entirely surrounded 
by a circle of granules or small scales, the upper of wbicb is much 
elongate. Frontonasal in contact with the rostral and with the 
frontal ; latter nearlj' as long as the frontoparietals and intci'pariotal 
together, in contact with tlie first and second supraoculars ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct : three (or four) supraoculars, 
first largest ; five supraciliarics, second largest ; two or three pairs of 
nuchals ; four labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening small, 
suboval. 20 or 22 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals 
largest. Two large prasanals. Limbs short, pentadactyle, failing to 
meet or nearly meeting when adpressed ; digits smooth or obtusely 
keeled inferiorly. Tail about once and two thirds as long as head 
and body. Bronzy oUve above, uniform or with three more or less 
distinct longitudinal dark brown dorsal lines ; a dark brown, light- 
edged band on each side, beginning from the nostril and passing 
through the eye ; upper surface of tail frequently with dark and 
light ocelli ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

millim. )niUim. 

Total length 112 Fore limb 10 

Head 9 Hind limb 13 

Width of head .... G Tail 70 

Body 33 

Aralo-Caspian steppes, Turkestan. 

a. Ad. Chodshent, Aralo-Caspiau St. Petersburg Muyeum 

steppes. [E.]. 

h. Many spec. : ad. Tschinas, Turkestan. St. Petersburg Museum 

&'hgr. [E.]. 



13. Ablepharus pannonicus. 

Ablepharus pamiouicus, Grmjy Cat. p. G3. 
Riopa ? ruppellii, Gray, 1. c, p. 97. 
Ablepharus pannonicus, Fitzim/. Vevh. Ges. Naturf. Fr. i. p. 297, 

pi. xiv. : Cocteau, Mac/, tie Zool. 1835, B('2)t. pi. i. ; Straiic/i, Mel. 

Biol. Ac. St. Petersb. v'i. 18G8, p. 560, and Bull. xii. p. 3G4 ; Schreib. 

Herp. Fur. p. 350. 
kitaibelii, Bibron, in Bory, Exped. Sc. Moree, liepf. p. 69, pi. xi. 

fig. 4 ; Cocteau, Etudes Seine. ; Dzim. 8)' Bibr. v. p. 809 ; Gravenh. 

N. Acta Ac. Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 1851, i. p. 358, pi. xxxvii. 
Riopa ruppeUii, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. 332 *. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye incompletely 
surrounded with granules. Frontonasal in contact with the rostral 
and with the frontal : latter moderate, in contact with the two supra- 
oculars : frontoparietals and interparietal distinct : two large supra- 
oculars, first in contact with the eye and preceded by two supra- 
ciliarics : three or four pairs of nuchals ; three labials anterior to 
the subocular. Ear-opening minute. Body much elongate. 18 or 



* Type (Senckeuberg Museum) examined. 



a~h. Ad. 


Hungary 


c. /Vd. 


Albania. 


d-e. Ad. 


Rhodes. 


f. Ad. 


Xanthus. 


y. Ad. 


Beyrut. 



9.- ABLEPHAETTS. 355 

20 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsals largest, laterals 
smallest. Two very large pra?anals. Limbs very short, pentadactylo, 
widely separated when adprcsscd : digits obtusely keeled inferiorly. 
Tail as long as, or a little longer than, head and body. Erouzy 
olive above, sides darker : a blackish, light-edged lateral streak on 
each side, beginning from the nostril and passing through the eye ; 
lower surfaces greenish. 

iiiillim. iiiillim. 

Total length 1U2 Fore limb 8 

Head 8 Hind limb 11 

Width of head .... 5 Tail 51 

Body 43 

Hungary to Greece and Asia Minor ; Syria ; North Arabia. 

Dr. Heckel. 

G. Saunders, Esq. [P.]. 
C. G. Uanford, Esq. [P.]. 
Haslar Collection. 



14. Ablepharus elegans. 

Miculia elegans, Gi'ay, Cat. p. 06. 
Micidia elegans, Gray, Zool. Erebus and Terror, Rept. pi. v. fig. 3. 

Snout rather elongate, conical, rostral slightly projecting. Eye 
incompletely surrounded with granules. Nasals forming a suture 
behind the rostral : frontonasal forming a broad suture with the 
frontal, the prsefrontals being small and widely separated ; frontal 
nearly as long as its distance from the nuchals, in contact with the 
two anterior supraoculars ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
latter largest : three supraoculars, first smallest, second largest ; three 
rather large supraciliaries ; three or four pairs of nuchals ; three 
or four labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening minute, 
hardly distinct. Body much elongate. 16 scales round the body ; 
dorsals largest, laterals smallest. Two large praeanals. Limbs short, 
tetradactyle, widely separated when adpressed ; digits long and 
slender. Tail about as long as head and body. Bronzy above, each 
of the dorsal scales on the vertebral line with a black central dot ; 
a black lateral band, edged below with a narrow white line, begin- 
ning from the nostril and passing through the eye. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 89 Eore limb 6-5 

Head 7 Hind limb 12 

Width of head 4 Tail 40 

Body 36 

West Australia. 

a-c. Ad. W. Australia. Mr. Gilbert [C.]. (Types.) 

d. Hgr. Champion Bay, N.W. Australia. Mr. Duboulay [C.]. 

2a2 



356 8Ci>'ciDji. 

15. Ablepharus inuelleri. 

Phaneropis muelleri, Fischer, Arch. f. Nat. 1881, p. 236, pi. xii. 
figs. 13-15. 

Apparently very closely allied to the preceding, but differing in 
the following points : — A single supraciliary, nearly as large as 
and situated between the first and third supraoculars. 20 scales 
round the body. Limbs tridactyle. Metallic green above, with a 
dark band on each side, commencing from the nostril and passing 
through the eye. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 85 Hind limb 10 

Fore limb 5 Tail 45 



West Australia. 



16. Ablepharus lineatus. 



Lerista lineata, Gray, Cat. p. 66. 
Lerista lineata, Bell, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 9^, and Zool. Journ. 
V. 1835, p. 393, pi. xvi. fig. 2 ; Dum. 8^ Bihr. v. p. 824. 

Snout rather elongate, conical, subcuneit'orm, rostral slightly pro- 
jecting. Eye incompletely surrounded with granules. Rostral 
touching the frontonasal, which forms a broad suture with the fron- 
tal ; praefrontals small and widely separated ; frontal nearly as long 
as its distance from the nuchals, in contact with the two anterior 
supraoculars ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct ; three supra- 
oculars, second largest ; three supraciliaries, first largest ; three 
pairs of nuchals; three labials anterior to the subocular. Ear- 
opening scarcely distinguishable. Body much elongate. 16 scales 
round the body ; dorsals largest. Two large prasanals. Limbs very 
short, anterior didactyle, posterior tridactyle. Silvery ; a dark 
brown streak along each of the vertebral series of scales, and a 
broader lateral banu of the same colour extending to the nostril and 
passing through the eye. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 98 Fore limb 5 

Head 7 Hind limb 11 

Width of head .... 4 Tail (reproduced) . . 45 

Body 46 

Western Australia. 

a. Ad. Swan River. 



10. RISTELLA. 

Ristella, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1839, p. 86, and Cat. Liz. p. 85 ; 
Stoliczka, Jotirii. As. Soc. Beny. xli. 1872, p. 129. 

Palatine and pterygoid bones in contact on the median line of 
the palate, which is toothless ; palatine notch small, far behind. 



10. EISTELLA. 357 

corresponding to the posterior notch of the tongue. Teeth conical. 
Eyelids well developed, scaly. Ear-opcniiig distinct. Nostril pierced 
in a single nasal : no supranasals ; prat'routals small or coalesced ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct. Limbs well developed, 
anterior with four, posterior with five digits ; claws completely 
retractile in a large compressed sheath formed of one large scale cleft 
interiorly. 
India. 

iSi/noj^sis of the Species. 

I. A pair of small praefrontals ; frontonasal forming a suture with 

the frontal. 

Ear-opening much larger than the nostril ; 

dorsal scales feebly bi- or tricarinate. 1. rurTcii, p. 357. 
Ear-opening not, or but slightly, larger 

than the nostril ; dorsal scales sharply 

bicarinate 2. travancorica, p. 358. 

II. Two azygos shields between the rostral and the frontal. 

22 or 24 scales round the middle of the 

body : adpressed limbs not meeting . . 3. guentheri, p. 358. 
26 scales round the body ; adpressed limbs 

meeting or overlapping 4. beddomii, p. 359. 

1. Ristella rnrkii. (Plate XXIX. fig. 1.) 

Eistella rurkii, Gray, Cat. p. 86. 
Ristella rurkii, Gray, Ann. N. II. ii. p. 333 ; Giinth. Proc. Zoul. Sue. 

1875, p. 225. 
Ateuchosaurus travancoricus, part., Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. 

Sc. 1870. 
Eistella travancorica, part., Bedd. op. cit. 1871. 
travancorica, Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 129, 

pi. iv. fig. 5 ; Theoh. Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 54. 

Head small : snout short, obtuse. Ear-opening much larger than 
the nostril. Frontonasal broader than long, widely separating the 
nasals ; praefrontals present, widely separated ; frontal shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together ; five supraoculars, three 
anterior in contact with the frontal ; ten supraciliaries ; parietals 
forming a sutiire behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; third, fourth, 
and fifth upper labials below the eye, from which they are separated 
by a series of small scales. 26 scales round the middle of the body ; 
laterals a little smaller than dorsals and ventrals, dorsals and laterals 
feebly bi- or tricarinate. Prseanal scales not or scarcely enlarged. 
Limbs short, widely separated when adpressed ; third and fourth 
toes equal. Tail cylindrical, once and a half to once and two thirds 
the length of head and body. Back reddish brown ; each dorsal 
scale with a small blackish spot or shaft, sometimes confluent and 
forming six longitudinal lines : sides blackish brown, dotted with 
whitish ; lower surfaces whitish, throat and tail usually brown - 
spotted. 



358 sciNCiD^. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 112 Fore limb 10 

Head 10 Hind limb 13 

Width of head Tail 70 

Body 32 

Anam allays. 

a-e. Ad. & hgr. Toracada valley. Col. Beddome [C.]. (Types 

of H. travancoiica.) 

2. Ristella travancorica. (Plate XXIX. fig. 2.) 

Ateuchosaiu'iis travancoricus, part., Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. 

8c. 1870. 
Eistella travancorica, part., Beddome, op. cit. 1871. 

Ear-opening not or but slightly larger than the nostril ; third to 
sixth upper labials below the eye. Dorsal scales sharply bicarinate, 
24, rarely 26, scales round the middle of the body. Otherwise as 
in R. rurhii. Reddish brown above, each dorsal scale usually with 
a dark brown dot ; usually a rather indistinct darker lateral band ; 
lower surfaces uniform whitish. 

millim. millira. 

Total length 04 Fore limb 9 

Head 9 Hind limb 11 

Width of head 6 Tail 57 

Body 28 

Western Ghats, Travancore. 

a. Many spec: ad.' W. fihats. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

& yg- ^ ' (Types.) 

3. Ristella gnentheri. (Plate XXIX. fig. 3.) 

Ear-opening little larger than the nostril ; a single azygos prse- 
frontal, nearly as large as the frontonasal ; third to sixth upper 
labials below the eye. Dorsal scales sharply bicarinate. 22 or 24 
scales round the middle of the body, lleddish brown above, with 
dark brown lines along the scries of scales, or with minute yellowish 
dots ; sides dark brown, dotted with yellowish, or with a dark brown 
longitudinal band; young with three light, dark-edged dorsal 
streaks ; lower surfaces uniform whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 98 Fore limb 9 

Head 9 Hind limb 11 

Width of head .... G Tail 59 

Body 30 

South-western India. 

a, h. Several spec. : Madura, Sirimallay Hills. Col. Beddome [C], 
ad., hgr., & yg. 



10. RI8TELLA. 11. TROPIDOPHOKUS. 359 

■i. Ristella beddomii. (Plate XXIX. fig. 4.) 

Ear-opening larger than the nostril : a single azygos prsefrontal, 
noarl}- as large as the frontonasal : fourth to sixth upper labials 
below the eye. Body much shorter than in the other species of the 
genus, the adpresscd limbs meeting or slightly overlapping. Dorsal 
scales sharply bicariuate. 26 scales round the middle of the l)ody. 
Reddish brown above, with or without two or three lighter dorsal 
streaks ; sides with scattered minute whitish dots ; usually a black 
blotch with a few white dots above the axilla : lower surfaces uni- 
form whitish. 

millini. millim. 

Total length bO Fore limb 8 

Head 8 Hind limb 10 

Width of head 5-5 Tail 48 

Body 24 

South-western India. 

a. Many spec. Col. Beddome [C.]. 

11. TROPIDOPHORUS. 

Leposoma (mom Sjnx), Cuvier, R. A. 2nd ed. ii. p. 38. 
Tropidophorus, Dum. i^- Bibr. v. p. 554 ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 101 ; 

Giinth. Rept. Brif. Ind. p. 70. 
Norbea, Grai/, Oaf. p. 101. 

Aspris, Blyth, Jouiti. As. Soc. Beny. xxii. 1853, p. 650, 
AmpMxestus, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 573. 
Enoplosaurus, Sauvage, Bull. Soc. Philoin. (7) iii. 1879, p. 211. 

Palatine and pterygoid bones in contact on the middle line of the 
palate, which is toothless. Teeth conical. Eyelids well developed, 
scaly. Tympanum distinct, superficial. Nostril pierced in a single 
nasal ; no supranasals ; prsefrontals well developed ; frontoparietal 
present, single or double ; interparietal distinct. Limbs well deve- 
loped, pentadactyle ; digits cylindrical, with transverse lameUse 
interiorly. 

Southern China, Indochina, Philippine Islands, Borneo. 

This genus forms the passage between Lygosoma (section Hinulia) 
and Tribolonotus. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. A single frontoparietal plate. 

Scales smooth 1. leucospilus, p. 300. 

II. Two frontoparietals. 

A. A single large proeanal. 

Scales all smooth 2. beccarii, p. 360. 

Dorsal scales strongly keeled 3. brooJcii, p. 361. 



360 sciirciDiE. 

B. Two or three large prteanals. 

1. Upper head-shields smooth. 

Dorsal scales keeled 4. berdmorii, p. 362. 

Scales all smooth 5. yunnanensis, p. 362. 

2. Upper head-shields rugose or striated. 
Dorsal scales keeled, not mucronate, ven- 

trals smooth ... 6. sinicus, p. 362. 

Dorsal scales strongly keeled, ending in 

a point ; subdigital lamella3 smooth . . 7. cocMiicMnensis, p. 363. 

Dorsal scales strongly keeled, spinose, 
ventrals usuall}' keeled ; subdigital la- 
mellae keeled 8. grayi, p. 364. 

1. Tropidophorus leucospilus. 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) leucospilos, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1872, p. 684. 

Head-shields perfectly smooth ; a single frontonasal, much broader 
than long ; prtefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal little 
longer than the frontoparietal, which is single ; four supraoculars, 
first longest ; eleven supraciliaries ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interpfirietal ; fourth to sixth upper labials below the 
orbit, from which they are separated by a series of scales ; an azygos 
postmental. Tympanum smaller than the eye-opening. Scales all 
perfectly smooth, dorsals largest, 30 round the middle of the body. 
A pair of enlarged praeanals. The hind limb reaches the wrist. Sub- 
digital lamellag smooth. Tail a little longer than head and body, 
compressed. Brown above, variegated with darker, and with bluish- 
white spots arranged in longitudinal and transverse series ; base of 
arm, axilla, and lower surfaces uniform yellowish. 

millim. millini. 

Total length 118 Fore limb 15 

Head 12 Hind limb 21 

Width of head 8 Tail 63 

Body 43 

Philippines. 

^. Ad. Luzon. Dr. A. B. Meyer [C.]. 

2. Tropidophoms heccarii. 

Amphixestus beccarii, Peters, 3Ion. Berl. Ac. 1871, p. 574, and Ann. 
3Ius. Genova, iii. 1872, p. 33, pi. iv. fig. 3. 

Upper head-shields smooth ; a single frontonasal, a little broader 
than long ; prsefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal as long as 
or a little longer than frontoparietals and interj^arictal together ; 
five supraoculars, first longest, fifth very small ; six or seven supra- 
ciliaries anterior to the fourth supraocular, which borders the eye ; 
frontoparietals shorter than the interparietal, behind which the 



H. TROPIDOPnORTJS. 361 

parietals form a suture : fifth and sixrh ui)per labials largest and 
entering the orbit ; a very large azygos postmeutal. Tympanum 
smaller than the eye-opening. 30 scales round the middle of the 
body, all smooth ; ventrals largest. A single large plate covers the 
prosanal region. The hind limb reaches the wrist or a little beyond. 
Subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail slightly compressed, once and two 
fifths the length of head and body ; scales smooth, llufous-brown 
above, with darker transverse bands or large alternating spots on 
the back, the paler ground-colour sometimes appearing as a series 
of rhombs along the back ; sides with whitish spots ; lower surfaces 
yellowish. 





millim. 




millim. 


Total length 


.. 186 


Fore limb . . . 


22 


Head 


.. 17 


Hind limb . . . . 


.... 33 


Width of head . . 


.. 11 


Tail 


.... 106 


Body 


.. 63 







Borneo. 
a-b. Ad. Matang. 

3, Tropidophorus brookii. (Plate XXX. fig, 1.) 

Xorbea brookei, Grat/, Cat. p. 102. 

Upper head-sliields feebly rugose ; a single frontonasal, nearly as 
broad as long ; praefrontals forming a median suture (separated, 
probably abnormally, in the type specimen) ; frontal as long as 
frontoparietals and interparietal together ; five supraoculars, first 
longest, fifth very small ; supraciliaries becoming very minute and 
indistinct posteriorly, altogether about fourteen ; frontoparietals 
shorter than the interparietal ; parietals in contact behind the in- 
terparietal ; fifth and sixth upper labials largest and entering the 
orbit ; an azygos postmental. Tympanum smaller than the eye- 
opening. 32 scales round the middle of the body: dorsals and 
laterals equal, strongly keeled, with rounded posterior border, the 
keels forming continuous straight lines (eight in number) on the 
back, and oblique ones on the sides; ventrals largest and smooth. 
A single large plate covers the praeanal region. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow or the axilla. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail 
strongly compressed, nearly twice as long as the body, inferiorly 
with a series of large transverse scales ; upper caudal scales keeled, 
like the dorsals. Brown above, with darker and lighter spots ; sides 
dotted with blackish and white ; lower surfaces whitish, the tail 
dark brown. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 243 Fore Kmb 28 

Head 20 Hind limb 44 

Width of head 13 Tail 155 

Body 68 

Borneo. 

a. Hgr. Borneo. Sir E. Belcher [P.]. (Type.) 

b. Ad. Sarawak. 



362 sciNCiD^. 

4. Tropidophorns l)erdmorii. 

Aspris berdmoroi, Bli/fh, Journ, A^. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1853, p. 651, 
Tropidophorns berdniorei, Theob. Journ. Linn. Soc. x. 18(58, p. 24, 
and Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 48. 

Upper head-shields smooth ; a single frontonasal, longer than 
broad ; procfrontals forming a short median suture, or their inner 
angles meeting ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and interparietal 
together ; four supraoculars, first longest : six or seven supracUiaries, 
anterior to the fourth supraocular, which borders the eye ; fronto- 
parietals shorter than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; fourth upper labial largest and entering 
the orbit : an azygos postmental. Tympanum nearly as large as 
the eye-opening. 38 to 40 scales round the middle of the body ; 
laterals smallest, dorsals and laterals keeled, not mucronate, ventrals 
smooth. A pair of large proeanals. The hind limb reaches the 
wrist. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail compressed, a little longer 
than head and body, scaled like the body. Brown above, back and tail 
with yellowish, dark-edged irregular cross bars or alternating spots ; 
sides with a series of more or less distinct whitish, black-edged 
round spots : lips dark brown, with whitish spots or vertical lines ; 
belly yellowish, lower surface of tail, and often also the throat, 
variegated with dark brown. 





milliiu. 


raillim. 


Total length . . . 


. . . 175 

... 19 


Fore limb 20 


Head 


Hind limb 29 


Width of head . 


. .. 12 


Tail 88 


Body 


... 68 




Pegu, Tenasserim. 






a-d. Ad. & hgr. 


Pegu. 


W. Theobald, Esq. [C] 


e. Ad. 


Tenasserim. 


Col. Eeddome [C.J. 



5. Tropidophorns yunnanensis. 

Tropidophorns bevdmorei {7ion Blyth), Anders. Zool, Res. Yunnan, 
p. 7U(3, pi. Ixxvi. tig. 3. 

Differs from the preceding in having all the scales perfectly 
smooth and in 34 longitudinal rows. 
Hotha valley, Yunnan. 

6. Tropidophorus sinicus. 

Tropidophorns sinicns, Boettyer, Zool. Anz. 1886, p. 519. 

Upper head-shields striated ; frontonasal divided, longer than 
broad ; a small azygos shield separating the proefrontals (probably 
not constant) ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and interparietal 
together ; four supraoculars, first and fom-th longest ; seven supra- 
ciliaries ; frontoparietals slightly shorter than interparietal ; fourth 
upper labial largest and entering the orbit : postmental divided. 



11. TROPIDOPnORTJS. M()3 

Tympanum nearly as large as the eye-opening, 29 scales round 
the middle of the body ; laterals and median dorsal scries smallest ; 
dorsals and laterals rhoiuhoidal, strongly keeled, not mucronate ; 
ventrals smooth. A pair of largo pra^auals. The hind limb reaches 
the wrist. Subdigital laraelhc smooth. Tail compressed, a little 
longer than head and body : upper caudal scales similar to the 
dorsals, not spinose. Brown above, with large transverse yellowish 
spots ; a series of small yellowish dark-edged round spots along 
each side ; a yellowish spot on the forehead ; lips dark brown, with 
yellowish vertical lines ; lower surfaces yellowish, throat marbled 
with brown : tail brown with 3-ellowish spots. 

millim. milliiii. 

Total length 116 Fore limb 15 

Head 12 Hind limb 22 

Width of head 7 Tail 02 

Body 42 

Southern China. 
a. Ad. Hongkong ? Sir .1. Bowi-ing [P.]. 

7. Tropidophorus cochincMnensis. 

Tropidophorus cociiicinensis, Dian. ^- Bibr. v. p. -550, pi. Ivii. fig. 1 ; 

Giinth. Proc. Zuol. Soc. 18(31, p. IS'J, and liapt. Brit. Ind. p. 77. 
microlepis, Giinth. II. cc. pp. 188, 7G, pl. x. fig. a. 

Upper head-shields striated; a single frontonasal, longer than 
broad ; prsefroutals forming a median suture ; frontal as long as 
frontoparietals and interparietal together ; four supraoculars, first 
longest ; six supraciliarics anterior to the fourth supraocular, which 
borders the eye ; frontoparietals shorter than the interparietal ; 
fifth upper labial largest and entering the orbit; an azygos postmen tal. 
Tympanum nearly as large as the eye-opening. 30 scales round the 
middle of the body, laterals smallest ; dorsals and laterals rhomboidal. 
strongly keeled, ending in a sharp projecting point ; ventrals 
smooth, gulars feebly keeled. Three (or two) large prajanals. The 
adprcssed hind limb reaches the elbow, Subdigital lamelUc smooth. 
Tail compressed, a little longer than head and body ; all the caudal 
scales, except the median lower series, strongly keeled, spinose, the 
keels of the three upper series strongest, forming continuous serrated 
ridges. Brown above, with lighter dark-edged transverse spots ; 
small light spots on the sides ; lips brown, with whitish spots ; 
lower surfaces whitish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 158 Fore limb 20 

Head 17 Hind limb 28 

Width of head ... . 11 Tail (reproduced) . . 72 

Body 09 

Cochiuchina, Siam. 
a. Ad. Camboja. M. Mouhot [C.]. (Type of T. viicrokpis.) 



3G4 SClNCIDiE. 

8. Tropidopliorus grayi. (Plate XXX. fig. 2.) 

Tropidophorus cocincinensis {non D. 4" -B.), Gray, Cat. p. 101. 
Tropidopliorus grayi, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 189. 
Enoplosaurus insignis, Sauvage, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) iii. 1879, p. 211. 

Head-shields very strongly striated ; frontonasal divided, longer 
than broad ; an azygos shield between the frontonasals and the 
pra^frontals ; frontal as long as or a little shorter than frontoparietals 
and interparietal together : four supraoculars, first longest ; five or 
six supraciliaries anterior to the fourth supraocular, which borders 
the eye ; frontoparietals much shorter than interparietal ; fifth 
upper labial largest and entering the orbit ; postmental sometimes 
divided. Tympanum as large as the eye-opening. 24 to 28 scales 
round the middle of the body : dorsals (six longitudinal series) 
largest, rhomboidal, very strongly keeled, ending in a sharp point ; 
laterals much smaller, strongly keeled, the keels directed obliquely 
upwards ; ventrals a little larger than laterals, and much smaller 
than dorsals, usually distinctly keeled ; gular scales constantly 
keeled. Three large praeanals. The hind limb reaches the elbow 
or the axilla. Subdigital lamellae keeled. Tail compressed, a little 
longer than head and body, all the scales keeled ; keels on the four 
upper rows still stronger than on the dorsal scales, spinose, forming 
strongly serrated ridges. Brown above, with more or less distinct 
lighter and darker transverse bands or spots ; lower surfaces pale 
brownish, throat sometimes brown. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 182 Fore limb 2S 

Head 21 Hind limb 37 

Width of head 14 Tail 100 

Body 61 

Philippines. 

a-c. Ad. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Types.) 

d, e-f. Ad. & vg. Philippines. 

g. Ad. " Luzon. Dr. A. B. Meyer [C.]. 



12. TRIBOLONOTUS. 

Tribolonotus, Dum. S,- Bibr. \. p. 364 ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. lOl, 

Palatine bones in contact on the middle line of the palate, which 
is toothless. Teeth conical. Eyelids well developed, scaly. 
Tympanum distinct, superficial. Head a bony casque, well separated 
from the neck ; nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasals ; 
no prsefrontals; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct. ISTeck 
and body above and on the sides granular, above with transverse 
rows of large orseous bucklers ; lower surfaces with imbricate 
keeled scales. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; digits cylindrical, 
with transverse lameDse inferiorly. 

New Guinea. 



12. TKIIIOLONOTTJS. 13. EUMKCKS. 3G5 

1. Tribolonotus novaB-giiineae. 

Tribolonotus iiov;ie puinero, Gray, Cat. p. 101. 
Zominis novte guiiieae, Schlec/. TIjdschr. Nat. Gesch. Phys. i. 1834, 

p. 218. 
Tribonotus uovjB-guiQeoe, Dum. 4' Bihr. v. p. 300, pi. Ivi. 

Posterior border of head straight, armed with six points ; head- 
shields strongly striated ; four supraoculars ; two pairs of parictals, 
posterior largest and forming a median suture behind the inter- 
parietal; first upper labial very small, second very large, third and 
fourth entering the orbit ; a large azygos postmental. Tympanum 
as large as the eye-opening. The largo bony dorsal shields form 
eleven transverse series to sacrum inclusively, each composed of 
four shields, those of the outer scries forming a very strong, curved 
spine ; the space between the bony shields occupied by small, soft, 
keeled granules ; sides granular, with scattered small trihedral 
tubercles ; gular and ventral scales imbricate, keeled. A pair of 
large shields cover the pra)anal region. The hind limb reaches 
nearly the axilla. Fore Umb covered with large, imbricate, strongly 
keeled scales, hind limb with spinose tubercles. Subdigital lamellae 
smooth. Tail a little compressed, as long as head and body ; above 
with large bony tubercles alternating with cross rows of 'small 
keeled scales ; inferiorly with cross rows of subequal, strongly keeled 
scales. Brown, lighter inferiorly. 

millira. millira. 

Total length 156 Fore limb 27 

Head 24 Hind limb 33 

Width of head .... 17 Tail 76 

Body 56 

New Guinea. 

a. Ad. New Guinea. Leyden Museum. (One of 

the types.) 

13. EUMECES*. 

Mabuya, part., Fitzing. N. Classif. Rept. p. 23. 

Euprepis, part., Wugler, Syst. Amph. p. 161. 

Eumeces, part., Wiegm. Herp. Mex. p. 36. 

Eumeces, Wiegm. Arch. f. A«^. 1835, ii. p. 288 ; Peters, Mon. Berl. 

Ac. 1864, p. 48 ; Stolvzka,Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. 1872, p. 121 ; 

Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 418. 
Plestiodon, Dum. ^- Bibr. v. p. 097 ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 90. 
Lamprosaurus, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1852, p. 200. 
Eurylepis, Blgth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. 1854, p. 739. 
Mabouia, Gunth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 82. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate ; 

* Plestiodon multivirgatum, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 251. Eumeces 
raultivirgatus. Cope, Check-list N. Am. Kept. p. 45. — Kansas. 

Plestiodon inornatus, Baird, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1858, p. 256. Eumeces inor- 
natus, Cope, L. c. — Platte-river valley. 



366 sciNCiD^. 

pterygoids toothed. Lateral teeth conical or with spheroid crowns. 
Eyelids well developed, scaly. Tympanum distinct, deeply sunk. 
Nostril pierced in the nasal ; supranasals present ; pnefrontals, 
frontoparietals, and interparietal distinct. Limbs well developed, 
pentadactylo : digits subcylindrical or compressed, with transverse 
lamella) inferiorly, not serrated laterally. 

North and Central America ; Eastern and South-western Asia ; 
North Africa. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Longitudinal series of dorsal scales in even number ; first upper 
labial forming a suture with the nasal and the postnasal or the 
anterior loreal. 

A. 28 or more scales round the middle of the body ; the length 

of the hind limb not more than twice and a half in the distance 
from snout to vent. 

A postnasal ; 36 to 42 scales round the 

body 1. hngirostris, p. 368. 

No postnasal ; 32 scales round the body ; 

snout elongate and pointed 2. guttulatus, p. 369, 

A postnasal ; 28 to 32 scales round 

the body 3. quinquelineatus, p. 369, 

No postnasal ; 28 scales round the 

body 4. sumicJirasti, p. 371. 

B. 28 scales round the middle of the body ; the length of the 

hind limb more than twice and a half in the distance from 
snout to vent. 

1. A median series of transversely 

enlarged subcaudals 10. obsoletas, p. 374. 

2. Subcaudal scales not enlarged. 

No postnasal ; supranasal in contact 

with the proefrontal 11, septentrionalis, p. 374, 

No postnasal ; anterior loreal forming 

a suture with the frontonasal 13, tetnujrammus, p. 375. 

A postnasal ; anterior loreal forming 

a suture with the frontonasal 20. culliccphahis, p. 378, 

C. 26 or less scales round the middle of the body. 
1. A postnasal. 

a. Limbs overlapping when pressed against the body. 
a. A single postmental. 

Hind limb more than twice in the length 
from snout to vent : 24 or 26 scales 
round the body 5. marginatus^ p. 371. 



13. EUMECES. 3G7 

Hind limb not twice in the length from 
snout to vent ; 24 scales round the 
body !'. /ndlotvcilii, p. 373. 

/3. Two azygos postmcntals. 

24 scales round the body : no auricular 

lobules 7. c((jiiio, p. 372. 

24 or 2G scales round the body ; two or 

three small lobules on the anterior 

border of the ear . . 8. sJciltoniamis, p. 373. 

20 or 22 scales round the body 25. qiiadrilineatus, p. 381. 

b. Limbs not overlapping when pressed against the body. 

26 scales round the body 18. humilis, p. 377. 

24 scales round the body 19, Jeptoyraiamus, p. 378. 

2. No postnasal. 

a. Two azygos postmcntals. 

24 or 26 scales round the body : four 

supraoculars 12. chineiisis, p. 375. 

22 scales round the body ; thi'ee supra- 
oculars 24. onocrepis, p. 380. 

h. A single postmental : hind limb not more than twice 
and a half in the distance from snout to vent. 

a. Limbs overlapping when pressed against the body. 

26 scales round the body ; young with 
five light longitudinal lines, the 
median bifurcating on the head .... 6. elegans, p. 371. 

26 scales round the body ; lower sur- 
faces malachite -green 14. pluviaUs, p. 376. 

24 scales round the body ; lower sur- 
faces yellowish ; no light vertebral 
line 15. anthracinus, p. 376. 

/3. Limbs just meeting when pressed against the body. 

26 scales round the body 16. hrevilhieatus, p. 376. 

c. A single postmental : hind limb at least twice and two 
thirds in the distance from snout to vent. 

a. First supraocular forming a sutui-e with the frontal. 

26 scales round the body 17. pachyuru^, p. 377. 

24 scales round the body ; seventh upper 

labial not larger than sixth 21. hellii, p. 378. 

22 or 24 scales round the body ; seventh 

upper labial much larger than sixth. 22,. brevirostris, p. 379. 



368 sciNCiD^. 

ji. First supraocular very small and not in contact witli 
the frontal, sometimes fused with the anterior supra- 
ciliary. 

22 or 24 scales round the body 23, lynxe, p. 380. 

II. A median scries of transversely enlarged dorsal scales. 

21 scales round the body ; a single 

postmental ; nostril pierced above 

the suture between the rostral and 

the first labial 26. schwartzii, p. 382. 

21 or 23 scales round the body ; two 

azygos postmentals ; nostril pierced 

above the first labial 27. scutatus, p. 382. 

17 or 19 scales round the body ; a single 

postmental ; nostril pierced above the 

suture between the rostral and the 

first labial 28. tceniolatus, p. 383. 

III. Longitudinal series of dorsal scales in even number ; the 
upper border of the first upper labial in contact with the 
nasal only. 

24 to 28 scales round the body; two 

azj'gos postmentals 29. schneideri, p. 383. 

30 or 32 scales round the body ; two 

azygos postmentals 30. algeriensis, p. 384. 

30 scales round the body ; a single 

postmental 31. hhjthianus, p. 385. 

1. Eumeces longirostris. 

Plestiodon longirostris, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 18G1, p. 313. 
Eumeces longirostris, Cope, Check-list N, Am. Mept. p. 45 ; Garman, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 25, 1884, p. 287. 

Snout rather elongate, obtuse ; cheeks swollen in the adult. 
Nasal small, followed by a small postnasal, which forms a suture 
with the first labial ; anterior loreal forming a suture with the 
frontonasal ; four supraoculars, the three anterior in contact with 
the frontal ; posterior border of the interparietal in contact with 
the nuchals, of which there aie one or two pairs : eighth upper labial 
the largest ; ear-opening much larger than a dorsal scale, with two 
or three slightly prominent granules anteriorly ; a single azygos 
postmental. 36 (to 42) scales round the body, the laterals smallest. 
The length of the hind limb is contained about twice in the distance 
from snout to vent ; when pressed against the body, the limbs 
largely overlap. A median series of transversely enlarged sub- 
caudals. Young pale brown on the back, blackish on the sides ; two 
white lateral streaks, the upper commencing on the supraciliary 
border ; a white, black-edged line on each side of the upper surface 



13. KUMECE3. 36y 

of the head, from the frontonasal tothe frontoparietal. Adult more 
uniform, with the head sometimes reddish. Lowor surfaces greyish 
blue, with the excejitiou of the throat and pra^anal border, which 
are yellowiph. 



Totalleni^th . 

Head 

Width of head 
Body 



Uiiii. 


millim. 


7.> Fore limb 


. 23 


17 Hind limb 


. 35 


13 Tail 


. 97 


59 




Bermuda. II.M.S. ' 


Challeng 



Bermuda. 
a-d. Ad., hgr., & yg. 



2. Eumeces gattulatus. 

Lamprosaurus gattulatus, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1852, p. 200, 

and in Sityreave^s Expcd. Ziuii Sf Color. lilo. p. 103, pi. iv. 
Plestiodon gattulatus. Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 215. 
Eumeces guttulatus. Cope, Check-list N. Am. Rept. p. 45. 

Head elongate, conical, and pointed; no postnasal; anterior 
loreal in contact with the frontonasal. 32 scales round the body. 
The length of the hind limb is contained twice and one third in the 
distance from snout to vent. Black above ; a series of white spots 
along the upper and lower jaw, also upon the external border of the 
supraocular plates ; lower surfaces iron-grey. 

From snout to vent 35 millim., tail 30. 

Kansas, New Mexico, Western Texas. 



3. Eumeces quinquelineatus. 

Plestiodon laticeps. Gray, Cat. p. 90. 

quinquelineatum, Gray, I. c. p. 91. 

Lacerta quinquelineata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 3G(). 

fasciata, Linn. I. c. p. 369. 

tristata, Latr. Rept. i. p. 248, fig. 

Scincus laliceps, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 189; Daud. Rept. iv. 

p. 301. 
quinquelineatus, Schneid. I. c. p. 201 ; Daud. I. c. p. 272, pi. Iv. 

fig. 1 ; Kuhl, Beitr. z. Zool. u. Verql. Anat. p. 128 ; Harl. Journ. Ac. 

Philad. vi. 1829, p. 10, aiid Ph'ys. Med. Res. p. 138 ; Holbr. N. 

Am. Herp. ii. p. 121, pi. xvii. 

tristatus, Daud. I. e. p. 296. 

erythrocephalus, Gilliams, Journ. Ac. Philad. i. 1818, p. 461, 

pi. xviii. fig. 2 ; Harl. Journ, Ac. Philad. vi. p. 11, and Phys. Med. 

Res. p. 139; Holbr. I. c. p. 101, pi. xxii. 
bicolor, Harl. Journ. Ac. I'hilad. iv. 1824, p. 286, pi, xviii. 

fig. 1, and Phys. Med. Res. p. 139. 

americanus, Harl. Phys. Med. Res. p. 1.39. 

Tiliqua quiuquelineata, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix. Syn. p. 69. 

bicolor, Gray, I. c. 

VOL. in. 2 b 






370 sciNciD^. 

Plestiodon laticeps, Dum. c^ Bibr. v. p. 705 ; Ilulhr. I. c. 2nd ed. 

p. 121, pi. xvii. 

quiiiquelineatum, part., Dum. 1^ Bibr. p. 707. 

Scincus fusciatiis, Holbr. I. c. 2nd ed. p. 127, pi. xviii. ; De Kay, 

N. York Faun. iii. p. 20, pi. viii. fi{^. 17. 
Plestiodon quinquelinuatuui, Gruvenh. N. Act. Ac. Leop.-Carol. xxiii. 

1851, i. p. y.50, pi. XXXV. 

vittiprerum, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 18.56, p. 310. 

Eumeces fasciatus, Co}ye, Check-list N. Am. Rept. p. 45. 

laticeps, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 424, pi. xxii. d. 

quinquelineatus, Bocourt, I. c. p. 426, pi. xxii. e. %. 10; Smith, 

Geol. Surv. Ohio, Zool. iv. p. 650. 

Snout short, obtuse : cheeks strongly swollen in full-grown speci- 
mens. Nasal small, followed b)- a small postnasal which forms a 
suture with the first labial : anterior loreal forming a suture with 
the frontonasal ; four supraoculars, the three anterior in contact 
with the frontal ; posterior border of the interparietal in contact 
with the nuchals, of which there are one or two pairs ; seventh or 
eighth upper labial the largest ; ear-opening about as large as a 
dorsal scale, with two or three more or less distinct obtuse lobules ; 
two azygos postmen tals. 28 to 32 scales round the body, subequal, 
the laterals but little smaller than the dorsals and ventrals. The 
length of the hind limb is contained twice and one fourth to twice 
and a half in the distance from snout to vent ; when pressed 
against the body, the limbs overlap. A median series of trans- 
versely enlarged subcaudals. Young blackish above, with five 
longitudinal whitish lines, the median bifurcating on the occi- 
put ; tail bluish. In the adult these markings become more indis- 
tinct or entirely disappear, the body turns to brown, and the 
head is often red. Lower surfaces yellowish white, belly sometimes 
greyish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 323 Fore limb 37 

Head 30 Hind limb 50 

Width of head ... 30 Tail 200 

Body 93 

United States east of the Kocky Mountains. 

a. Ad. Georgia. 

b. Ad. New Orleans. 

c. Ad. N. America. Dr. R. Harlan [P.]. 

d. e-h. Ad. & hgr. N. America. E. Doubleday, Esq. [P.]. 
i. Hgr. N. America. R. Stokes, Esq. [P.], 

k. Hgr. N. America. T. Bell, Esq. [P.]. 

U-n. Hgr. & yg- ? Leyden Museum. 

0, p-q. Ad. & hgr. ? 



i;}. ivCMKCEs. :}7i 

4. Eumeces sumichrasti. 

PlestiodDU suiuichrasti, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 18(*)6, p. 321. 
Eumeces smuichr.isti, Bocourt, Miss. So. Me.v., liept. p. 422; Cope, 
Proc. Am. Philoa. Soc. xxii. 188->, p. 170. 

Tbe following appear to be the only characters in which this 
species differs from K. quinqneluuatus: — Xo postnasal; a single 
postraental ; light vertebral line (in the young) bifurcating on the 
frontal, as in E. li/nve, enclosing a dark rhoraboidal spot on the 
forehead. 28 scales round the body ; nuchal shields two pairs. 

Oaxaca and Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

(I. Yg. Jalapa. Mr. Hoege [C,]. 



a. Eumeces marginatus. 

Plestiodon quinquelitu'atuin, part., Oray, C it. p. i)l. 
Scincus quinqueliueatus, part., Schley. Faun. Japan., Rept. p. 99, 

pi. i. figs. 1-4. 
Plestiodon quinqiieliiieatum, part., Dam. i<f Bihr. v. p. 707. 

luargiuatus, IfaUoic. Proc. Ac. PhiJad. 18130, p. 492. 

latiscutatus, Hallow. I. c. p. 490. 

Eumeces quinqueliniiatus, var. japouicus, Peters, 31on. Berl. Ac. 

1864, p. o7. 
(Plestiodon) japouicus, Boetty. Ber. Offcnh. Ver. Natiirk, 

xvii.-xviii. 1879, p. 4. 
japonicus, Bocourt, Miss. Se. Mex., Rept, p. 423. 

Although very similar in proportions, scaling, and coloration to 
E. quinqaelineatuii, the Japanese form may be easily distinguished 
by the following charactei's : — A single postmental ; 24 or 26 scales 
round the middle of the body, those of the two median dorsal series 
usually a little broader than the others. 

Japan ; Loo Choc Islands. 

a-d. Ad. & hgr. Japan. Leyden Museum, 

e. Ad. Japan. Dr. F. Ililgendorf [P-]. 

f-k. Ad. & hgr. Myiauoschita. Dr. J. Anderson [P.]. 

'/. Ad. Nikko. Dr. J. Anderson [P.^ 

m. Ad. Nara. Dr. J. Anderson [P." 



6, Eumeces elegans. 

Plestiodon pulchrum (non Diun. ^- Bibr.), Hallow. Trans. Amer, 

Philos. Soc. (2) xi. 1860, p. 81. 
Mabouia chinensis, part., Giinth. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 83, pi. x. fig. F, 
Eumeces pulchra, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 423. 

Snout short, obtuse. Nasal small ; no postnasal ; anterior 
loreal in contact with the first labial and the frontonasal ; four 
supraoculars, usually the three anterior in contact with the frontal ; 
parietals entirely separated by the interparietal ; a single pair of 
nuchals ; sixth or seventh upper labial the largest ; ear- opening 
nearly as large as a dorsal scale, with two or three more or less 

2b2 



372 8CTJ.'CID.=E. 

indistinct lobules anteriorly ; a single postmental. 2G scales round 
the body, subequal, or the median dorsal series slightly enlarged. 
The limbs, wlien pressed against the body, overlap ; the length of 
the hind limb enters twice and one fourth to twice and a half in 
the length from snout to vent. A median series of transversely 
enlarged subcaudals. Young blackish above, with five longitudinal 
yellowish lines, the median bifurcating on the occiput; tail blue. 
Adult more uniform, brownish, with a dark, sometimes red^ lateral 
band ; the head reddish. Lower surfaces yellowish white. 

Diillim. raillim. 

Total length 20G Fore limb 25 

Head IS Hind limb 33 

AVidth of head 15 Tail 130 

Body 58 

China. 

a, h. Ad. & yg. Shanghai. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.l, 

c-f. Ad., hgr., & yg. Snowy valley, Ningpo. J. II. Leech, Esq. [P.]. 

g-k. Ad. & hgr. Ningpo. 

L-m. Hgr. Formosa. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.]. 

n-q. Ad. k. yg. Pescadore Islands. R. Swinhoe, Esq. [C.]. 

r. Ad. Kiukiang Mountains. Mr. C. Maiies [C]. 

s-t. Yg. China. 



7. Eumeces capito. 

Eumeces capito, Bocowf, Miss. Sc. 3/e.v., liept. p. 420, pi. xxii. d. 
fig. 8. 

Snout short, obtuse ; cheeks swollen. Kasal small, followed by 
a small postnasal, "which forms a suture with the first labial ; 
anterior loreal forming a suture with the frontonasal, which is 
largely in contact with the frontal ; four supraoculars, the two 
anterior in contact with the frontal ; ])arietals meeting on a small 
point behind the interparietal, followed by two pairs of nuchals ; 
seventh upper labial the largest ; no projecting auricular lobules ; 
two azygos postmeutals. 24 scales round the body, subequal. The 
length of the hind limb is contained about twice and two fifths in 
the distance from snout to vent. A median series of transversely 
enlarged subcaudals. Greenish grey above, the dorsal scales finely 
edged with black ; head reddish yellow ; a rather narrow black 
lateral band, edged with lighter; lower surfaces yellowish white, 
the belly tinged with bluish. 

millini. millim. 

From snout to vent . . 69 Fore limb 21 

Head 17 Hind limb 29 

Width of hoad 13 

Eastern coast of the United States, 



13. EL'MECKa. 373 



8. Eumeces skiltonianus. 

Plestiodon skiltouiamuu, /Jaird v.V (rir. Proc. Ac. Philad. 18o2, p. GO, 
and in Stantsh. L'.cued. Or. .Salt Lulce, p. J349, pi. iv. ligs. 4-tj, ami 
Hep. U S. Explur. Sarv. JR. E. x. pt. iv. iSoU, p. 18. 

Eumeces, sp., Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1854, p. !Jo. 

quadrilineatus, Hallow, liep. U. S. Explur. Surv. R. It. x. pt. iv. 

p. 10, pi. i\. tig. o. 

skiltouiiiuus, Cope, Check-list X. Am. Rept. p. 4o ; Bncourt, 

Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 43'i, p xxii. a. tig. 3, aud pi. xxii. k. 
fig. 3. 

Snout short, obtuse. Nasal small, followed by a postnasal, 
which forms a suture with the first labial ; anterior loreal forming 
a suture with the frontonasal ; four supraoculars, the two or three 
anterior in contact with the frontal ; parietals entirely separated 
by the interparietal ; one or two paii's of nuchals ; seventh or eighth 
upper labial largest ; two or three obtuse lobules on the anterior 
border of the ear, which is smaller than a dorsal scale ; two azygos 
postmentals. 24 or 2G scales round the body, the dorsals much 
broader than the laterals and ventrals. Limbs overlapping (some- 
times very slightly) when pressed against the body ; the length of 
the hind limb is contained twice' and a half to twice aud two thirds 
in the distance from snout to vent. A median series of transversely 
enlarged subcaudaLs. Olive above, with a dark brown lateral band 
extending from the loreal region to the tail ; this band is bordered 
above and below by a light streak, which is again edged with dark 
brown ; throat and lips j'ellowish ; belly bluish grey. 

millim. niillim. 

Total length 148 Fore limb 17 

Head 13 Hind limb 24 

Width of head 10 Tail 87 

Body 48 

Western Xorth America. 

a-h. Hgr. & yg. Vancouver Island. J. K. Lord, Esq. [P.]. 

c-e. Ad. & yg. Monterey, California. 

/. Ad. ' San Diego. Mr. Forrer [C.]. 



9. Eumeces hallowellii. 

Eumeces halloweUii, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 435, pi. xxii. e. 
fig. 9. 

Closely allied to E. sJcihonianus, from whicli it differs in having 
a single undivided postmental. 24 scales routed the body. The 
hind limb measures more than half the length frorp snout to vent. 

California. ] 

/ 



374 SCIKCIDiE. 



10. Eumeces obsoletns, 

Plestiodon obpoletum, Baird ^- Gir. Proc. Ac. PMlad. 1852, p. 129; 

ILdlow. in 8it(jrcavcs Expcd. Zttni and Color. Riv. p. HI ; Baird, 

JJ. S. Me.r. Bound. Stirv., Mept. pi. xxv. figs. 9-16. 
Eumeces obsoletus, Cope, CJieck-list K. Am. Itej)t. p. 45 ; Bocowt, 

Miss. Sc. Mex., Bept. p. 443, pi. xxii. a. fip. 4, and pi. xxii. d. 

fig. 4 ; Cope, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mm. no. 17, 1880, p. 39. 

Snout short , obtuse. Nasal small ; postnasal present or absent ; 
supranasals sometimes in contact with the pra^t'rontals ; five supra- 
oculars, the two or three anterior in contact with the frontal ; 
parietals entirely separated bj- the interparietal ; one or two pairs of 
nuchals ; seventh upper labial largest ; ear-opening nearly as large 
as a dorsal scale, without distinct lobules ; two azygos postmentals. 
28 scales round the body, the laterals smaller than the others. When 
pressed against the body the limbs meet or fail to meet ; the length 
of the hind limb enters thrice to thrice and one third in the length 
from snout to vent. A series of transversely enlarged subcaudals. 
Pale olive above, all or part of the scales edged with dai'k brown, 
Bometimes with rather indistinct longitudinal dark bands ; lower 
surfaces greenish white. 

inilliin. millim. 

Total length 22U Fore limb 27 

Head 22 Hind limb 37 

Width of head 17 Tail 105 

Body 93 

Utah, Colorado, Kansas, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, North 
Mexico. 

a-b. Ad. & bgr. Duval County, Texas. VV. Taylor, Esq. [C.]. 

c. Ad. Kan.-as. 

d. Ad. ? 



11. Eumeces septentrionalis. 

Plestiodo]! septentrionalis, Baird, Froc. Ac. Philad. 1858, p. 256, 
and Pep. U. S. Explor. Surv. Pi. B. x. pt. iv. 1859, p. 18, pi. xxiv. 
fig. 2. 

Eumeces septentrionalis, Cope, CJiecJ,--list K. Am. Bept. p. 44, and 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 17, 1880, p. 39. 

Apparently closely related to E. obsoletus. Supranasals in contact 
with the prsefrontals : no postnasal. The limbs do not meet when 
pressed against the body. Subcaudal scales not enlarged. Olive 
above, with four equidistant and equal dark stripes ; two narrow 
white lines on each side, traversing the centre of single rows of scales, 
and margined above and below by black : ujjper lateral light lines 
separated by six rows of scales ; beneath light greenish. 

Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas. 



13. EUMECES. 375 



12. Eumeces chinensis. 

Plestiodon pulchrum, Gray, Cat. p. 92. 

chinensis, Gray, I. c. 

Tiliqua chinensis, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 1838, p. 289. 
Plestiodon sinense, Dutn. <^- Bihr. v. p. 704. 

pulchriini, Diivi. >.S' Hihr. p. 710. 

Tiliqua rufo-;.nittata, Cmttor, Ann. >.y May. N. II. ix. 1842, p. 482. 
Mabouia chiueiisis, part., Giinth. Ilept. lirit. Ind. p. f-.3. 
Eumeces sinensis, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Ilept, p. 423. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Xasal small ; no postnasal ; 
anterior loreal in contact with the first labial and the frontonasal ; 
four supraoculars, the two anterior iu contact with the frontal ; 
parietals entirely separated by the interparietal ; usually two pairs 
of nuchals : sixth or seventh upper labial the largest; ear-opening 
as large as a dorsal scale, Avith two or three more or less distinct 
obtuse lobules ; two azygos postmentals. Usually 24, sometimes 
26, scales round the body, subequal. The limbs, when pressed 
against the body, overlap iu the young, meet or fail to meet in the 
adult ; the length of the hind limb in the adult enters twice and 
three fifths to thrice and one fourth in the length from snout to 
vent. A median series of transversely enlarged subcaudals. Young 
dark brown above, with three longitudinal light bands on the back, 
the median broadest and not bifurcating anteriorly ; sides with light 
spots. Adult olive above, uniform or with a more or less regular 
lateral dark brown band ; the dorsal scales sometimes edged with 
blackish ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

millim. millirn. 

Total length 210 Fore limb 24 

Head 18 Hind limb 32 

Width of head .... 15 TaU 110 

Body 82 

China. 

A. Michie, Esq. [P.]. 

Dr. Cantor. (Type of 
Tiliqua rufo-guttata.) 

Mr. Fortune [C.]. 
R. Swiuhoft, Esq. [C.]. 
Sir J. Bowring [P.]. 
J. Reeves, Esq. [P.J. 



13. Eumeces tetragrammus. 

Plestiodon tetragraiumus, Buird, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1858, p. 256, and 

U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv., Rept. p. 12. 
Eumeces tetragrammus, Cupe, Chi^ck-list N. Am. Rept. p. 45. 
obtusirostris, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 441, pi. xxii. D. 

fig. 1. 



a. Ad. 






Ningpo. 


b. Ad. 






Ningpo, 


c. Ad. 






Chusan. 


d. Ad. 






Si Kiang. 


e. Ad. 






Canton. 


f,9,h. Ad. 


&hgr. 


Hongkong 


i, k. Ad. 


& 


yg- 


China. 


/. Ad. 






China. 



376 sciiTCin^. 

Snout short, obtuse. Nasal small ; no postnasal ; anterior loreal 
in contact with the first labial and with the frontonasal ; posterior 
border of the interparietal in contact with the nuchals, of which 
there are one or two pairs ; ear-opening with three or four obtuse 
lobules anteriorly : two azygos postmentals. 28 scales round the 
body, subequal. The length of the hind limb is contained about 
thrice and a half in the distance from snout to vent. Subcaudal 
scales not enlarged. Olive above, with two yellowish lines on each 
side, separated by a darker band ; throat and lips yellowish white, 
belly greyish. 

raillim. millim. 

Total length 156 Fore limb 13 

Head 11 Hind limb 19 

Width of head .... 8 Tail 90 

Body 55 

Texas, Northern Mexico. 

14. Eumeces pluvialis. 
Eumeces pluvialis, Co2)e, Bull. U. JS. Nat. Mus. no. 17, 1880, p. 19, 

No postnasal; anterior loreal reaching the frontonasal; five 
supraoculars ; a single postmental. Scales in 'ZQ longitudinal rows. 
The limbs overlap when pressed against the body. Blackish olive 
above, malachite-green below ; two narrow green lateral bands 
separated from each other by a black band ; sometimes a faint 
trace of a pale vertebral line with dark borders. 

Mobile, Alabama. 

15. Eumeces anthracinus. 

Plestiodon anthracinus, Baiicl, Joiirn. Ac. I'hilad. (2) i. 1850, p. 294. 
Eumeces anthracinus, Cope, Check-list N. Am. liept. p. 45. 

No postnasal : anterior loreal reaching the frontonasal ; five 
supraoculars. 24 scales round the body. Ujjper parts dark bronze, 
with four narrow longitudinal yellow lines on the body, and on each 
side a broad band of anthracite-black ; head red in the adidt ; lower 
surfaces yellowish white. 

Total length 140 millim., tail 83. 

Pennsylvania to Texas. 

16. Eumeces brevilineatus. 

Eumeces brevilineatus. Cope, Bull. U. <S'. JS'at. Mas. no. 17, 1880, p. 18. 

No postnasal; anterior loreal reaching frontonasal; a single 
postmental. Scales in 26 longitudinal rows. Hind limb twice and 
a half in the length from snout to vent, meeting the fore limb when 
bo til arc adpressed. Colour plumbeous above, light olive below ; a 
light band extends along the upper lip to a short distance behind 



13. EUMKCKS. 377 

the axilla, and auotlier from the end of the snout over tlie oyc to the 
t'orresixindinii,' point on the side. 

Total length 17'J lulllim., from snout to vent o'J, head 12. 

Texas. 

17. Eumeces pachyurus. 

Euiueces pachyurus, Cope, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 17, 1880, 
pp. 19, 31). 

No postnasal ; anterior loreal re;ichin<^ the frontonasal ; a single 
postmental. Scales in 2G longitudinal rows. Limbs widely sepa- 
rated when adpresscd ; the hind limb a little more than one fourth 
the length of head and body. Tail large and stout. Above light 
brown ; below pale greenish ; anteriorly straw-coloured ; a light 
narrow band from the supraciliary border, continued along the 
body and tail, black-bordered above ; below it a deep brown or 
black band, which is bounded below by another light line ; this is 
in turn bordered by a narrow brown line below, which does not 
extend like the other bands on the tail 

inillirn. niillim. 

Head and body 78 Fore limb 15 

Head 13 Hind limb 19 

Texas. 

18. Eumeces humilis. 

Eumeces bocourtii {non Brocchi), Bouleny. Ami. S,- Mac/. N. H. (5) 
xi. 188-j, p. 342 ; Giinfh. Biol. C.-Am., Kept. p. 32, pi. xxii. 
tig. c. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Nasal small, followed by a 
minute postnasal ; anterior loreal in contact with the second labial 
and the frontonasal ; four supraoculars ; parietals entirely separated 
by the interparietal ; two pairs of nuchals ; sixth and seventh upper 
labials nearly equal in size ; ear-opening much smaller than a dorsal 
scale ; no distinct auricular lobules ; a single postmental. 20 scales 
round the middle of the body, subequal. The length of the hind 
limb is contained twice and three fourths to thrice and one third in 
the length from snout to vent ; the limbs meet, or fail to meet, when 
pressed against the body. No enlarged subcaudal scales. Bronze- 
coloured above, with an ill-defined brown lateral band, which, on 
the head and neck, is bordered above by a rather indistinct yellowish 
line ; lips, throat, and breast yellowish white, belly greenish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 131 Fore limb 17 

Head 12 Hind limb 22 

Width of head 10 Tail (reproduced) . . 58 

Body 61 

Western Mexico. 
a-b. Ad. Presidio. ■ Mr. Forrer [C.]. (Types.) 



378 BCINCID^. 



19. Eumeces leptogrammus. 

Plestiodon leptogrammus, Baird, Proc. Ac. riiilad. 1858, p. 250. 
Eumeces leptogrammus, Cope, Check-list N. Am. liept. p. 45. 
epipleurotus, Cope, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 17, p. 40. 

A small postnasal ; anterior loreal in contact with the fronto- 
nasal. 24 rows of scales. Limbs nearly meeting when apjjlied to 
the side. Above with live pale lines separated by black bands ; the 
median light line not bifurcating. 

From snout to vent 70 millim. 

Judging from Co])e's notes, it appears to me highly probable that 
E. epipleurotus is the adult of E. leptogrammus. 

Northern Texas to Nebraska. 



20. Eumeces callicephalus. 

Eumeces callicephalus, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. 3Iex., Bept. p. 431, 
pis. xxii. D. hg. 2, and xxii. E. fig. 2. 

Snout short, obtuse. Nasal small, followed by a small postnasal 
which forms a suture with the first labial : anterior loreal forming 
a suture with the frontonasal : four supraoculars, the three anterior 
in contact with the frontal ; parietals meeting on a small point be- 
hind the interparietal ; two pairs of uuchals ; sixth and seventh 
upper labials subequal ; ear-opening about as large as a dorsal scale, 
with two very indistinct lobules ; two azygos postmentals. 28 scales 
round the body, equal. Praeanal scales scarcely enlarged. The 
length of the hind limb is contained twice and three fourths in the 
length from snout to vent ; the limbs meet when pressed against 
the body. No enlarged subcaudals. Dark brown above, with five 
longitudinal yellowish lines, the median bifurcating on the occiput, 
the two outer on each side separated by a black band ; the vertebral 
line very indistinct on the back ; throat and breast yellowish 
white, belly greyish blue : tail bluish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 107 Fore limb 10 

Head 9 Hind limb 15 

Width of head 6 Tail 65 

Body 33 

Mexico. 

a. Hgr. Ciudad. Mr. Forrer [C.]. 



21. Eumeces bellii. 
Plestiodon bellii, Graij, Cat. p. 92. 

Head small : snout short, obtuse. Nasal small : anterior loreal 
in contact with the first labial and the frontonasal ; four supraoculars ; 
parietals entirely separated by the interparietal; two pairs of nuchals; 



13. EtJMECEB. 379 

sixth and seventh upper labials subequal ; ear-opening smaller than 
a dorsal scale, without auricular lobules ; a single ])ostmental. 24 
scales round the body, e(]ual. The length of the liind limb is 
contained thrice and a half in the length from snout to vent ; the 
limbs are widely separated when pressed against the body. Median 
sulicaudals slightly enlarged. Dark brown above, with three light 
longitudinal lines, very distinct on the head and nape, indistinct 
on the budy ; throat and breast yellowish white, belly bluish grey. 

niillim. millhn. 

From snout to vent. . oU Fore limb 10 

Head 9 Hind limb 14 

Width of head 6 



Hgr. ? T. Bell, Esq. [P.]. (Type.) 



22. Eumeces brevirostris. 

Mabouia brevirostris, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 18G0, p. 316. 

Eumeces bre^-irostris, liocourt. Miss. Sc. Mix., Bept. p. 489, 

pi. xxii. A. fig. 7 and pi. x.xii. E. fig. 1 ; Giinth. Biul. C.-Am., Rept. 

p. 32, pi. xxii. fig. B. 
(Plestiodon) dugesii, Thomin. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1883, p. 138; 

Biiyes, La Xaturaleza, vi. 1884, p. 3G1, pi. ix. fig. 2. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Nasal small ; no postnasal ; 
anterior loreal in contact with the first labial and the frontonasal ; 
four supraoculars, the two or three anterior in contact with the 
frontal ; two pairs of nuchals ; seventh upper labial largest ; ear- 
opening smaller than a dorsal scale, with one or two indistinct 
lobules : a single postmental. 22 or 24 scales round the middle of 
the body ; the scales of the two median longitudinal dorsal series a 
little broader than the others ; lateral scales considerably smaller. 
The length of the hind limb is contained thrice to thrice and one 
third in the length from snout to vent ; the limbs do not meet when 
pressed against the body. A series of transversely enlarged sub- 
caudals. Dark olive-brown above, with a black lateral band, which 
is edged above with a yellowish streak ; this light streak well 
marked on the head and nape, becoming less distinct on the body ; 
throat and lips yellowish, belly greyish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 161 Fore limb 15 

Head 12 Hind limb 21 

Width of head 9 Tail 95 

Body 54 

Mexico. 

a. Ad. Oaxaca. M.Sall^[C.]. (Type.) 

h-c. Ad. Ciudad. Mr. Forrer [C.]. 



880 BCINCID^. 



23. Eumeces lynxe. 

Scincus quadrilineatus, var., Wier/m. Isis, 1828, p. 373. 

Euprepes lynxe, lFief/7n. Ilerp. Mex. p. 3G. 

Eumeces Ivuxe, Bocviirt, Miss. 6'c. 3Iex., Rept. p. 437, pi. xxii. e. 

fig. 9. 
furcirostris, Cope., Vruc. Am. F/ulos. Soc. xxii. 1885, p. 169. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Xasal small ; no postnasal ; 
anterior loreal in contact with the first labial and the frontonasal ; 
four supraoculars, second and third in contact with the frontal, first 
very small, sometimes united with the first supraciliary ; parietals 
entirely separated by the interparietal ; two pairs of nuchals ; seventh 
upper labial largest : car-opening smaller than a dorsal scale, with 
one or two more or less indistinct lobules ; a single postinental. 22 
or 24 scales round the middle of the body ; the scales of tho two 
median longitudinal dorsal series a little broader than the others. 
The length of the hind limb is contained thrice to thrice and one 
third in the length from snout to vent ; the limbs do not meet when 
pressed against the body. A series of transversely enlarged sub- 
caudals. Brown above, with a black lateral band, edged above and 
below with a yellowish line ; a yellow line on the nape, bifurcating 
on the frontal and joining the lateral lines on the canthus rostralis ; 
throat and lips yellowish, belly bluish grey ; tail bluish. 

millim. ■ millitn. 

Total length 125 . Fore hmb 13 

Head 11 Hind limb 18 

Width of head 8 TaU 68 

Body 46 

Mexico. 

a. Several spec. Jalapa. Mr. Hoege [C.]. 



24. Eumeces onocrepis. 

Plistodon onocrepis, Cojk, 2nd ^- Srd Ann. Hep. Peahudi/ Acad. 1871, 

p. 82. 
Eumeces onocrepis. Cope, C'heclc-Ud N. Am. Hept. p. 45. 

No postnasal ; three supraoculars, the anterior longer than the 
other two ; a pair of nuchals ; two azygos postmentals. 22 scales 
round the body, of nearly equal size. The length of the hind limb 
is contained a little more than thrice in the length from snout to 
vent : the limbs do not meet when pressed against the body. 
Coloration very similar to that of E. brevirostris. 

From snout to vent 39 millim. 

Florida. 



13. EUMKCE9. 381 

llio following species ai)])ears to l)e closely allied to the pre- 
ceding : — 

Plestiodon er/rer/ius, Eaird, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1 Sr;8, p. 250. — 
Eumeces egregitis, Cope, Check-list, p. 45. 

" One postnasal* plate : postfrontal and intcrnasals separated by 
the postnasal. Four upper labials. Ears very small. Two central 
dorsal rows largest. Eody cylindrical. Color reddish-ash, with 
two or three white lines on each side, margined with dusky, some- 
times a third : all these along the centres of single rows of scales. 
Upper lateral lines separated by two plain rows. Body encircled by 
about 22 rows of scales." 

Florida. 



25. Eumeces quadrilineatus. 

Plestiodon quadvilineatum, Bli/th, Juwn. As. Soc. Bene/, xxii. 1858, 

p. 052. 
Eumeces quadrivirgatus, Hallow. Proc. Ac. PJtilad. 1800, p. 502. 
Mabouia quadrilineata, Gunth. Rept. Brit, Ind. p. 82, pi. x. fig. e. 
Eumeces quadrilineatus, Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. p. 423, 

pi. xxii. D. tig. 5. 

Snout short, obtuse. Nasal small, followed by a small postnasal ; 
anterior loreal in contact with the frontonasal : four supraoculars ; 
parietals meeting behind the interparietal ; three pairs of uuchals ; 
seventh upper labial largest; ear- opening rather small, without 
distinct lobules ; two azygos postmentals. 20 (or 22) scales round 
the middle of the body, those of the two vertebral series much 
broader than the others. The length of the hind limb is contained 
twice and a half in the length from snout to vent ; the limbs overlap 
when pressed against the body. A median series of transversely 
enlarged subcaudals. Black above, with two yellowish longitudinal 
lines on each side, the upper beginning on the tip of the snout. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 140 Fore limb 15 

Head 11 Hind limb 22 

Width of head 8 Tail 85 

Body 44 

Southern China, Cochinchina. 

a, h. Ad. Hongkong. Sir J. Bowring [P.]. 



* /. e. no postnasal. 



382 sciNcrD^. 

2G. Eumeces schwartzii. 

Eumeces schwartzei, Fischer, Ahh. Nat. Ver. Hamb. viii. 1884, p. 3, 
pi. vii. fig. 1. 

Head rather elongate. Nasal small, followed by a postnasal which 
is in contact with the first labial ; nostril just above the suture be- 
tween the rostral and the first labial ; anterior loreal forming a 
suture with the frontonasal, which touches the frontal : four supra- 
oculars, the two anterior in contact with the frontal ; interparietal 
ending in a point, separating the parietals ; two longitudinal series 
of large transverse nuchals, uniting to form a single series on the 
body ; sixth and eighth upper labials largest ; ear-opening mode- 
rately large, with three short lobules anteriorly ; a single post- 
mental. 21 scales round the middle of the body, the vertebral series 
composed of large transverse scales which are nearly six times as 
broad as long ; the two median praeanal scales scarcely enlarged. 
Limbs just meeting when pressed against the body ; hind limb nearly 
one third the length of head and body. A median series of trans- 
versely enlarged subcaudals. Back rusty, with numerous black dots ; 
a broad black band along the head and nape, and another one on 
each side to the base of the hind limb : tail above with transverse 
black spots ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

inillim. inillim. 

Total length 206 Fore limb 19 

Head 15 Hind limb 27 

AVidth of head .... 6 Tail 128 

Body 63 

Island in the Laguna de Terminos, Bay of Campeche. 

27. Eumeces scutatus. 

Plestiodou scutatus, Theoh. Cat. Bept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 25. 

(Eumeces) scutatus, Jerdun, Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1870, p. 73. 

Mabouia tseniolata (iion Blyth), Anders, Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1871, 

p. 184. 
Eumeces tseniolatus. Stoliczka, Proc. As. Soc. Benq. 1872, p. 75 ; 

Theob. Cat. liept. Brit. hid. p. 65 ; Blanf. 2nd Ya'rk. Miss., Rept. 

p. 10 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. '-^oi^. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Nasal moderate, divided, 
nostril pierced above the centre of the first labial ; three loreals, 
anterior in contact with the aupranasal and the frontonasal : five 
supraoculars, the three anterior in contact with the frontal ; parietals 
entirely separated by the interparietal, which touches the frontal ; 
four or five pairs of nuchals ; eighth upper labial largest ; ear-opening 
moderately large, with two or three small obtuse lobules anteriorly ; 
two azygos postmentals. 21 (or 23) scales round the middle of the 
body, the vertebral series composed of large transverse scales five 
times as broad as long ; lateral scales smallest. The length of the 
hind limb is contained thrice and a half to thrice and three fourths 



13. EUMECE9. 383 

ill the length from saout to Tent ; limbs widely separated when 
adpressed. A median series of transv^ersely enlarged subcaudals. 
Pale brown above, with three broad dark brown lon'2:itudiaal bands, 
the laterals with small whitish spots ; lower surfaces yellowish 
white. 

niillim. inillim. 

Total length 2]r^ Fore limb 22 

Head 17 Hind limb 27 

Width of head 14 Tail 115 

liody 83 

Siud, Punjab, Kashmir. 

a. Ad. Alpine Punjab. T. C. Jerdon, Esq. [P.]. 

b. Ilgr. ? W.Theobald, Esq. [P.J. 



28. Eumeces taeniolatus. 

Eurvlepis tpeniolatus, Blyth, Juuni. As. Soc. Bent/, xxiii. 1854, 
pi 740. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Xasal very small, nostril 
pierced above the suture between the rostral and the tirst labial : 
a postnasal ; two loreals, anterior in contact with the second labial 
and the frontonasal ; five supraoculars, the two anterior in contact 
with the frontal ; parietals in contact behind the interparietal ; four 
pairs of nuchals ; seventh upper labial largest ; ear-opening mode- 
rately large, with two or three obtuse lobules anteriorly ; a single 
postmental. 17 (or 19) scales round the middle of the body, the 
vertebral series composed of large transverse scales four times as 
broad as long ; lateral scales smallest. The length of the hind limb 
is contained four times in the length from snout to vent ; limbs 
widely separated when adpressed. A median series of transversely 
enlarged subcaudals. Light brown above, each scale with a dark 
brown centre forming longitudinal streaks ; upper surface of head 
and lips spotted with dark brown. 

inillim. raillim. 

Total length 280 Fore limb 21 

Head 19 Hind limb 29 

Width of head 14 Tail 166 

Body 95 

Punjab. 

a. Ad. ? 



29. Enmeces schneideri. 

Plestiodon auratus, part., Grai/, Cat. p. 91. 
Scincus schneiderii, Daud. Itept. iv. p. 291 ; Geoffr. Dacr. Egypte, 
Kept. p. 136, pi. iii. fig. 3. 



384 sciKciD^. 

Lacerta rufescens, part., Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 285. 
Sciucus pavimentatus, Geoffr. I. c. p. 1.'38, pi. iv. fig. 4. 

cepedii, Merr. Tent. p. 71. 

cyprius, Cuv. R. A. 2ud ed. ii. p. 62. 

Tiliqua cjprinus, Gray, Griff. A. K. Lx. Syn. p. 68. 

Eunieces pavimt'utatus, JVieym. Hop. Mex. p. 36 ; Peters, Mon. 

Bcrl. Ac. 1864, p. 48; Blanf. Zuol. E. Persia, p. 387; Kessler, 

Tr. St. Petersb. Nat. Soc. viii. 1878, Suppl. p. 177; Boettg. Ber. 

Senckenb. Ges. 1880-1881, p. 183. 
Plestiodon aldrovaiidii, part.. Bum. S,- Bibr. v. p. 701. 
Euprepis princeps, Bichic. Bnll. Soc. Nut. Mosc. ii. 1839, p. 303, and 

Faun. Cdsp.-C'dxc. p. U.3, pi. xvi. figs. 1-3. 
Mabouia aurata, Gi'oith. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 82. 
Plestiodon aldiMvandii, De Fit. Viag. Pers. p. 354. 
Eumeces pa\ imeutatus, vai\ svriaca, Boettg. Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xiii. 

1883, p. 120. 

Head moderate ; snout short, obtuse. Nasal rather large, usually 
divided, in contact with the two anterior upper labials ; no post- 
nasal ; five supraoculars, the three anterior in contact with the 
frontal ; parietals entirely separated by the interparietal ; four or 
five pairs of nuchals ; ear-opening rather large, with four or five 
long pointed lobules anteriorly ; two azygos postmentals. 22 to 28 
scales round the middle of the body, perfectly smooth, the laterals 
smallest, those of the two median dorsal series very broad and larger 
than the ventrals. The length of the hind limb is contained twice 
and a half to three times in the length from snout to vent ; when 
pressed against the body the limbs just meet or fail to meet. A 
series of transversely enlarged subcaudals. Olive-grey or brownish 
above, uniform or with irregular golden-yellow spots or longitudinal 
streaks ; a yellowish lateral streak, extending from below the eye 
to the hind limb, is constant ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 365 Fore limb 40 

Head 30 Hind limb 56 

Width of head .... 24 Tail 205 

Body 130 

Tunis, Egypt, Syria, Armenia, Persia, Baluchistan. 

a. Ad. Dead Sea. Canon Tristram [C.]. 

b. Ad. Jerusalem. 

c. Ad, Kirind, Persia. K. Loftus, Esq. [P.]. 
d-f. Ad. & hgr. Near Niriz, east of Shiraz. W.T. Blauford, Esq. [C.]. 
g. Ad. Helmand. Dr. Aitchison [CJ.]. 

(Afghan Boundary Comm.) 
k. Ad. Shore Kalegar. Dr. Aitchison [C.]. 



i, k. Ad. ? 

/. Skeleton. ? 



(Afghan Boundary Comm.) 



30. Eumeces algeriensis. 

Plestiodon auratus, part., Gray, Cat. p. 91. 
Scincus cyprius (non Cuv.), Gerv. Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) vi. 1836, p. 309. 



1 



IM. Kr.MKOKs. 3S5 

Pie jstiodon aldrovaiiJii, part., Dam. ^- Bihr. v. p. 701. 
jrjiimeces piivimeutatus, var. al^-eiiensi.s, Peters, Man. Berl. Ac. 1><(31, 
p. 4!) ; BoHtij. Abh. .Smchvnh. Ges. xiii. 188.3, p. 120. 

PIe.stiodoii cyprium, Stranch, JErp. Air/, p. 44. 

Eiiiueces pavimeutatiis, Boettg. Ahh. Senckenh. Gi's. i.K. 187o, p. 140. 

Head large ; cheeks swollen in the adult ; snout short, obtuse. 
Nasal usuallj' divided, in contact with the first upper labial only ; 
no postnasal ; five supraoculars, the three anterior in contact with 
the frontal ; parietals entirely separated by the interparietal ; four 
or five pairs of nuchals ; ear-ojjening rather large, with three or 
four obtuse lobules anteriorly ; two azygos postniontals. 3) or 32 
scales round the middle of the body, the dorsals distinctly striated ; 
the two median longitudinal dorsal series of scales much broader 
than the others. The length of the hind limb is contained about 
thrice in the length from snout to vent ; when pressed against the 
bjdy the linil)s just meet or fail to meet. A series of transversely 
enlarged subcaudals. Brown above, with orange-red spots, the 
lirgest of which sometimes form irregular transverse bands on the 
body ; lower surfaces yellowish white, 

lailliin. milliiTi. 

Total length 41;") Fore limb oo 

Head 40 Hind limb G.! 

Width of head .... 34 Tail 220 

Body 1 .',.-, 

Algeria, ^loroeco. 

a~c. Ad. N.W. Africa. Zoological Society. 

<l, e. Ad., stuffed. N.W. Africa, 



31. Eumeces blythianus. 

Mabouia blythiana, Anders. Proc. As. Sue. Beng. 1871, p. 186. 
Eumeces blythianus, Theoh. Cat. Pfpt. Brit. Ind. p. (JG. 

This species appears to be very closely allied to the two pre- 
ceding. It has 30 scales round the body, as in E. ahjeriensis, and 
the auricular lobules are strong and the scales perfectly smooth, as in 
E. schneideri. It differs from both in the presence of a single post- 
mental. Olive-brown above ; three dark brown longitudinal lines 
along the back, from the nape to the base of the tail : a broader 
dark brown band from the eye over the tympanum, along the side ; 
a broad pale yellowish band below it from below the eye to the 
groin ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

millim. miUim. 

Total length 240 Fore limb 28 

Head 15 Hind limb 38 

Body 75- Tail 150 

Amritzur, Punjab? 

VOL. III. 2 c 



386 BCITHCTDM. 



14. BRACHYMELES. 

Brachymeles, Du»i. 4" Bih?-. v. p. 77G ; Grai/, Cat. p. 98. 
Senira, Gray, I. c. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate, 
•which is toothless. Lateral teeth conical. Eve small ; upper 
eyelid not developed, lower more or less transparent. Ear distinct 
or hidden. Xostril in a very small nasal, between the rostral, the 
first labial, the supranasal. and, sometimes, a postnasal ; prtefrontals, 
frontoparietals, and interparietal present. Body much elongate ; 
limbs short or rudimentary. 

Philippine Islands. 

The following characters apply to all four species : — Five supra- 
oculars, first and second in contact with the frontal, second broadest ; 
five or six supraciliaries ; no nucuals ; two loreals ; first upper 
labial largest : a single Libial entering the orbit ; a single azygos 
postmental. Digits, if distinct, very short, feebly compressed, with 
feebly unicarinate lamelke inferiorly. Prasanal scales not or scarcely 
enlarged. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Limbs pentadactyle ; ear-opening distinct. 

A. The length. of the hind limb is contained three or four times 

in the distance between axilla and groin. 

Supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; 

28 or 30 scales round the middle of the 

body 1. sdiadenhergii, p. 386. 

Supranasals separated; 24 or 26 scales 

round the middle of the body 2. gracilis, p. 387. 

B. The length of the hind limb is con- 

tained seven times in the distance 
between axilla and groin ; 28 
scales round the body 3. bicolor, p. 388. 

II. Limbs stump-like ; ear-opening hidden 4. bonitce, p. 388. 



1. Brachymeles schadenbergii. 

Senira bicolor, part., Grat/, Cat. p. 98. 
Eumeces (Riopa) schadenbergi, Fischer, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamh. 
ii. 1885, p. 87, pi. iu. fig. 2. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb is 
contained twice to twice and a half in the distance between axilla 
and groin. Limbs pentadactyle; third, toe slightly longer than 
fourth. The fore limb, whcu stretched forwards, does not reach 
the ear : the length of the hind limb is contained thrice or thrice 



14. BRACHYMELl'S. 3S7 

and one fourth in the distance between axilla and groin. Supra- 
nasals in contact behind the rostral ; a postnasal ; frontal longer 
than broad, frequently in contact with the interparietal ; parietals 
normally not meeting behind the interparietal ; fifth upper labial 
entering the orbit. Ear-opening distinct, small, roundish. 20 (or 
24) scales round the middle of the body. Yellowish brown, each 
scale of the eight median dorsal rows with a dark brown spot ; somo 
of the scales on the flanks with a brown dot ; loreal region and a 
band from eye to ear closely brown-spotted. 

millim. millim. 

Total length . . 203 Fore limb 11 

Head 15 Hind limb 20 

Width of head 11 Tail 100 

Body 88 

Philippines. 

a-h. Ad. & hgr. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Types 

of Senira bicolor, spec, b, c.) 
c. Hgr. Philippines. 



2. Bracli3rineles gracilis. 

Senira bicolor, part., Grai/, Cat. p. 98. 
Eumeces (Riopa) gracilis, Fischer, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hnmb. ii. 
1885, p. 85, pi. iii. fig. 1. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb is 
contained twice and one fourth to twice and a half in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Limbs pentadaetyle ; fourth toe slightly 
longer than third. The length of the hind limb is contained thrice 
and one fourth to four times in the distance between axilla and 
groin. Rostral, in contact with the frontonasal; a postnasal; 
frontal not or but very slightly longer than broad ; frontoparietals 
forming a median suture ; parietals uot meeting behind the inter- 
parietal ; fourth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening 
distinct, small, roundish. 28 or 30 scales round the middle of tho 
body. Dark brown above, yellowish brown on the sides and below, 
each scale frequently with a brown dot. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 229 Fore limb 15 

Head 17 Hind limb 23 

Width of head .... 12 Tail 116 

Body 96 

Philippines. 

a. Ad. Philippines, H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Type of 

Senira bicolor, spec, d.) 
h-d. Hgr. S. Negros. A. Everett, Esq. [C.]. 

2c2 



388 sciNciD^, 

3, Brachymeles bicolor. (Plate XXXI.) 

.Seiiira bicdlor, part., Gray, Cat. p. 98. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb is 
contained thrice and one fourth in the distance between axilla and 
groin. Limbs pcntadactyle ; fourth toe slightly longer than third. 
The length of the hind limb is contained seven times in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; a postnasal ; frontal slightly longer than broad ; fronto- 
parietals forming a median suture ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; fourth upper labial entering the orbit. 
Ear-opening distinct, small, roundish. 28 scales round the middle 
of the body. Blackish brown above, yellowish white below and on 
the sides. 

inillim. millim. 

Total length 315 Fore limb H 

Head 18 Hind limb 17 

Width of head 13 Tail (injured) . . 160 

Body 137 

Philippines. 

a. Ad. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. (Type.) 

4. Brachymeles bonitse. 

Brachymeles bonitpe. Gray, Cat. p. 98. 
Brachymeles bonitse, Dum. Sf Bibr. v. p. 777. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb is 
contained four times and a half in the distance between fore and 
hind limbs. Limbs reduced to minute, stump-like rudiments, not 
divided into distinct digits. Rostral in contact with tbe frontonasal ; 
no postnasal ; supranasal in contact with the iirst labial ; frontal as 
long as broad, u.sually in contact with the interparietal ; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; fourth upper labial enter- 
ing the orbit. Ear hidden. 22 or 24 scales round the middle of 
the body. Uniform brown. 

luillim. millim. 

Total length (tail broken) 140 Body 85 

Head 9 Fore limb 2 

Width of head 6 Hind limb 2 

Philippines. 

a-e. Ad. & yg. Philippines. H. Cuming, Esq. [C.]. 



lo. 8C1NCUS. 389 



15. SCINCUS. 

Scincus, part., Laur. St/n. licpt. p. ."j"* ; Daud. Rept. iv. p. 221. 
Scincus, Fitziny. N. Class. Hvpt. p. 2."? ; Wagl. tSyst. Atiip/i. p. IGl ; 
• Wieym. llerp. J/t'.c. p. 11; l)um. ^- Bibr. \. t^. TyA) ; dray, Cat. 

Liz. p. 74. 
Pedorychus, Wieym. Arch.f. Nat. 1837, p. 128; Peters, Mon. Berl. 

Ac. 1SG4, p. 4-t. 
Scincopus, Peters, I. c. p. 4i). 
Otolepis, Strauch, Bull. Ac. St. Petersb. x. 186G, p. 4o9. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate ; 
pterygoids toothed. Lateral teeth conical or with obtuse tubercular 
crowns. Eyelids well developed, scaly. Ear hidden or partly con- 
cealed under an opercle. Nostril pierced between an n])per and a 
lower nasal ; supranasals present ; prtefrontals, frontoparietals, and 
interparietal distinct. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; digits 
flattened, serrated laterally, with transverse lamellte inferiorly. 

Xorth Africa, Arabia, Persia, iSind. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Snout subconical, obtusely truncate ; 

digits feebly depressed, feebly toothed 
laterally ; ear-opening large, covered 
by two large scales 1. /(isciatKs, p. 390. 

II. Snout cuneiform, with sharp, projecting labial edge. 

A. Six supraoculars. 

1. Dorsal scales striated: ear-opening 

quite undistinguishable ; 22 scales 

round the middle of the body . . 2. hemprichii, p. 390. 

2. Dorsal scales perfectly smooth ; ear-opening easily distin- 

guishable, just behind and a little below the commissure 
of the mouth ; 26 to 28 (rarely 3U) scales round the middle 
of the body. 

Rostral in contact with the frontonasal . . 3. officinalis, p. 391. 
Eostral separated from the frontonasal by 

the supranasals 4. conirostris, p. 391. 

3. Dorsal scales perfectly smooth ; ear-opening almost or quite 

undistinguishable. 

28 or 30 scales ro